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@node Threads
@c @node Threads, Internal Probes, Debugging Support, Top
@c %MENU% Functions, constants, and data types for working with threads
@chapter Threads
@cindex threads

This chapter describes functions used for managing threads.
@Theglibc{} provides two threading implementations: ISO C threads and
POSIX threads.

@menu
* ISO C Threads::	Threads based on the ISO C specification.
* POSIX Threads::	Threads based on the POSIX specification.
@end menu


@node ISO C Threads
@section ISO C Threads
@cindex ISO C threads
@cindex C threads
@pindex threads.h

This section describes the @glibcadj{} ISO C threads implementation.
To have a deeper understanding of this API, it is strongly recommended
to read ISO/IEC 9899:2011, section 7.26, in which ISO C threads were
originally specified.  All types and function prototypes are declared
in the header file @file{threads.h}.

@menu
* ISO C Threads Return Values:: Symbolic constants that represent a
				function's return value.
* ISO C Thread Management::	Support for basic threading.
* Call Once::			Single-call functions and macros.
* ISO C Mutexes::		A low-level mechanism for mutual exclusion.
* ISO C Condition Variables::	High-level objects for thread synchronization.
* ISO C Thread-local Storage::	Functions to support thread-local storage.
@end menu


@node ISO C Threads Return Values
@subsection Return Values

The ISO C thread specification provides the following enumeration
constants for return values from functions in the API:

@vtable @code
@item thrd_timedout
@standards{C11, threads.h}
A specified time was reached without acquiring the requested resource,
usually a mutex or condition variable.

@item thrd_success
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The requested operation succeeded.

@item thrd_busy
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The requested operation failed because a requested resource is already
in use.

@item thrd_error
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The requested operation failed.

@item thrd_nomem
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The requested operation failed because it was unable to allocate
enough memory.
@end vtable


@node ISO C Thread Management
@subsection Creation and Control
@cindex thread creation
@cindex thread control
@cindex thread management

@Theglibc{} implements a set of functions that allow the user to easily
create and use threads.  Additional functionality is provided to control
the behavior of threads.

The following data types are defined for managing threads:

@deftp {Data Type} thrd_t
@standards{C11, threads.h}
A unique object that identifies a thread.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} thrd_start_t
@standards{C11, threads.h}
This data type is an @code{int (*) (void *)} typedef that is passed to
@code{thrd_create} when creating a new thread.  It should point to the
first function that thread will run.
@end deftp

The following functions are used for working with threads:

@deftypefun int thrd_create (thrd_t *@var{thr}, thrd_start_t @var{func}, void *@var{arg})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_create} creates a new thread that will execute the function
@var{func}.  The object pointed to by @var{arg} will be used as the
argument to @var{func}.  If successful, @var{thr} is set to the new
thread identifier.

This function may return @code{thrd_success}, @code{thrd_nomem}, or
@code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun thrd_t thrd_current (void)
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
This function returns the identifier of the calling thread.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int thrd_equal (thrd_t @var{lhs}, thrd_t @var{rhs})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_equal} checks whether @var{lhs} and @var{rhs} refer to the
same thread.  If @var{lhs} and @var{rhs} are different threads, this
function returns @math{0}; otherwise, the return value is non-zero.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int thrd_sleep (const struct timespec *@var{time_point}, struct timespec *@var{remaining})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_sleep} blocks the execution of the current thread for at
least until the elapsed time pointed to by @var{time_point} has been
reached.  This function does not take an absolute time, but a duration
that the thread is required to be blocked.  @xref{Time Basics}, and
@ref{Elapsed Time}.

The thread may wake early if a signal that is not ignored is received.
In such a case, if @code{remaining} is not NULL, the remaining time
duration is stored in the object pointed to by
@var{remaining}.

@code{thrd_sleep} returns @math{0} if it blocked for at least the
amount of time in @code{time_point}, @math{-1} if it was interrupted
by a signal, or a negative number on failure.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void thrd_yield (void)
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_yield} provides a hint to the implementation to reschedule
the execution of the current thread, allowing other threads to run.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {_Noreturn void} thrd_exit (int @var{res})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_exit} terminates execution of the calling thread and sets
its result code to @var{res}.

If this function is called from a single-threaded process, the call is
equivalent to calling @code{exit} with @code{EXIT_SUCCESS}
(@pxref{Normal Termination}).  Also note that returning from a
function that started a thread is equivalent to calling
@code{thrd_exit}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int thrd_detach (thrd_t @var{thr})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_detach} detaches the thread identified by @code{thr} from
the current control thread.  The resources held by the detached thread
will be freed automatically once the thread exits.  The parent thread
will never be notified by any @var{thr} signal.

Calling @code{thrd_detach} on a thread that was previously detached or
joined by another thread results in undefined behavior.

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int thrd_join (thrd_t @var{thr}, int *@var{res})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{thrd_join} blocks the current thread until the thread identified
by @code{thr} finishes execution.  If @code{res} is not NULL, the
result code of the thread is put into the location pointed to by
@var{res}.  The termination of the thread @dfn{synchronizes-with} the
completion of this function, meaning both threads have arrived at a
common point in their execution.

Calling @code{thrd_join} on a thread that was previously detached or
joined by another thread results in undefined behavior.

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun


@node Call Once
@subsection Call Once
@cindex call once
@cindex single-call functions

In order to guarantee single access to a function, @theglibc{}
implements a @dfn{call once function} to ensure a function is only
called once in the presence of multiple, potentially calling threads.

@deftp {Data Type} once_flag
@standards{C11, threads.h}
A complete object type capable of holding a flag used by @code{call_once}.
@end deftp

@defvr Macro ONCE_FLAG_INIT
@standards{C11, threads.h}
This value is used to initialize an object of type @code{once_flag}.
@end defvr

@deftypefun void call_once (once_flag *@var{flag}, void (*@var{func}) (void))
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{call_once} calls function @var{func} exactly once, even if
invoked from several threads.  The completion of the function
@var{func} synchronizes-with all previous or subsequent calls to
@code{call_once} with the same @code{flag} variable.
@end deftypefun


@node ISO C Mutexes
@subsection Mutexes
@cindex mutex
@cindex mutual exclusion

To have better control of resources and how threads access them,
@theglibc{} implements a @dfn{mutex} object, which can help avoid race
conditions and other concurrency issues.  The term ``mutex'' refers to
mutual exclusion.

The fundamental data type for a mutex is the @code{mtx_t}:

@deftp {Data Type} mtx_t
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The @code{mtx_t} data type uniquely identifies a mutex object.
@end deftp

The ISO C standard defines several types of mutexes.  They are
represented by the following symbolic constants:

@vtable @code
@item mtx_plain
@standards{C11, threads.h}
A mutex that does not support timeout, or test and return.

@item mtx_recursive
@standards{C11, threads.h}
A mutex that supports recursive locking, which means that the owning
thread can lock it more than once without causing deadlock.

@item mtx_timed
@standards{C11, threads.h}
A mutex that supports timeout.
@end vtable

The following functions are used for working with mutexes:

@deftypefun int mtx_init (mtx_t *@var{mutex}, int @var{type})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{mtx_init} creates a new mutex object with type @var{type}.  The
object pointed to by @var{mutex} is set to the identifier of the newly
created mutex.

Not all combinations of mutex types are valid for the @code{type}
argument.  Valid uses of mutex types for the @code{type} argument are:

@table @code
@item mtx_plain
A non-recursive mutex that does not support timeout.

@item mtx_timed
A non-recursive mutex that does support timeout.

@item mtx_plain | mtx_recursive
A recursive mutex that does not support timeout.

@item mtx_timed | mtx_recursive
A recursive mutex that does support timeout.
@end table

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mtx_lock (mtx_t *@var{mutex})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{}}}
@code{mtx_lock} blocks the current thread until the mutex pointed to
by @var{mutex} is locked.  The behavior is undefined if the current
thread has already locked the mutex and the mutex is not recursive.

Prior calls to @code{mtx_unlock} on the same mutex synchronize-with
this operation (if this operation succeeds), and all lock/unlock
operations on any given mutex form a single total order (similar to
the modification order of an atomic).

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mtx_timedlock (mtx_t *restrict @var{mutex}, const struct timespec *restrict @var{time_point})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{}}}
@code{mtx_timedlock} blocks the current thread until the mutex pointed
to by @var{mutex} is locked or until the calendar time pointed to by
@var{time_point} has been reached.  Since this function takes an
absolute time, if a duration is required, the calendar time must be
calculated manually.  @xref{Time Basics}, and @ref{Calendar Time}.

If the current thread has already locked the mutex and the mutex is
not recursive, or if the mutex does not support timeout, the behavior
of this function is undefined.

Prior calls to @code{mtx_unlock} on the same mutex synchronize-with
this operation (if this operation succeeds), and all lock/unlock
operations on any given mutex form a single total order (similar to
the modification order of an atomic).

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mtx_trylock (mtx_t *@var{mutex})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{}}}
@code{mtx_trylock} tries to lock the mutex pointed to by @var{mutex}
without blocking.  It returns immediately if the mutex is already
locked.

Prior calls to @code{mtx_unlock} on the same mutex synchronize-with
this operation (if this operation succeeds), and all lock/unlock
operations on any given mutex form a single total order (similar to
the modification order of an atomic).

This function returns @code{thrd_success} if the lock was obtained,
@code{thrd_busy} if the mutex is already locked, and @code{thrd_error}
on failure.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int mtx_unlock (mtx_t *@var{mutex})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{mtx_unlock} unlocks the mutex pointed to by @var{mutex}.  The
behavior is undefined if the mutex is not locked by the calling
thread.

This function synchronizes-with subsequent @code{mtx_lock},
@code{mtx_trylock}, and @code{mtx_timedlock} calls on the same mutex.
All lock/unlock operations on any given mutex form a single total
order (similar to the modification order of an atomic).

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void mtx_destroy (mtx_t *@var{mutex})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{mtx_destroy} destroys the mutex pointed to by @var{mutex}.  If
there are any threads waiting on the mutex, the behavior is
undefined.
@end deftypefun


@node ISO C Condition Variables
@subsection Condition Variables
@cindex condvar
@cindex condition variables

Mutexes are not the only synchronization mechanisms available.  For
some more complex tasks, @theglibc{} also implements @dfn{condition
variables}, which allow the programmer to think at a higher level when
solving complex synchronization problems.  They are used to
synchronize threads waiting on a certain condition to happen.

The fundamental data type for condition variables is the @code{cnd_t}:

@deftp {Data Type} cnd_t
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The @code{cnd_t} uniquely identifies a condition variable object.
@end deftp

The following functions are used for working with condition variables:

@deftypefun int cnd_init (cnd_t *@var{cond})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{cnd_init} initializes a new condition variable, identified by
@var{cond}.

This function may return @code{thrd_success}, @code{thrd_nomem}, or
@code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int cnd_signal (cnd_t *@var{cond})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{cnd_signal} unblocks one thread that is currently waiting on the
condition variable pointed to by @var{cond}.  If a thread is
successfully unblocked, this function returns @code{thrd_success}.  If
no threads are blocked, this function does nothing and returns
@code{thrd_success}.  Otherwise, this function returns
@code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int cnd_broadcast (cnd_t *@var{cond})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{cnd_broadcast} unblocks all the threads that are currently
waiting on the condition variable pointed to by @var{cond}.  This
function returns @code{thrd_success} on success.  If no threads are
blocked, this function does nothing and returns
@code{thrd_success}. Otherwise, this function returns
@code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int cnd_wait (cnd_t *@var{cond}, mtx_t *@var{mutex})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{}}}
@code{cnd_wait} atomically unlocks the mutex pointed to by @var{mutex}
and blocks on the condition variable pointed to by @var{cond} until
the thread is signaled by @code{cnd_signal} or @code{cnd_broadcast}.
The mutex is locked again before the function returns.

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int cnd_timedwait (cnd_t *restrict @var{cond}, mtx_t *restrict @var{mutex}, const struct timespec *restrict @var{time_point})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{}}}
@code{cnd_timedwait} atomically unlocks the mutex pointed to by
@var{mutex} and blocks on the condition variable pointed to by
@var{cond} until the thread is signaled by @code{cnd_signal} or
@code{cnd_broadcast}, or until the calendar time pointed to by
@var{time_point} has been reached.  The mutex is locked again before
the function returns.

As for @code{mtx_timedlock}, since this function takes an absolute
time, if a duration is required, the calendar time must be calculated
manually.  @xref{Time Basics}, and @ref{Calendar Time}.

This function may return @code{thrd_success}, @code{thrd_nomem}, or
@code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void cnd_destroy (cnd_t *@var{cond})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{cnd_destroy} destroys the condition variable pointed to by
@var{cond}.  If there are threads waiting on @var{cond}, the behavior
is undefined.
@end deftypefun


@node ISO C Thread-local Storage
@subsection Thread-local Storage
@cindex thread-local storage

@Theglibc{} implements functions to provide @dfn{thread-local
storage}, a mechanism by which variables can be defined to have unique
per-thread storage, lifetimes that match the thread lifetime, and
destructors that cleanup the unique per-thread storage.

Several data types and macros exist for working with thread-local
storage:

@deftp {Data Type} tss_t
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The @code{tss_t} data type identifies a thread-specific storage
object.  Even if shared, every thread will have its own instance of
the variable, with different values.
@end deftp

@deftp {Data Type} tss_dtor_t
@standards{C11, threads.h}
The @code{tss_dtor_t} is a function pointer of type @code{void (*)
(void *)}, to be used as a thread-specific storage destructor.  The
function will be called when the current thread calls @code{thrd_exit}
(but never when calling @code{tss_delete} or @code{exit}).
@end deftp

@defvr Macro thread_local
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@code{thread_local} is used to mark a variable with thread storage
duration, which means it is created when the thread starts and cleaned
up when the thread ends.

@emph{Note:} For C++, C++11 or later is required to use the
@code{thread_local} keyword.
@end defvr

@defvr Macro TSS_DTOR_ITERATIONS
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@code{TSS_DTOR_ITERATIONS} is an integer constant expression
representing the maximum number of iterations over all thread-local
destructors at the time of thread termination.  This value provides a
bounded limit to the destruction of thread-local storage; e.g.,
consider a destructor that creates more thread-local storage.
@end defvr

The following functions are used to manage thread-local storage:

@deftypefun int tss_create (tss_t *@var{tss_key}, tss_dtor_t @var{destructor})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{tss_create} creates a new thread-specific storage key and stores
it in the object pointed to by @var{tss_key}.  Although the same key
value may be used by different threads, the values bound to the key by
@code{tss_set} are maintained on a per-thread basis and persist for
the life of the calling thread.

If @code{destructor} is not NULL, a destructor function will be set,
and called when the thread finishes its execution by calling
@code{thrd_exit}.

This function returns @code{thrd_success} if @code{tss_key} is
successfully set to a unique value for the thread; otherwise,
@code{thrd_error} is returned and the value of @code{tss_key} is
undefined.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int tss_set (tss_t @var{tss_key}, void *@var{val})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{tss_set} sets the value of the thread-specific storage
identified by @var{tss_key} for the current thread to @var{val}.
Different threads may set different values to the same key.

This function returns either @code{thrd_success} or @code{thrd_error}.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun {void *} tss_get (tss_t @var{tss_key})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{tss_get} returns the value identified by @var{tss_key} held in
thread-specific storage for the current thread.  Different threads may
get different values identified by the same key.  On failure,
@code{tss_get} returns zero.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void tss_delete (tss_t @var{tss_key})
@standards{C11, threads.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@code{tss_delete} destroys the thread-specific storage identified by
@var{tss_key}.
@end deftypefun


@node POSIX Threads
@section POSIX Threads
@cindex pthreads

This section describes the @glibcadj{} POSIX Threads implementation.

@menu
* Thread-specific Data::          Support for creating and
				  managing thread-specific data
* Non-POSIX Extensions::          Additional functions to extend
				  POSIX Thread functionality
@end menu

@node Thread-specific Data
@subsection Thread-specific Data

The @glibcadj{} implements functions to allow users to create and manage
data specific to a thread.  Such data may be destroyed at thread exit,
if a destructor is provided.  The following functions are defined:

@deftypefun int pthread_key_create (pthread_key_t *@var{key}, void (*@var{destructor})(void*))
@standards{POSIX, pthread.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@c pthread_key_create ok
@c  KEY_UNUSED ok
@c  KEY_USABLE ok
Create a thread-specific data key for the calling thread, referenced by
@var{key}.

Objects declared with the C++11 @code{thread_local} keyword are destroyed
before thread-specific data, so they should not be used in thread-specific
data destructors or even as members of the thread-specific data, since the
latter is passed as an argument to the destructor function.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int pthread_key_delete (pthread_key_t @var{key})
@standards{POSIX, pthread.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@c pthread_key_delete ok
@c   This uses atomic compare and exchange to increment the seq number
@c   after testing it's not a KEY_UNUSED seq number.
@c  KEY_UNUSED dup ok
Destroy the thread-specific data @var{key} in the calling thread.  The
destructor for the thread-specific data is not called during destruction, nor
is it called during thread exit.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun void *pthread_getspecific (pthread_key_t @var{key})
@standards{POSIX, pthread.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@assafe{}@acsafe{}}
@c pthread_getspecific ok
Return the thread-specific data associated with @var{key} in the calling
thread.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int pthread_setspecific (pthread_key_t @var{key}, const void *@var{value})
@standards{POSIX, pthread.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asucorrupt{} @ascuheap{}}@acunsafe{@acucorrupt{} @acsmem{}}}
@c pthread_setspecific @asucorrupt @ascuheap @acucorrupt @acsmem
@c   a level2 block may be allocated by a signal handler after
@c   another call already made a decision to allocate it, thus losing
@c   the allocated value.  the seq number is updated before the
@c   value, which might cause an earlier-generation value to seem
@c   current if setspecific is cancelled or interrupted by a signal
@c  KEY_UNUSED ok
@c  calloc dup @ascuheap @acsmem
Associate the thread-specific @var{value} with @var{key} in the calling thread.
@end deftypefun


@node Non-POSIX Extensions
@subsection Non-POSIX Extensions

In addition to implementing the POSIX API for threads, @theglibc{} provides
additional functions and interfaces to provide functionality not specified in
the standard.

@menu
* Default Thread Attributes::             Setting default attributes for
					  threads in a process.
@end menu

@node Default Thread Attributes
@subsubsection Setting Process-wide defaults for thread attributes

@Theglibc{} provides non-standard API functions to set and get the default
attributes used in the creation of threads in a process.

@deftypefun int pthread_getattr_default_np (pthread_attr_t *@var{attr})
@standards{GNU, pthread.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{}}}
@c Takes lock around read from default_pthread_attr.
Get the default attribute values and set @var{attr} to match.  This
function returns @math{0} on success and a non-zero error code on
failure.
@end deftypefun

@deftypefun int pthread_setattr_default_np (pthread_attr_t *@var{attr})
@standards{GNU, pthread.h}
@safety{@prelim{}@mtsafe{}@asunsafe{@ascuheap{} @asulock{}}@acunsafe{@aculock{} @acsmem{}}}
@c pthread_setattr_default_np @ascuheap @asulock @aculock @acsmem
@c  check_sched_policy_attr ok
@c  check_sched_priority_attr ok
@c   sched_get_priority_min dup ok
@c   sched_get_priority_max dup ok
@c  check_stacksize_attr ok
@c  lll_lock @asulock @aculock
@c  free dup @ascuheap @acsmem
@c  realloc dup @ascuheap @acsmem
@c  memcpy dup ok
@c  lll_unlock @asulock @aculock
Set the default attribute values to match the values in @var{attr}.  The
function returns @math{0} on success and a non-zero error code on failure.
The following error codes are defined for this function:

@table @code
@item EINVAL
At least one of the values in @var{attr} does not qualify as valid for the
attributes or the stack address is set in the attribute.
@item ENOMEM
The system does not have sufficient memory.
@end table
@end deftypefun

@c FIXME these are undocumented:
@c pthread_atfork
@c pthread_attr_destroy
@c pthread_attr_getaffinity_np
@c pthread_attr_getdetachstate
@c pthread_attr_getguardsize
@c pthread_attr_getinheritsched
@c pthread_attr_getschedparam
@c pthread_attr_getschedpolicy
@c pthread_attr_getscope
@c pthread_attr_getstack
@c pthread_attr_getstackaddr
@c pthread_attr_getstacksize
@c pthread_attr_init
@c pthread_attr_setaffinity_np
@c pthread_attr_setdetachstate
@c pthread_attr_setguardsize
@c pthread_attr_setinheritsched
@c pthread_attr_setschedparam
@c pthread_attr_setschedpolicy
@c pthread_attr_setscope
@c pthread_attr_setstack
@c pthread_attr_setstackaddr
@c pthread_attr_setstacksize
@c pthread_barrierattr_destroy
@c pthread_barrierattr_getpshared
@c pthread_barrierattr_init
@c pthread_barrierattr_setpshared
@c pthread_barrier_destroy
@c pthread_barrier_init
@c pthread_barrier_wait
@c pthread_cancel
@c pthread_cleanup_push
@c pthread_cleanup_pop
@c pthread_condattr_destroy
@c pthread_condattr_getclock
@c pthread_condattr_getpshared
@c pthread_condattr_init
@c pthread_condattr_setclock
@c pthread_condattr_setpshared
@c pthread_cond_broadcast
@c pthread_cond_destroy
@c pthread_cond_init
@c pthread_cond_signal
@c pthread_cond_timedwait
@c pthread_cond_wait
@c pthread_create
@c pthread_detach
@c pthread_equal
@c pthread_exit
@c pthread_getaffinity_np
@c pthread_getattr_np
@c pthread_getconcurrency
@c pthread_getcpuclockid
@c pthread_getname_np
@c pthread_getschedparam
@c pthread_join
@c pthread_kill
@c pthread_kill_other_threads_np
@c pthread_mutexattr_destroy
@c pthread_mutexattr_getkind_np
@c pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling
@c pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol
@c pthread_mutexattr_getpshared
@c pthread_mutexattr_getrobust
@c pthread_mutexattr_getrobust_np
@c pthread_mutexattr_gettype
@c pthread_mutexattr_init
@c pthread_mutexattr_setkind_np
@c pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling
@c pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol
@c pthread_mutexattr_setpshared
@c pthread_mutexattr_setrobust
@c pthread_mutexattr_setrobust_np
@c pthread_mutexattr_settype
@c pthread_mutex_consistent
@c pthread_mutex_consistent_np
@c pthread_mutex_destroy
@c pthread_mutex_getprioceiling
@c pthread_mutex_init
@c pthread_mutex_lock
@c pthread_mutex_setprioceiling
@c pthread_mutex_timedlock
@c pthread_mutex_trylock
@c pthread_mutex_unlock
@c pthread_once
@c pthread_rwlockattr_destroy
@c pthread_rwlockattr_getkind_np
@c pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared
@c pthread_rwlockattr_init
@c pthread_rwlockattr_setkind_np
@c pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared
@c pthread_rwlock_destroy
@c pthread_rwlock_init
@c pthread_rwlock_rdlock
@c pthread_rwlock_timedrdlock
@c pthread_rwlock_timedwrlock
@c pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock
@c pthread_rwlock_trywrlock
@c pthread_rwlock_unlock
@c pthread_rwlock_wrlock
@c pthread_self
@c pthread_setaffinity_np
@c pthread_setcancelstate
@c pthread_setcanceltype
@c pthread_setconcurrency
@c pthread_setname_np
@c pthread_setschedparam
@c pthread_setschedprio
@c pthread_sigmask
@c pthread_sigqueue
@c pthread_spin_destroy
@c pthread_spin_init
@c pthread_spin_lock
@c pthread_spin_trylock
@c pthread_spin_unlock
@c pthread_testcancel
@c pthread_timedjoin_np
@c pthread_tryjoin_np
@c pthread_yield