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authorFerenc Wágner <wferi@niif.hu>2013-10-10 16:48:04 +0200
committerFerenc Wágner <wferi@niif.hu>2014-03-01 17:40:34 +0100
commit4cfcef19a983dfa971608a8917cd74ebfa0d7376 (patch)
tree0c5abe5d8abc190d02847bd99424c24be6fadb18 /com32/lua
parenta06818de2a4c49bd64a024dd4f4a09a0caf1f0ac (diff)
downloadsyslinux-4cfcef19a983dfa971608a8917cd74ebfa0d7376.tar.gz
syslinux-4cfcef19a983dfa971608a8917cd74ebfa0d7376.tar.xz
syslinux-4cfcef19a983dfa971608a8917cd74ebfa0d7376.zip
lua: import Lua 5.2.2
Source downloaded from http://www.lua.org/ftp/lua-5.2.2.tar.gz. The com32/lua directory now matches exactly the source distribution, plus the various Syslinux extension modules and their documentation.
Diffstat (limited to 'com32/lua')
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/COPYRIGHT34
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/HISTORY183
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/INSTALL99
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/Makefile114
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/Makefile-orig120
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/README37
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/amazon.gifbin797 -> 0 bytes
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/contents.html286
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/cover.pngbin3305 -> 0 bytes
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/lua.1121
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/lua.css48
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/lua.html172
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/luac.186
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/luac.html145
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/manual.css17
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/manual.html6530
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/osi-certified-72x60.pngbin0 -> 3774 bytes
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/doc/readme.html402
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/Makefile44
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/README37
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/all.c38
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/lua.icobin1078 -> 0 bytes
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/lua.pc31
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/luavs.bat28
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/min.c39
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/noparser.c50
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/etc/strict.lua41
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/Makefile228
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/Makefile-orig182
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lapi.c867
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lapi.h14
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lauxlib.c949
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lauxlib.h126
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lbaselib.c567
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lbitlib.c211
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lcode.c404
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lcode.h21
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lcorolib.c155
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lctype.c52
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lctype.h95
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ldblib.c214
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ldebug.c620
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ldebug.h27
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ldo.c661
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ldo.h33
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ldump.c43
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lfunc.c81
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lfunc.h7
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lgc.c1410
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lgc.h159
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/linit.c57
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/liolib.c544
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/llex.c366
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/llex.h27
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/llimits.h221
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lmathlib.c98
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lmem.c45
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lmem.h28
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/loadlib.c614
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lobject.c251
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lobject.h460
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lopcodes.c31
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lopcodes.h106
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/loslib.c156
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lparser.c1015
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lparser.h75
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lstate.c266
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lstate.h149
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lstring.c174
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lstring.h21
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lstrlib.c576
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ltable.c214
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ltable.h15
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ltablib.c140
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ltm.c20
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/ltm.h9
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lua.c337
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lua.h228
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lua.hpp (renamed from com32/lua/etc/lua.hpp)0
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/luac.c332
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/luaconf.h732
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lualib.h47
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lundump.c141
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lundump.h22
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lvm.c940
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lvm.h26
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lzio.c34
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/lzio.h8
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/src/print.c227
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/README26
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/bisect.lua27
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/cf.lua16
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/cpu.lua19
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/dmi.lua21
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/echo.lua5
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/env.lua7
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/factorial.lua32
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/fib.lua40
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/fibfor.lua13
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/globals.lua13
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/hello.lua3
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/life.lua111
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/luac.lua7
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/pci.lua34
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/printf.lua7
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/readonly.lua12
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/sieve.lua29
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/sort.lua66
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/syslinux-derivative.lua38
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/syslinux.lua1
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/table.lua12
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/trace-calls.lua32
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/trace-globals.lua38
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/vesa.lua55
-rw-r--r--com32/lua/test/xd.lua14
115 files changed, 14357 insertions, 10901 deletions
diff --git a/com32/lua/COPYRIGHT b/com32/lua/COPYRIGHT
deleted file mode 100644
index 3a53e741..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/COPYRIGHT
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,34 +0,0 @@
-Lua License
------------
-
-Lua is licensed under the terms of the MIT license reproduced below.
-This means that Lua is free software and can be used for both academic
-and commercial purposes at absolutely no cost.
-
-For details and rationale, see http://www.lua.org/license.html .
-
-===============================================================================
-
-Copyright (C) 1994-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
-
-Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
-of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
-in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
-to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
-copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
-furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
-
-The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
-all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
-
-THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
-IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
-FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
-AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
-LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
-OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
-THE SOFTWARE.
-
-===============================================================================
-
-(end of COPYRIGHT)
diff --git a/com32/lua/HISTORY b/com32/lua/HISTORY
deleted file mode 100644
index ce0c95bc..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/HISTORY
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,183 +0,0 @@
-HISTORY for Lua 5.1
-
-* Changes from version 5.0 to 5.1
- -------------------------------
- Language:
- + new module system.
- + new semantics for control variables of fors.
- + new semantics for setn/getn.
- + new syntax/semantics for varargs.
- + new long strings and comments.
- + new `mod' operator (`%')
- + new length operator #t
- + metatables for all types
- API:
- + new functions: lua_createtable, lua_get(set)field, lua_push(to)integer.
- + user supplies memory allocator (lua_open becomes lua_newstate).
- + luaopen_* functions must be called through Lua.
- Implementation:
- + new configuration scheme via luaconf.h.
- + incremental garbage collection.
- + better handling of end-of-line in the lexer.
- + fully reentrant parser (new Lua function `load')
- + better support for 64-bit machines.
- + native loadlib support for Mac OS X.
- + standard distribution in only one library (lualib.a merged into lua.a)
-
-* Changes from version 4.0 to 5.0
- -------------------------------
- Language:
- + lexical scoping.
- + Lua coroutines.
- + standard libraries now packaged in tables.
- + tags replaced by metatables and tag methods replaced by metamethods,
- stored in metatables.
- + proper tail calls.
- + each function can have its own global table, which can be shared.
- + new __newindex metamethod, called when we insert a new key into a table.
- + new block comments: --[[ ... ]].
- + new generic for.
- + new weak tables.
- + new boolean type.
- + new syntax "local function".
- + (f()) returns the first value returned by f.
- + {f()} fills a table with all values returned by f.
- + \n ignored in [[\n .
- + fixed and-or priorities.
- + more general syntax for function definition (e.g. function a.x.y:f()...end).
- + more general syntax for function calls (e.g. (print or write)(9)).
- + new functions (time/date, tmpfile, unpack, require, load*, etc.).
- API:
- + chunks are loaded by using lua_load; new luaL_loadfile and luaL_loadbuffer.
- + introduced lightweight userdata, a simple "void*" without a metatable.
- + new error handling protocol: the core no longer prints error messages;
- all errors are reported to the caller on the stack.
- + new lua_atpanic for host cleanup.
- + new, signal-safe, hook scheme.
- Implementation:
- + new license: MIT.
- + new, faster, register-based virtual machine.
- + support for external multithreading and coroutines.
- + new and consistent error message format.
- + the core no longer needs "stdio.h" for anything (except for a single
- use of sprintf to convert numbers to strings).
- + lua.c now runs the environment variable LUA_INIT, if present. It can
- be "@filename", to run a file, or the chunk itself.
- + support for user extensions in lua.c.
- sample implementation given for command line editing.
- + new dynamic loading library, active by default on several platforms.
- + safe garbage-collector metamethods.
- + precompiled bytecodes checked for integrity (secure binary dostring).
- + strings are fully aligned.
- + position capture in string.find.
- + read('*l') can read lines with embedded zeros.
-
-* Changes from version 3.2 to 4.0
- -------------------------------
- Language:
- + new "break" and "for" statements (both numerical and for tables).
- + uniform treatment of globals: globals are now stored in a Lua table.
- + improved error messages.
- + no more '$debug': full speed *and* full debug information.
- + new read form: read(N) for next N bytes.
- + general read patterns now deprecated.
- (still available with -DCOMPAT_READPATTERNS.)
- + all return values are passed as arguments for the last function
- (old semantics still available with -DLUA_COMPAT_ARGRET)
- + garbage collection tag methods for tables now deprecated.
- + there is now only one tag method for order.
- API:
- + New API: fully re-entrant, simpler, and more efficient.
- + New debug API.
- Implementation:
- + faster than ever: cleaner virtual machine and new hashing algorithm.
- + non-recursive garbage-collector algorithm.
- + reduced memory usage for programs with many strings.
- + improved treatment for memory allocation errors.
- + improved support for 16-bit machines (we hope).
- + code now compiles unmodified as both ANSI C and C++.
- + numbers in bases other than 10 are converted using strtoul.
- + new -f option in Lua to support #! scripts.
- + luac can now combine text and binaries.
-
-* Changes from version 3.1 to 3.2
- -------------------------------
- + redirected all output in Lua's core to _ERRORMESSAGE and _ALERT.
- + increased limit on the number of constants and globals per function
- (from 2^16 to 2^24).
- + debugging info (lua_debug and hooks) moved into lua_state and new API
- functions provided to get and set this info.
- + new debug lib gives full debugging access within Lua.
- + new table functions "foreachi", "sort", "tinsert", "tremove", "getn".
- + new io functions "flush", "seek".
-
-* Changes from version 3.0 to 3.1
- -------------------------------
- + NEW FEATURE: anonymous functions with closures (via "upvalues").
- + new syntax:
- - local variables in chunks.
- - better scope control with DO block END.
- - constructors can now be also written: { record-part; list-part }.
- - more general syntax for function calls and lvalues, e.g.:
- f(x).y=1
- o:f(x,y):g(z)
- f"string" is sugar for f("string")
- + strings may now contain arbitrary binary data (e.g., embedded zeros).
- + major code re-organization and clean-up; reduced module interdependecies.
- + no arbitrary limits on the total number of constants and globals.
- + support for multiple global contexts.
- + better syntax error messages.
- + new traversal functions "foreach" and "foreachvar".
- + the default for numbers is now double.
- changing it to use floats or longs is easy.
- + complete debug information stored in pre-compiled chunks.
- + sample interpreter now prompts user when run interactively, and also
- handles control-C interruptions gracefully.
-
-* Changes from version 2.5 to 3.0
- -------------------------------
- + NEW CONCEPT: "tag methods".
- Tag methods replace fallbacks as the meta-mechanism for extending the
- semantics of Lua. Whereas fallbacks had a global nature, tag methods
- work on objects having the same tag (e.g., groups of tables).
- Existing code that uses fallbacks should work without change.
- + new, general syntax for constructors {[exp] = exp, ... }.
- + support for handling variable number of arguments in functions (varargs).
- + support for conditional compilation ($if ... $else ... $end).
- + cleaner semantics in API simplifies host code.
- + better support for writing libraries (auxlib.h).
- + better type checking and error messages in the standard library.
- + luac can now also undump.
-
-* Changes from version 2.4 to 2.5
- -------------------------------
- + io and string libraries are now based on pattern matching;
- the old libraries are still available for compatibility
- + dofile and dostring can now return values (via return statement)
- + better support for 16- and 64-bit machines
- + expanded documentation, with more examples
-
-* Changes from version 2.2 to 2.4
- -------------------------------
- + external compiler creates portable binary files that can be loaded faster
- + interface for debugging and profiling
- + new "getglobal" fallback
- + new functions for handling references to Lua objects
- + new functions in standard lib
- + only one copy of each string is stored
- + expanded documentation, with more examples
-
-* Changes from version 2.1 to 2.2
- -------------------------------
- + functions now may be declared with any "lvalue" as a name
- + garbage collection of functions
- + support for pipes
-
-* Changes from version 1.1 to 2.1
- -------------------------------
- + object-oriented support
- + fallbacks
- + simplified syntax for tables
- + many internal improvements
-
-(end of HISTORY)
diff --git a/com32/lua/INSTALL b/com32/lua/INSTALL
deleted file mode 100644
index 17eb8aee..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/INSTALL
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,99 +0,0 @@
-INSTALL for Lua 5.1
-
-* Building Lua
- ------------
- Lua is built in the src directory, but the build process can be
- controlled from the top-level Makefile.
-
- Building Lua on Unix systems should be very easy. First do "make" and
- see if your platform is listed. If so, just do "make xxx", where xxx
- is your platform name. The platforms currently supported are:
- aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
-
- If your platform is not listed, try the closest one or posix, generic,
- ansi, in this order.
-
- See below for customization instructions and for instructions on how
- to build with other Windows compilers.
-
- If you want to check that Lua has been built correctly, do "make test"
- after building Lua. Also, have a look at the example programs in test.
-
-* Installing Lua
- --------------
- Once you have built Lua, you may want to install it in an official
- place in your system. In this case, do "make install". The official
- place and the way to install files are defined in Makefile. You must
- have the right permissions to install files.
-
- If you want to build and install Lua in one step, do "make xxx install",
- where xxx is your platform name.
-
- If you want to install Lua locally, then do "make local". This will
- create directories bin, include, lib, man, and install Lua there as
- follows:
-
- bin: lua luac
- include: lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h lua.hpp
- lib: liblua.a
- man/man1: lua.1 luac.1
-
- These are the only directories you need for development.
-
- There are man pages for lua and luac, in both nroff and html, and a
- reference manual in html in doc, some sample code in test, and some
- useful stuff in etc. You don't need these directories for development.
-
- If you want to install Lua locally, but in some other directory, do
- "make install INSTALL_TOP=xxx", where xxx is your chosen directory.
-
- See below for instructions for Windows and other systems.
-
-* Customization
- -------------
- Three things can be customized by editing a file:
- - Where and how to install Lua -- edit Makefile.
- - How to build Lua -- edit src/Makefile.
- - Lua features -- edit src/luaconf.h.
-
- You don't actually need to edit the Makefiles because you may set the
- relevant variables when invoking make.
-
- On the other hand, if you need to select some Lua features, you'll need
- to edit src/luaconf.h. The edited file will be the one installed, and
- it will be used by any Lua clients that you build, to ensure consistency.
-
- We strongly recommend that you enable dynamic loading. This is done
- automatically for all platforms listed above that have this feature
- (and also Windows). See src/luaconf.h and also src/Makefile.
-
-* Building Lua on Windows and other systems
- -----------------------------------------
- If you're not using the usual Unix tools, then the instructions for
- building Lua depend on the compiler you use. You'll need to create
- projects (or whatever your compiler uses) for building the library,
- the interpreter, and the compiler, as follows:
-
- library: lapi.c lcode.c ldebug.c ldo.c ldump.c lfunc.c lgc.c llex.c
- lmem.c lobject.c lopcodes.c lparser.c lstate.c lstring.c
- ltable.c ltm.c lundump.c lvm.c lzio.c
- lauxlib.c lbaselib.c ldblib.c liolib.c lmathlib.c loslib.c
- ltablib.c lstrlib.c loadlib.c linit.c
-
- interpreter: library, lua.c
-
- compiler: library, luac.c print.c
-
- If you use Visual Studio .NET, you can use etc/luavs.bat in its
- "Command Prompt".
-
- If all you want is to build the Lua interpreter, you may put all .c files
- in a single project, except for luac.c and print.c. Or just use etc/all.c.
-
- To use Lua as a library in your own programs, you'll need to know how to
- create and use libraries with your compiler.
-
- As mentioned above, you may edit luaconf.h to select some features before
- building Lua.
-
-(end of INSTALL)
diff --git a/com32/lua/Makefile b/com32/lua/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..bd9515fd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/com32/lua/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,114 @@
+# Makefile for installing Lua
+# See doc/readme.html for installation and customization instructions.
+
+# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
+
+# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
+PLAT= none
+
+# Where to install. The installation starts in the src and doc directories,
+# so take care if INSTALL_TOP is not an absolute path. See the local target.
+# You may want to make INSTALL_LMOD and INSTALL_CMOD consistent with
+# LUA_ROOT, LUA_LDIR, and LUA_CDIR in luaconf.h.
+INSTALL_TOP= /usr/local
+INSTALL_BIN= $(INSTALL_TOP)/bin
+INSTALL_INC= $(INSTALL_TOP)/include
+INSTALL_LIB= $(INSTALL_TOP)/lib
+INSTALL_MAN= $(INSTALL_TOP)/man/man1
+INSTALL_LMOD= $(INSTALL_TOP)/share/lua/$V
+INSTALL_CMOD= $(INSTALL_TOP)/lib/lua/$V
+
+# How to install. If your install program does not support "-p", then
+# you may have to run ranlib on the installed liblua.a.
+INSTALL= install -p
+INSTALL_EXEC= $(INSTALL) -m 0755
+INSTALL_DATA= $(INSTALL) -m 0644
+#
+# If you don't have "install" you can use "cp" instead.
+# INSTALL= cp -p
+# INSTALL_EXEC= $(INSTALL)
+# INSTALL_DATA= $(INSTALL)
+
+# Other utilities.
+MKDIR= mkdir -p
+RM= rm -f
+
+# == END OF USER SETTINGS -- NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =======
+
+# Convenience platforms targets.
+PLATS= aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
+
+# What to install.
+TO_BIN= lua luac
+TO_INC= lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h lua.hpp
+TO_LIB= liblua.a
+TO_MAN= lua.1 luac.1
+
+# Lua version and release.
+V= 5.2
+R= $V.1
+
+# Targets start here.
+all: $(PLAT)
+
+$(PLATS) clean:
+ cd src && $(MAKE) $@
+
+test: dummy
+ src/lua -v
+
+install: dummy
+ cd src && $(MKDIR) $(INSTALL_BIN) $(INSTALL_INC) $(INSTALL_LIB) $(INSTALL_MAN) $(INSTALL_LMOD) $(INSTALL_CMOD)
+ cd src && $(INSTALL_EXEC) $(TO_BIN) $(INSTALL_BIN)
+ cd src && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_INC) $(INSTALL_INC)
+ cd src && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_LIB) $(INSTALL_LIB)
+ cd doc && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_MAN) $(INSTALL_MAN)
+
+uninstall:
+ cd src && cd $(INSTALL_BIN) && $(RM) $(TO_BIN)
+ cd src && cd $(INSTALL_INC) && $(RM) $(TO_INC)
+ cd src && cd $(INSTALL_LIB) && $(RM) $(TO_LIB)
+ cd doc && cd $(INSTALL_MAN) && $(RM) $(TO_MAN)
+
+local:
+ $(MAKE) install INSTALL_TOP=../install
+
+none:
+ @echo "Please do 'make PLATFORM' where PLATFORM is one of these:"
+ @echo " $(PLATS)"
+ @echo "See doc/readme.html for complete instructions."
+
+# make may get confused with test/ and install/
+dummy:
+
+# echo config parameters
+echo:
+ @cd src && $(MAKE) -s echo
+ @echo "PLAT= $(PLAT)"
+ @echo "V= $V"
+ @echo "R= $R"
+ @echo "TO_BIN= $(TO_BIN)"
+ @echo "TO_INC= $(TO_INC)"
+ @echo "TO_LIB= $(TO_LIB)"
+ @echo "TO_MAN= $(TO_MAN)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_TOP= $(INSTALL_TOP)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_BIN= $(INSTALL_BIN)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_INC= $(INSTALL_INC)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_LIB= $(INSTALL_LIB)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_MAN= $(INSTALL_MAN)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_LMOD= $(INSTALL_LMOD)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_CMOD= $(INSTALL_CMOD)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_EXEC= $(INSTALL_EXEC)"
+ @echo "INSTALL_DATA= $(INSTALL_DATA)"
+
+# echo pkg-config data
+pc:
+ @echo "version=$R"
+ @echo "prefix=$(INSTALL_TOP)"
+ @echo "libdir=$(INSTALL_LIB)"
+ @echo "includedir=$(INSTALL_INC)"
+
+# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
+.PHONY: all $(PLATS) clean test install local none dummy echo pecho lecho
+
+# (end of Makefile)
diff --git a/com32/lua/Makefile-orig b/com32/lua/Makefile-orig
deleted file mode 100644
index fec20115..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/Makefile-orig
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,120 +0,0 @@
-# makefile for installing Lua
-# see INSTALL for installation instructions
-# see src/Makefile and src/luaconf.h for further customization
-
-# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
-
-# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
-PLAT= none
-
-# Where to install. The installation starts in the src directory, so take care
-# if INSTALL_TOP is not an absolute path. (Man pages are installed from the
-# doc directory.) You may want to make these paths consistent with LUA_ROOT,
-# LUA_LDIR, and LUA_CDIR in luaconf.h (and also with etc/lua.pc).
-#
-INSTALL_TOP= /usr/local
-INSTALL_BIN= $(INSTALL_TOP)/bin
-INSTALL_INC= $(INSTALL_TOP)/include
-INSTALL_LIB= $(INSTALL_TOP)/lib
-INSTALL_MAN= $(INSTALL_TOP)/man/man1
-INSTALL_LMOD= $(INSTALL_TOP)/share/lua/$V
-INSTALL_CMOD= $(INSTALL_TOP)/lib/lua/$V
-
-# How to install. If you don't have "install" (unlikely) then get install-sh at
-# http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/libwww/config/install-sh
-# or use cp instead.
-INSTALL_EXEC= $(INSTALL) -p -m 0755
-INSTALL_DATA= $(INSTALL) -p -m 0644
-
-# Utilities.
-INSTALL= install
-MKDIR= mkdir
-
-# == END OF USER SETTINGS. NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =========
-
-# Convenience platforms targets.
-PLATS= aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
-
-# What to install.
-TO_BIN= lua luac
-TO_INC= lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h ../etc/lua.hpp
-TO_LIB= liblua.a
-TO_MAN= lua.1 luac.1
-
-# Lua version and release.
-V= 5.1
-R= 5.1.3
-
-all: $(PLAT)
-
-$(PLATS) clean:
- cd src && $(MAKE) $@
-
-test: dummy
- src/lua test/hello.lua
-
-install: dummy
- cd src && $(MKDIR) -p $(INSTALL_BIN) $(INSTALL_INC) $(INSTALL_LIB) $(INSTALL_MAN) $(INSTALL_LMOD) $(INSTALL_CMOD)
- cd src && $(INSTALL_EXEC) $(TO_BIN) $(INSTALL_BIN)
- cd src && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_INC) $(INSTALL_INC)
- cd src && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_LIB) $(INSTALL_LIB)
- cd doc && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_MAN) $(INSTALL_MAN)
-
-local:
- $(MAKE) install INSTALL_TOP=..
-
-none:
- @echo "Please do"
- @echo " make PLATFORM"
- @echo "where PLATFORM is one of these:"
- @echo " $(PLATS)"
- @echo "See INSTALL for complete instructions."
-
-# make may get confused with test/ and INSTALL in a case-insensitive OS
-dummy:
-
-# echo config parameters
-echo:
- @echo ""
- @echo "These are the parameters currently set in src/Makefile to build Lua $R:"
- @echo ""
- @cd src && $(MAKE) -s echo
- @echo ""
- @echo "These are the parameters currently set in Makefile to install Lua $R:"
- @echo ""
- @echo "PLAT = $(PLAT)"
- @echo "INSTALL_TOP = $(INSTALL_TOP)"
- @echo "INSTALL_BIN = $(INSTALL_BIN)"
- @echo "INSTALL_INC = $(INSTALL_INC)"
- @echo "INSTALL_LIB = $(INSTALL_LIB)"
- @echo "INSTALL_MAN = $(INSTALL_MAN)"
- @echo "INSTALL_LMOD = $(INSTALL_LMOD)"
- @echo "INSTALL_CMOD = $(INSTALL_CMOD)"
- @echo "INSTALL_EXEC = $(INSTALL_EXEC)"
- @echo "INSTALL_DATA = $(INSTALL_DATA)"
- @echo ""
- @echo "See also src/luaconf.h ."
- @echo ""
-
-# echo private config parameters
-pecho:
- @echo "V = $(V)"
- @echo "R = $(R)"
- @echo "TO_BIN = $(TO_BIN)"
- @echo "TO_INC = $(TO_INC)"
- @echo "TO_LIB = $(TO_LIB)"
- @echo "TO_MAN = $(TO_MAN)"
-
-# echo config parameters as Lua code
-# uncomment the last sed expression if you want nil instead of empty strings
-lecho:
- @echo "-- installation parameters for Lua $R"
- @echo "VERSION = '$V'"
- @echo "RELEASE = '$R'"
- @$(MAKE) echo | grep = | sed -e 's/= /= "/' -e 's/$$/"/' #-e 's/""/nil/'
- @echo "-- EOF"
-
-# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
-.PHONY: all $(PLATS) clean test install local none dummy echo pecho lecho
-
-# (end of Makefile)
diff --git a/com32/lua/README b/com32/lua/README
index 11b4dff7..6e2aee6c 100644
--- a/com32/lua/README
+++ b/com32/lua/README
@@ -1,37 +1,6 @@
-README for Lua 5.1
-See INSTALL for installation instructions.
-See HISTORY for a summary of changes since the last released version.
+This is Lua 5.2.2, released on 21 Mar 2013.
-* What is Lua?
- ------------
- Lua is a powerful, light-weight programming language designed for extending
- applications. Lua is also frequently used as a general-purpose, stand-alone
- language. Lua is free software.
+For installation instructions, license details, and
+further information about Lua, see doc/readme.html.
- For complete information, visit Lua's web site at http://www.lua.org/ .
- For an executive summary, see http://www.lua.org/about.html .
-
- Lua has been used in many different projects around the world.
- For a short list, see http://www.lua.org/uses.html .
-
-* Availability
- ------------
- Lua is freely available for both academic and commercial purposes.
- See COPYRIGHT and http://www.lua.org/license.html for details.
- Lua can be downloaded at http://www.lua.org/download.html .
-
-* Installation
- ------------
- Lua is implemented in pure ANSI C, and compiles unmodified in all known
- platforms that have an ANSI C compiler. In most Unix-like platforms, simply
- do "make" with a suitable target. See INSTALL for detailed instructions.
-
-* Origin
- ------
- Lua is developed at Lua.org, a laboratory of the Department of Computer
- Science of PUC-Rio (the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
- in Brazil).
- For more information about the authors, see http://www.lua.org/authors.html .
-
-(end of README)
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/amazon.gif b/com32/lua/doc/amazon.gif
deleted file mode 100644
index f2586d57..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/doc/amazon.gif
+++ /dev/null
Binary files differ
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/contents.html b/com32/lua/doc/contents.html
index 8e58e18c..0ce297da 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/contents.html
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/contents.html
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
-<TITLE>Lua 5.1 Reference Manual - contents</TITLE>
+<TITLE>Lua 5.2 Reference Manual - contents</TITLE>
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
<STYLE TYPE="text/css">
@@ -17,140 +17,120 @@ ul {
<HR>
<H1>
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/"><IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="" BORDER=0></A>
-Lua 5.1 Reference Manual
+Lua 5.2 Reference Manual
</H1>
-This is an online version of
-<BLOCKQUOTE>
-<A HREF="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/8590379833/lua-indexmanual-20">
-<IMG SRC="cover.png" ALT="" TITLE="buy from Amazon" BORDER=1 ALIGN="left" HSPACE=12>
-</A>
-<B>Lua 5.1 Reference Manual</B>
-<BR>by R. Ierusalimschy, L. H. de Figueiredo, W. Celes
-<BR>Lua.org, August 2006
-<BR>ISBN 85-903798-3-3
-<BR><A HREF="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/8590379833/lua-indexmanual-20">
-<IMG SRC="amazon.gif" ALT="[Buy from Amazon]" BORDER=0></A>
-<BR CLEAR="all">
-</BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
-
-Buy a copy of this book and
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/donations.html">help to support</A>
-the Lua project.
-<P>
-
The reference manual is the official definition of the Lua language.
For a complete introduction to Lua programming, see the book
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/docs.html#books">Programming in Lua</A>.
-<P>
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/pil/">Programming in Lua</A>.
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html">start</A>
&middot;
<A HREF="#contents">contents</A>
&middot;
<A HREF="#index">index</A>
-&middot;
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/pt/">portugus</A>
-&middot;
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/es/">espaol</A>
<HR>
<SMALL>
-Copyright &copy; 2006-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
+Copyright &copy; 2011&ndash;2013 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
Freely available under the terms of the
-<a href="http://www.lua.org/license.html#5">Lua license</a>.
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/license.html">Lua license</A>.
</SMALL>
-<P>
<H2><A NAME="contents">Contents</A></H2>
<UL style="padding: 0">
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html">1 - Introduction</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html">1 &ndash; Introduction</A>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2">2 - The Language</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2">2 &ndash; Basic Concepts</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.1">2.1 - Lexical Conventions</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.2">2.2 - Values and Types</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.1">2.1 &ndash; Values and Types</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.2">2.2 &ndash; Environments and the Global Environment</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.3">2.3 &ndash; Error Handling</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4">2.4 &ndash; Metatables and Metamethods</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5">2.5 &ndash; Garbage Collection</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.2.1">2.2.1 - Coercion</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.1">2.5.1 &ndash; Garbage-Collection Metamethods</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.2">2.5.2 &ndash; Weak Tables</A>
</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.3">2.3 - Variables</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4">2.4 - Statements</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.1">2.4.1 - Chunks</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.2">2.4.2 - Blocks</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.3">2.4.3 - Assignment</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.4">2.4.4 - Control Structures</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.5">2.4.5 - For Statement</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.6">2.4.6 - Function Calls as Statements</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.7">2.4.7 - Local Declarations</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.6">2.6 &ndash; Coroutines</A>
</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5">2.5 - Expressions</A>
+<P>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3">3 &ndash; The Language</A>
+<UL>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.1">3.1 &ndash; Lexical Conventions</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.2">3.2 &ndash; Variables</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3">3.3 &ndash; Statements</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.1">2.5.1 - Arithmetic Operators</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.2">2.5.2 - Relational Operators</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.3">2.5.3 - Logical Operators</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.4">2.5.4 - Concatenation</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.5">2.5.5 - The Length Operator</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.6">2.5.6 - Precedence</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.7">2.5.7 - Table Constructors</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.8">2.5.8 - Function Calls</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.9">2.5.9 - Function Definitions</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.1">3.3.1 &ndash; Blocks</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.2">3.3.2 &ndash; Chunks</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.3">3.3.3 &ndash; Assignment</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.4">3.3.4 &ndash; Control Structures</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.5">3.3.5 &ndash; For Statement</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.6">3.3.6 &ndash; Function Calls as Statements</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.7">3.3.7 &ndash; Local Declarations</A>
</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.6">2.6 - Visibility Rules</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.7">2.7 - Error Handling</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.8">2.8 - Metatables</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.9">2.9 - Environments</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.10">2.10 - Garbage Collection</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4">3.4 &ndash; Expressions</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.10.1">2.10.1 - Garbage-Collection Metamethods</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.10.2">2.10.2 - Weak Tables</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.1">3.4.1 &ndash; Arithmetic Operators</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.2">3.4.2 &ndash; Coercion</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.3">3.4.3 &ndash; Relational Operators</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.4">3.4.4 &ndash; Logical Operators</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.5">3.4.5 &ndash; Concatenation</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.6">3.4.6 &ndash; The Length Operator</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.7">3.4.7 &ndash; Precedence</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.8">3.4.8 &ndash; Table Constructors</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.9">3.4.9 &ndash; Function Calls</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4.10">3.4.10 &ndash; Function Definitions</A>
</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.11">2.11 - Coroutines</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.5">3.5 &ndash; Visibility Rules</A>
</UL>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3">3 - The Application Program Interface</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4">4 &ndash; The Application Program Interface</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.1">3.1 - The Stack</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.2">3.2 - Stack Size</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3">3.3 - Pseudo-Indices</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4">3.4 - C Closures</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.5">3.5 - Registry</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.6">3.6 - Error Handling in C</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.7">3.7 - Functions and Types</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.8">3.8 - The Debug Interface</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1">4.1 &ndash; The Stack</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.2">4.2 &ndash; Stack Size</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.3">4.3 &ndash; Valid and Acceptable Indices</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.4">4.4 &ndash; C Closures</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.5">4.5 &ndash; Registry</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.6">4.6 &ndash; Error Handling in C</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.7">4.7 &ndash; Handling Yields in C</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.8">4.8 &ndash; Functions and Types</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.9">4.9 &ndash; The Debug Interface</A>
</UL>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4">4 - The Auxiliary Library</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5">5 &ndash; The Auxiliary Library</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1">4.1 - Functions and Types</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.1">5.1 &ndash; Functions and Types</A>
</UL>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5">5 - Standard Libraries</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6">6 &ndash; Standard Libraries</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.1">5.1 - Basic Functions</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.2">5.2 - Coroutine Manipulation</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.3">5.3 - Modules</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.4">5.4 - String Manipulation</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.1">6.1 &ndash; Basic Functions</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.2">6.2 &ndash; Coroutine Manipulation</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.3">6.3 &ndash; Modules</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.4">6.4 &ndash; String Manipulation</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.4.1">5.4.1 - Patterns</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.4.1">6.4.1 &ndash; Patterns</A>
</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.5">5.5 - Table Manipulation</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.6">5.6 - Mathematical Functions</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.7">5.7 - Input and Output Facilities</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.8">5.8 - Operating System Facilities</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.9">5.9 - The Debug Library</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.5">6.5 &ndash; Table Manipulation</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.6">6.6 &ndash; Mathematical Functions</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.7">6.7 &ndash; Bitwise Operations</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.8">6.8 &ndash; Input and Output Facilities</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.9">6.9 &ndash; Operating System Facilities</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.10">6.10 &ndash; The Debug Library</A>
</UL>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6">6 - Lua Stand-alone</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7">7 &ndash; Lua Standalone</A>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7">7 - Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8">8 &ndash; Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7.1">7.1 - Changes in the Language</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7.2">7.2 - Changes in the Libraries</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7.3">7.3 - Changes in the API</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.1">8.1 &ndash; Changes in the Language</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.2">8.2 &ndash; Changes in the Libraries</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.3">8.3 &ndash; Changes in the API</A>
</UL>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8">8 - The Complete Syntax of Lua</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#9">9 &ndash; The Complete Syntax of Lua</A>
</UL>
<H2><A NAME="index">Index</A></H2>
@@ -158,63 +138,76 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<TR VALIGN="top">
<TD>
<H3><A NAME="functions">Lua functions</A></H3>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-_G">_G</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-_VERSION">_VERSION</A><BR>
+
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-assert">assert</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-collectgarbage">collectgarbage</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-dofile">dofile</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-error">error</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-getfenv">getfenv</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-getmetatable">getmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-ipairs">ipairs</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-load">load</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-loadfile">loadfile</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-loadstring">loadstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-module">module</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-next">next</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-pairs">pairs</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-pcall">pcall</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-print">print</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawequal">rawequal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawget">rawget</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawlen">rawlen</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawset">rawset</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-require">require</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-select">select</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-setfenv">setfenv</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-setmetatable">setmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-tonumber">tonumber</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-tostring">tostring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-type">type</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-unpack">unpack</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-xpcall">xpcall</A><BR>
+
<P>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.arshift">bit32.arshift</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.band">bit32.band</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.bnot">bit32.bnot</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.bor">bit32.bor</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.btest">bit32.btest</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.bxor">bit32.bxor</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.extract">bit32.extract</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.lrotate">bit32.lrotate</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.lshift">bit32.lshift</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.replace">bit32.replace</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.rrotate">bit32.rrotate</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-bit32.rshift">bit32.rshift</A><BR>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.create">coroutine.create</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.resume">coroutine.resume</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.running">coroutine.running</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.status">coroutine.status</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.wrap">coroutine.wrap</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.yield">coroutine.yield</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.debug">debug.debug</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getfenv">debug.getfenv</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getuservalue">debug.getuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.gethook">debug.gethook</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getinfo">debug.getinfo</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getlocal">debug.getlocal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getmetatable">debug.getmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getregistry">debug.getregistry</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getupvalue">debug.getupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setfenv">debug.setfenv</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setuservalue">debug.setuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.sethook">debug.sethook</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setlocal">debug.setlocal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setmetatable">debug.setmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setupvalue">debug.setupvalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.traceback">debug.traceback</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.upvalueid">debug.upvalueid</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.upvaluejoin">debug.upvaluejoin</A><BR>
-</TD>
-<TD>
-<H3>&nbsp;</H3>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:close">file:close</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:flush">file:flush</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:lines">file:lines</A><BR>
@@ -222,8 +215,8 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:seek">file:seek</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:setvbuf">file:setvbuf</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:write">file:write</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.close">io.close</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.flush">io.flush</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.input">io.input</A><BR>
@@ -238,8 +231,11 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.tmpfile">io.tmpfile</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.type">io.type</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.write">io.write</A><BR>
-<P>
+</TD>
+<TD>
+<H3>&nbsp;</H3>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.abs">math.abs</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.acos">math.acos</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.asin">math.asin</A><BR>
@@ -256,7 +252,6 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.huge">math.huge</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.ldexp">math.ldexp</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.log">math.log</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.log10">math.log10</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.max">math.max</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.min">math.min</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.modf">math.modf</A><BR>
@@ -270,8 +265,8 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.sqrt">math.sqrt</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.tan">math.tan</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.tanh">math.tanh</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.clock">os.clock</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.date">os.date</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.difftime">os.difftime</A><BR>
@@ -283,17 +278,18 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.setlocale">os.setlocale</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.time">os.time</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.tmpname">os.tmpname</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.config">package.config</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.cpath">package.cpath</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.loaded">package.loaded</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.loaders">package.loaders</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.loadlib">package.loadlib</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.path">package.path</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.preload">package.preload</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.seeall">package.seeall</A><BR>
-<P>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.searchers">package.searchers</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.searchpath">package.searchpath</A><BR>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.byte">string.byte</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.char">string.char</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.dump">string.dump</A><BR>
@@ -308,17 +304,19 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.reverse">string.reverse</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.sub">string.sub</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.upper">string.upper</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.concat">table.concat</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.insert">table.insert</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.maxn">table.maxn</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.pack">table.pack</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.remove">table.remove</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.sort">table.sort</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.unpack">table.unpack</A><BR>
</TD>
<TD>
<H3>C API</H3>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Alloc">lua_Alloc</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_CFunction">lua_CFunction</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Debug">lua_Debug</A><BR>
@@ -327,22 +325,26 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Number">lua_Number</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Reader">lua_Reader</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_State">lua_State</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Unsigned">lua_Unsigned</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Writer">lua_Writer</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_absindex">lua_absindex</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_arith">lua_arith</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_atpanic">lua_atpanic</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_call">lua_call</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_callk">lua_callk</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_checkstack">lua_checkstack</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_close">lua_close</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_compare">lua_compare</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_concat">lua_concat</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_cpcall">lua_cpcall</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_copy">lua_copy</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_createtable">lua_createtable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_dump">lua_dump</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_equal">lua_equal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_error">lua_error</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gc">lua_gc</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getallocf">lua_getallocf</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getfenv">lua_getfenv</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getctx">lua_getctx</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getfield">lua_getfield</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getglobal">lua_getglobal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gethook">lua_gethook</A><BR>
@@ -355,6 +357,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gettable">lua_gettable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gettop">lua_gettop</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getupvalue">lua_getupvalue</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getuservalue">lua_getuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_insert">lua_insert</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isboolean">lua_isboolean</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_iscfunction">lua_iscfunction</A><BR>
@@ -368,20 +371,21 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_istable">lua_istable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isthread">lua_isthread</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isuserdata">lua_isuserdata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_lessthan">lua_lessthan</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_len">lua_len</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_load">lua_load</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newstate">lua_newstate</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newtable">lua_newtable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newthread">lua_newthread</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newuserdata">lua_newuserdata</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_next">lua_next</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_objlen">lua_objlen</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pcall">lua_pcall</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pcallk">lua_pcallk</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pop">lua_pop</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushboolean">lua_pushboolean</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushcclosure">lua_pushcclosure</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushcfunction">lua_pushcfunction</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushfstring">lua_pushfstring</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushglobaltable">lua_pushglobaltable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushinteger">lua_pushinteger</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushlightuserdata">lua_pushlightuserdata</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushliteral">lua_pushliteral</A><BR>
@@ -390,19 +394,22 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushnumber">lua_pushnumber</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushstring">lua_pushstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushthread">lua_pushthread</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushunsigned">lua_pushunsigned</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushvalue">lua_pushvalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushvfstring">lua_pushvfstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawequal">lua_rawequal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawget">lua_rawget</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawgeti">lua_rawgeti</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawgetp">lua_rawgetp</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawlen">lua_rawlen</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawset">lua_rawset</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawseti">lua_rawseti</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawsetp">lua_rawsetp</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_register">lua_register</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_remove">lua_remove</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_replace">lua_replace</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_resume">lua_resume</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setallocf">lua_setallocf</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setfenv">lua_setfenv</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setfield">lua_setfield</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setglobal">lua_setglobal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_sethook">lua_sethook</A><BR>
@@ -411,29 +418,39 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_settable">lua_settable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_settop">lua_settop</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setupvalue">lua_setupvalue</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setuservalue">lua_setuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_status">lua_status</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_toboolean">lua_toboolean</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tocfunction">lua_tocfunction</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tointeger">lua_tointeger</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tointegerx">lua_tointegerx</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tolstring">lua_tolstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tonumber">lua_tonumber</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tonumberx">lua_tonumberx</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_topointer">lua_topointer</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tostring">lua_tostring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tothread">lua_tothread</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tounsigned">lua_tounsigned</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tounsignedx">lua_tounsignedx</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_touserdata">lua_touserdata</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_type">lua_type</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_typename">lua_typename</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_upvalueid">lua_upvalueid</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_upvalueindex">lua_upvalueindex</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_upvaluejoin">lua_upvaluejoin</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_version">lua_version</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_xmove">lua_xmove</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_yield">lua_yield</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_yieldk">lua_yieldk</A><BR>
</TD>
<TD>
<H3>auxiliary library</H3>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_Buffer">luaL_Buffer</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_Reg">luaL_Reg</A><BR>
-<P>
+<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addchar">luaL_addchar</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addlstring">luaL_addlstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addsize">luaL_addsize</A><BR>
@@ -442,6 +459,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argcheck">luaL_argcheck</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argerror">luaL_argerror</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffinit">luaL_buffinit</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffinitsize">luaL_buffinitsize</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_callmeta">luaL_callmeta</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkany">luaL_checkany</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkint">luaL_checkint</A><BR>
@@ -454,15 +472,25 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkstring">luaL_checkstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checktype">luaL_checktype</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkudata">luaL_checkudata</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkunsigned">luaL_checkunsigned</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkversion">luaL_checkversion</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_dofile">luaL_dofile</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_dostring">luaL_dostring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_error">luaL_error</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_execresult">luaL_execresult</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_fileresult">luaL_fileresult</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_getmetafield">luaL_getmetafield</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_getmetatable">luaL_getmetatable</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_getsubtable">luaL_getsubtable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_gsub">luaL_gsub</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_len">luaL_len</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadbuffer">luaL_loadbuffer</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadbufferx">luaL_loadbufferx</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadfile">luaL_loadfile</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadfilex">luaL_loadfilex</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadstring">luaL_loadstring</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newlib">luaL_newlib</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newlibtable">luaL_newlibtable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newmetatable">luaL_newmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newstate">luaL_newstate</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_openlibs">luaL_openlibs</A><BR>
@@ -472,27 +500,33 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optlstring">luaL_optlstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optnumber">luaL_optnumber</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optstring">luaL_optstring</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optunsigned">luaL_optunsigned</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_prepbuffer">luaL_prepbuffer</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_prepbuffsize">luaL_prepbuffsize</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_pushresult">luaL_pushresult</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_pushresultsize">luaL_pushresultsize</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_ref">luaL_ref</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_register">luaL_register</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_requiref">luaL_requiref</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_setfuncs">luaL_setfuncs</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_setmetatable">luaL_setmetatable</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_testudata">luaL_testudata</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_tolstring">luaL_tolstring</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_traceback">luaL_traceback</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_typename">luaL_typename</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_typerror">luaL_typerror</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_unref">luaL_unref</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_where">luaL_where</A><BR>
</TD>
</TR>
</TABLE>
-<P>
<HR>
-<SMALL>
+<SMALL CLASS="footer">
Last update:
-Sat Jan 19 13:24:29 BRST 2008
+Tue Mar 12 11:22:18 BRT 2013
</SMALL>
<!--
-Last change: revised for Lua 5.1.3
+Last change: revised for Lua 5.2.2
-->
</BODY>
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/cover.png b/com32/lua/doc/cover.png
deleted file mode 100644
index 2dbb1981..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/doc/cover.png
+++ /dev/null
Binary files differ
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/lua.1 b/com32/lua/doc/lua.1
index 24809cc6..1dbf0436 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/lua.1
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/lua.1
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.\" $Id: lua.man,v 1.11 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $
-.TH LUA 1 "$Date: 2006/01/06 16:03:34 $"
+.\" $Id: lua.man,v 1.13 2011/11/16 17:16:53 lhf Exp $
+.TH LUA 1 "$Date: 2011/11/16 17:16:53 $"
.SH NAME
lua \- Lua interpreter
.SH SYNOPSIS
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ lua \- Lua interpreter
]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B lua
-is the stand-alone Lua interpreter.
+is the standalone Lua interpreter.
It loads and executes Lua programs,
either in textual source form or
in precompiled binary form.
@@ -27,8 +27,7 @@ can be used as a batch interpreter and also interactively.
.LP
The given
.I options
-(see below)
-are executed and then
+are handled in order and then
the Lua program in file
.I script
is loaded and executed.
@@ -38,45 +37,7 @@ are available to
.I script
as strings in a global table named
.BR arg .
-If these arguments contain spaces or other characters special to the shell,
-then they should be quoted
-(but note that the quotes will be removed by the shell).
-The arguments in
-.B arg
-start at 0,
-which contains the string
-.RI ' script '.
-The index of the last argument is stored in
-.BR arg.n .
-The arguments given in the command line before
-.IR script ,
-including the name of the interpreter,
-are available in negative indices in
-.BR arg .
-.LP
-At the very start,
-before even handling the command line,
-.B lua
-executes the contents of the environment variable
-.BR LUA_INIT ,
-if it is defined.
-If the value of
-.B LUA_INIT
-is of the form
-.RI '@ filename ',
-then
-.I filename
-is executed.
-Otherwise, the string is assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
-.LP
-Options start with
-.B '\-'
-and are described below.
-You can use
-.B "'\--'"
-to signal the end of options.
-.LP
-If no arguments are given,
+If no options or arguments are given,
then
.B "\-v \-i"
is assumed when the standard input is a terminal;
@@ -93,71 +54,63 @@ If a line does not contain a complete statement,
then a secondary prompt is displayed and
lines are read until a complete statement is formed or
a syntax error is found.
-So, one way to interrupt the reading of an incomplete statement is
-to force a syntax error:
-adding a
-.B ';'
-in the middle of a statement is a sure way of forcing a syntax error
-(except inside multiline strings and comments; these must be closed explicitly).
If a line starts with
.BR '=' ,
then
.B lua
-displays the values of all the expressions in the remainder of the
-line. The expressions must be separated by commas.
-The primary prompt is the value of the global variable
-.BR _PROMPT ,
-if this value is a string;
-otherwise, the default prompt is used.
-Similarly, the secondary prompt is the value of the global variable
-.BR _PROMPT2 .
-So,
-to change the prompts,
-set the corresponding variable to a string of your choice.
-You can do that after calling the interpreter
-or on the command line
-(but in this case you have to be careful with quotes
-if the prompt string contains a space; otherwise you may confuse the shell.)
-The default prompts are "> " and ">> ".
+evaluates and displays
+the values of the expressions in the remainder of the line.
+.LP
+At the very start,
+before even handling the command line,
+.B lua
+checks the contents of the environment variables
+.B LUA_INIT_5_2
+or
+.BR LUA_INIT ,
+in that order.
+If the contents is of the form
+.RI '@ filename ',
+then
+.I filename
+is executed.
+Otherwise, the string is assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
.SH OPTIONS
.TP
-.B \-
-load and execute the standard input as a file,
-that is,
-not interactively,
-even when the standard input is a terminal.
-.TP
.BI \-e " stat"
execute statement
.IR stat .
-You need to quote
-.I stat
-if it contains spaces, quotes,
-or other characters special to the shell.
.TP
.B \-i
-enter interactive mode after
-.I script
-is executed.
+enter interactive mode after executing
+.IR script .
.TP
.BI \-l " name"
-call
-.BI require(' name ')
+execute the equivalent of
+.IB name =require(' name ')
before executing
.IR script .
-Typically used to load libraries.
.TP
.B \-v
show version information.
+.TP
+.B \-E
+ignore environment variables.
+.TP
+.B \-\-
+stop handling options.
+.TP
+.B \-
+stop handling options and execute the standard input as a file.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.BR luac (1)
.br
-http://www.lua.org/
+The documentation at lua.org,
+especially section 7 of the reference manual.
.SH DIAGNOSTICS
Error messages should be self explanatory.
.SH AUTHORS
R. Ierusalimschy,
L. H. de Figueiredo,
-and
W. Celes
.\" EOF
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/lua.css b/com32/lua/doc/lua.css
index 039cf116..240e85eb 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/lua.css
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/lua.css
@@ -1,17 +1,37 @@
body {
color: #000000 ;
background-color: #FFFFFF ;
- font-family: sans-serif ;
+ font-family: Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif ;
text-align: justify ;
- margin-right: 20px ;
- margin-left: 20px ;
+ margin-right: 30px ;
+ margin-left: 30px ;
}
h1, h2, h3, h4 {
+ font-family: Verdana, Geneva, sans-serif ;
font-weight: normal ;
font-style: italic ;
}
+h2 {
+ padding-top: 0.4em ;
+ padding-bottom: 0.4em ;
+ padding-left: 1em ;
+ padding-right: 1em ;
+ background-color: #E0E0FF ;
+ border-radius: 8px ;
+}
+
+h3 {
+ padding-left: 0.5em ;
+ border-left: solid #E0E0FF 1em ;
+}
+
+table h3 {
+ padding-left: 0px ;
+ border-left: none ;
+}
+
a:link {
color: #000080 ;
background-color: inherit ;
@@ -39,3 +59,25 @@ hr {
background-color: #a0a0a0 ;
}
+:target {
+ background-color: #F8F8F8 ;
+ padding: 8px ;
+ border: solid #a0a0a0 2px ;
+}
+
+.footer {
+ color: gray ;
+ font-size: small ;
+}
+
+input[type=text] {
+ border: solid #a0a0a0 2px ;
+ border-radius: 2em ;
+ -moz-border-radius: 2em ;
+ background-image: url('images/search.png') ;
+ background-repeat: no-repeat;
+ background-position: 4px center ;
+ padding-left: 20px ;
+ height: 2em ;
+}
+
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/lua.html b/com32/lua/doc/lua.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 1d435ab0..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/doc/lua.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,172 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: lua.man,v 1.11 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $ -->
-<HTML>
-<HEAD>
-<TITLE>LUA man page</TITLE>
-<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
-</HEAD>
-
-<BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF">
-
-<H2>NAME</H2>
-lua - Lua interpreter
-<H2>SYNOPSIS</H2>
-<B>lua</B>
-[
-<I>options</I>
-]
-[
-<I>script</I>
-[
-<I>args</I>
-]
-]
-<H2>DESCRIPTION</H2>
-<B>lua</B>
-is the stand-alone Lua interpreter.
-It loads and executes Lua programs,
-either in textual source form or
-in precompiled binary form.
-(Precompiled binaries are output by
-<B>luac</B>,
-the Lua compiler.)
-<B>lua</B>
-can be used as a batch interpreter and also interactively.
-<P>
-The given
-<I>options</I>
-(see below)
-are executed and then
-the Lua program in file
-<I>script</I>
-is loaded and executed.
-The given
-<I>args</I>
-are available to
-<I>script</I>
-as strings in a global table named
-<B>arg</B>.
-If these arguments contain spaces or other characters special to the shell,
-then they should be quoted
-(but note that the quotes will be removed by the shell).
-The arguments in
-<B>arg</B>
-start at 0,
-which contains the string
-'<I>script</I>'.
-The index of the last argument is stored in
-<B>arg.n</B>.
-The arguments given in the command line before
-<I>script</I>,
-including the name of the interpreter,
-are available in negative indices in
-<B>arg</B>.
-<P>
-At the very start,
-before even handling the command line,
-<B>lua</B>
-executes the contents of the environment variable
-<B>LUA_INIT</B>,
-if it is defined.
-If the value of
-<B>LUA_INIT</B>
-is of the form
-'@<I>filename</I>',
-then
-<I>filename</I>
-is executed.
-Otherwise, the string is assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
-<P>
-Options start with
-<B>'-'</B>
-and are described below.
-You can use
-<B>'--'</B>
-to signal the end of options.
-<P>
-If no arguments are given,
-then
-<B>"-v -i"</B>
-is assumed when the standard input is a terminal;
-otherwise,
-<B>"-"</B>
-is assumed.
-<P>
-In interactive mode,
-<B>lua</B>
-prompts the user,
-reads lines from the standard input,
-and executes them as they are read.
-If a line does not contain a complete statement,
-then a secondary prompt is displayed and
-lines are read until a complete statement is formed or
-a syntax error is found.
-So, one way to interrupt the reading of an incomplete statement is
-to force a syntax error:
-adding a
-<B>';'</B>
-in the middle of a statement is a sure way of forcing a syntax error
-(except inside multiline strings and comments; these must be closed explicitly).
-If a line starts with
-<B>'='</B>,
-then
-<B>lua</B>
-displays the values of all the expressions in the remainder of the
-line. The expressions must be separated by commas.
-The primary prompt is the value of the global variable
-<B>_PROMPT</B>,
-if this value is a string;
-otherwise, the default prompt is used.
-Similarly, the secondary prompt is the value of the global variable
-<B>_PROMPT2</B>.
-So,
-to change the prompts,
-set the corresponding variable to a string of your choice.
-You can do that after calling the interpreter
-or on the command line
-(but in this case you have to be careful with quotes
-if the prompt string contains a space; otherwise you may confuse the shell.)
-The default prompts are "&gt; " and "&gt;&gt; ".
-<H2>OPTIONS</H2>
-<P>
-<B>-</B>
-load and execute the standard input as a file,
-that is,
-not interactively,
-even when the standard input is a terminal.
-<P>
-<B>-e </B><I>stat</I>
-execute statement
-<I>stat</I>.
-You need to quote
-<I>stat </I>
-if it contains spaces, quotes,
-or other characters special to the shell.
-<P>
-<B>-i</B>
-enter interactive mode after
-<I>script</I>
-is executed.
-<P>
-<B>-l </B><I>name</I>
-call
-<B>require</B>('<I>name</I>')
-before executing
-<I>script</I>.
-Typically used to load libraries.
-<P>
-<B>-v</B>
-show version information.
-<H2>SEE ALSO</H2>
-<B>luac</B>(1)
-<BR>
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/">http://www.lua.org/</A>
-<H2>DIAGNOSTICS</H2>
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
-<H2>AUTHORS</H2>
-R. Ierusalimschy,
-L. H. de Figueiredo,
-and
-W. Celes
-<!-- EOF -->
-</BODY>
-</HTML>
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/luac.1 b/com32/lua/doc/luac.1
index d8146782..33a4ed00 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/luac.1
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/luac.1
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.\" $Id: luac.man,v 1.28 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $
-.TH LUAC 1 "$Date: 2006/01/06 16:03:34 $"
+.\" $Id: luac.man,v 1.29 2011/11/16 13:53:40 lhf Exp $
+.TH LUAC 1 "$Date: 2011/11/16 13:53:40 $"
.SH NAME
luac \- Lua compiler
.SH SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,29 +13,29 @@ luac \- Lua compiler
.B luac
is the Lua compiler.
It translates programs written in the Lua programming language
-into binary files that can be later loaded and executed.
+into binary files containing precompiled chunks
+that can be later loaded and executed.
.LP
The main advantages of precompiling chunks are:
faster loading,
protecting source code from accidental user changes,
and
off-line syntax checking.
-.LP
-Pre-compiling does not imply faster execution
+Precompiling does not imply faster execution
because in Lua chunks are always compiled into bytecodes before being executed.
.B luac
simply allows those bytecodes to be saved in a file for later execution.
+Precompiled chunks are not necessarily smaller than the corresponding source.
+The main goal in precompiling is faster loading.
.LP
-Pre-compiled chunks are not necessarily smaller than the corresponding source.
-The main goal in pre-compiling is faster loading.
-.LP
-The binary files created by
-.B luac
-are portable only among architectures with the same word size and byte order.
-.LP
+In the command line,
+you can mix
+text files containing Lua source and
+binary files containing precompiled chunks.
.B luac
-produces a single output file containing the bytecodes
-for all source files given.
+produces a single output file containing the combined bytecodes
+for all files given.
+Executing the combined file is equivalent to executing the given files.
By default,
the output file is named
.BR luac.out ,
@@ -43,32 +43,15 @@ but you can change this with the
.B \-o
option.
.LP
-In the command line,
-you can mix
-text files containing Lua source and
-binary files containing precompiled chunks.
-This is useful to combine several precompiled chunks,
-even from different (but compatible) platforms,
-into a single precompiled chunk.
-.LP
-You can use
-.B "'\-'"
-to indicate the standard input as a source file
-and
-.B "'\--'"
-to signal the end of options
-(that is,
-all remaining arguments will be treated as files even if they start with
-.BR "'\-'" ).
-.LP
-The internal format of the binary files produced by
-.B luac
+Precompiled chunks are
+.I not
+portable across different architectures.
+Moreover,
+the internal format of precompiled chunks
is likely to change when a new version of Lua is released.
-So,
-save the source files of all Lua programs that you precompile.
+Make sure you save the source files of all Lua programs that you precompile.
.LP
.SH OPTIONS
-Options must be separate.
.TP
.B \-l
produce a listing of the compiled bytecode for Lua's virtual machine.
@@ -78,6 +61,9 @@ If no files are given, then
loads
.B luac.out
and lists its contents.
+Use
+.B \-l \-l
+for a full listing.
.TP
.BI \-o " file"
output to
@@ -88,7 +74,7 @@ instead of the default
.B "'\-'"
for standard output,
but not on platforms that open standard output in text mode.)
-The output file may be a source file because
+The output file may be one of the given files because
all files are loaded before the output file is written.
Be careful not to overwrite precious files.
.TP
@@ -96,41 +82,37 @@ Be careful not to overwrite precious files.
load files but do not generate any output file.
Used mainly for syntax checking and for testing precompiled chunks:
corrupted files will probably generate errors when loaded.
-Lua always performs a thorough integrity test on precompiled chunks.
-Bytecode that passes this test is completely safe,
-in the sense that it will not break the interpreter.
-However,
-there is no guarantee that such code does anything sensible.
-(None can be given, because the halting problem is unsolvable.)
If no files are given, then
.B luac
loads
.B luac.out
and tests its contents.
-No messages are displayed if the file passes the integrity test.
+No messages are displayed if the file loads without errors.
.TP
.B \-s
strip debug information before writing the output file.
This saves some space in very large chunks,
but if errors occur when running a stripped chunk,
then the error messages may not contain the full information they usually do.
-For instance,
+In particular,
line numbers and names of local variables are lost.
.TP
.B \-v
show version information.
-.SH FILES
-.TP 15
-.B luac.out
-default output file
+.TP
+.B \-\-
+stop handling options.
+.TP
+.B \-
+stop handling options and process standard input.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.BR lua (1)
.br
-http://www.lua.org/
+The documentation at lua.org.
.SH DIAGNOSTICS
Error messages should be self explanatory.
.SH AUTHORS
+R. Ierusalimschy,
L. H. de Figueiredo,
-R. Ierusalimschy and
W. Celes
.\" EOF
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/luac.html b/com32/lua/doc/luac.html
deleted file mode 100644
index 179ffe82..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/doc/luac.html
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,145 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: luac.man,v 1.28 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $ -->
-<HTML>
-<HEAD>
-<TITLE>LUAC man page</TITLE>
-<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
-</HEAD>
-
-<BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF">
-
-<H2>NAME</H2>
-luac - Lua compiler
-<H2>SYNOPSIS</H2>
-<B>luac</B>
-[
-<I>options</I>
-] [
-<I>filenames</I>
-]
-<H2>DESCRIPTION</H2>
-<B>luac</B>
-is the Lua compiler.
-It translates programs written in the Lua programming language
-into binary files that can be later loaded and executed.
-<P>
-The main advantages of precompiling chunks are:
-faster loading,
-protecting source code from accidental user changes,
-and
-off-line syntax checking.
-<P>
-Precompiling does not imply faster execution
-because in Lua chunks are always compiled into bytecodes before being executed.
-<B>luac</B>
-simply allows those bytecodes to be saved in a file for later execution.
-<P>
-Precompiled chunks are not necessarily smaller than the corresponding source.
-The main goal in precompiling is faster loading.
-<P>
-The binary files created by
-<B>luac</B>
-are portable only among architectures with the same word size and byte order.
-<P>
-<B>luac</B>
-produces a single output file containing the bytecodes
-for all source files given.
-By default,
-the output file is named
-<B>luac.out</B>,
-but you can change this with the
-<B>-o</B>
-option.
-<P>
-In the command line,
-you can mix
-text files containing Lua source and
-binary files containing precompiled chunks.
-This is useful because several precompiled chunks,
-even from different (but compatible) platforms,
-can be combined into a single precompiled chunk.
-<P>
-You can use
-<B>'-'</B>
-to indicate the standard input as a source file
-and
-<B>'--'</B>
-to signal the end of options
-(that is,
-all remaining arguments will be treated as files even if they start with
-<B>'-'</B>).
-<P>
-The internal format of the binary files produced by
-<B>luac</B>
-is likely to change when a new version of Lua is released.
-So,
-save the source files of all Lua programs that you precompile.
-<P>
-<H2>OPTIONS</H2>
-Options must be separate.
-<P>
-<B>-l</B>
-produce a listing of the compiled bytecode for Lua's virtual machine.
-Listing bytecodes is useful to learn about Lua's virtual machine.
-If no files are given, then
-<B>luac</B>
-loads
-<B>luac.out</B>
-and lists its contents.
-<P>
-<B>-o </B><I>file</I>
-output to
-<I>file</I>,
-instead of the default
-<B>luac.out</B>.
-(You can use
-<B>'-'</B>
-for standard output,
-but not on platforms that open standard output in text mode.)
-The output file may be a source file because
-all files are loaded before the output file is written.
-Be careful not to overwrite precious files.
-<P>
-<B>-p</B>
-load files but do not generate any output file.
-Used mainly for syntax checking and for testing precompiled chunks:
-corrupted files will probably generate errors when loaded.
-Lua always performs a thorough integrity test on precompiled chunks.
-Bytecode that passes this test is completely safe,
-in the sense that it will not break the interpreter.
-However,
-there is no guarantee that such code does anything sensible.
-(None can be given, because the halting problem is unsolvable.)
-If no files are given, then
-<B>luac</B>
-loads
-<B>luac.out</B>
-and tests its contents.
-No messages are displayed if the file passes the integrity test.
-<P>
-<B>-s</B>
-strip debug information before writing the output file.
-This saves some space in very large chunks,
-but if errors occur when running a stripped chunk,
-then the error messages may not contain the full information they usually do.
-For instance,
-line numbers and names of local variables are lost.
-<P>
-<B>-v</B>
-show version information.
-<H2>FILES</H2>
-<P>
-<B>luac.out</B>
-default output file
-<H2>SEE ALSO</H2>
-<B>lua</B>(1)
-<BR>
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/">http://www.lua.org/</A>
-<H2>DIAGNOSTICS</H2>
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
-<H2>AUTHORS</H2>
-L. H. de Figueiredo,
-R. Ierusalimschy and
-W. Celes
-<!-- EOF -->
-</BODY>
-</HTML>
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/manual.css b/com32/lua/doc/manual.css
index eed5afd9..269bd435 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/manual.css
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/manual.css
@@ -1,13 +1,26 @@
h3 code {
font-family: inherit ;
+ font-size: inherit ;
}
-pre {
- font-size: 105% ;
+pre, code {
+ font-size: 12pt ;
}
span.apii {
float: right ;
font-family: inherit ;
+ font-style: normal ;
+ font-size: small ;
+ color: gray ;
+}
+
+p+h1, ul+h1 {
+ padding-top: 0.4em ;
+ padding-bottom: 0.4em ;
+ padding-left: 24px ;
+ margin-left: -24px ;
+ background-color: #E0E0FF ;
+ border-radius: 8px ;
}
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/manual.html b/com32/lua/doc/manual.html
index f46f17c8..85365363 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/manual.html
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/manual.html
@@ -2,7 +2,7 @@
<html>
<head>
-<title>Lua 5.1 Reference Manual</title>
+<title>Lua 5.2 Reference Manual</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="lua.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="manual.css">
<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
@@ -13,15 +13,15 @@
<hr>
<h1>
<a href="http://www.lua.org/"><img src="logo.gif" alt="" border="0"></a>
-Lua 5.1 Reference Manual
+Lua 5.2 Reference Manual
</h1>
by Roberto Ierusalimschy, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo, Waldemar Celes
<p>
<small>
-Copyright &copy; 2006-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
+Copyright &copy; 2011&ndash;2013 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
Freely available under the terms of the
-<a href="http://www.lua.org/license.html#5">Lua license</a>.
+<a href="http://www.lua.org/license.html">Lua license</a>.
</small>
<hr>
<p>
@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<!-- ====================================================================== -->
<p>
-<!-- $Id: manual.of,v 1.48 2008/08/18 15:24:20 roberto Exp $ -->
+<!-- $Id: manual.of,v 1.103 2013/03/14 18:51:56 roberto Exp $ -->
-<h1>1 - <a name="1">Introduction</a></h1>
+<h1>1 &ndash; <a name="1">Introduction</a></h1>
<p>
Lua is an extension programming language designed to support
@@ -46,24 +46,25 @@ general procedural programming with data description
facilities.
It also offers good support for object-oriented programming,
functional programming, and data-driven programming.
-Lua is intended to be used as a powerful, light-weight
-scripting language for any program that needs one.
-Lua is implemented as a library, written in <em>clean</em> C
-(that is, in the common subset of ANSI&nbsp;C and C++).
+Lua is intended to be used as a powerful, lightweight,
+embeddable scripting language for any program that needs one.
+Lua is implemented as a library, written in <em>clean C</em>,
+the common subset of Standard&nbsp;C and C++.
<p>
Being an extension language, Lua has no notion of a "main" program:
it only works <em>embedded</em> in a host client,
called the <em>embedding program</em> or simply the <em>host</em>.
-This host program can invoke functions to execute a piece of Lua code,
+The host program can invoke functions to execute a piece of Lua code,
can write and read Lua variables,
and can register C&nbsp;functions to be called by Lua code.
Through the use of C&nbsp;functions, Lua can be augmented to cope with
a wide range of different domains,
thus creating customized programming languages sharing a syntactical framework.
The Lua distribution includes a sample host program called <code>lua</code>,
-which uses the Lua library to offer a complete, stand-alone Lua interpreter.
+which uses the Lua library to offer a complete, standalone Lua interpreter,
+for interactive or batch use.
<p>
@@ -80,11 +81,1047 @@ this document is dry in places.
For a discussion of the decisions behind the design of Lua,
see the technical papers available at Lua's web site.
For a detailed introduction to programming in Lua,
-see Roberto's book, <em>Programming in Lua (Second Edition)</em>.
+see Roberto's book, <em>Programming in Lua</em>.
-<h1>2 - <a name="2">The Language</a></h1>
+<h1>2 &ndash; <a name="2">Basic Concepts</a></h1>
+
+<p>
+This section describes the basic concepts of the language.
+
+
+
+<h2>2.1 &ndash; <a name="2.1">Values and Types</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Lua is a <em>dynamically typed language</em>.
+This means that
+variables do not have types; only values do.
+There are no type definitions in the language.
+All values carry their own type.
+
+
+<p>
+All values in Lua are <em>first-class values</em>.
+This means that all values can be stored in variables,
+passed as arguments to other functions, and returned as results.
+
+
+<p>
+There are eight basic types in Lua:
+<em>nil</em>, <em>boolean</em>, <em>number</em>,
+<em>string</em>, <em>function</em>, <em>userdata</em>,
+<em>thread</em>, and <em>table</em>.
+<em>Nil</em> is the type of the value <b>nil</b>,
+whose main property is to be different from any other value;
+it usually represents the absence of a useful value.
+<em>Boolean</em> is the type of the values <b>false</b> and <b>true</b>.
+Both <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> make a condition false;
+any other value makes it true.
+<em>Number</em> represents real (double-precision floating-point) numbers.
+Operations on numbers follow the same rules of
+the underlying C&nbsp;implementation,
+which, in turn, usually follows the IEEE 754 standard.
+(It is easy to build Lua interpreters that use other
+internal representations for numbers,
+such as single-precision floats or long integers;
+see file <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+<em>String</em> represents immutable sequences of bytes.
+
+Lua is 8-bit clean:
+strings can contain any 8-bit value,
+including embedded zeros ('<code>\0</code>').
+
+
+<p>
+Lua can call (and manipulate) functions written in Lua and
+functions written in C
+(see <a href="#3.4.9">&sect;3.4.9</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+The type <em>userdata</em> is provided to allow arbitrary C&nbsp;data to
+be stored in Lua variables.
+A userdata value is a pointer to a block of raw memory.
+There are two kinds of userdata:
+full userdata, where the block of memory is managed by Lua,
+and light userdata, where the block of memory is managed by the host.
+Userdata has no predefined operations in Lua,
+except assignment and identity test.
+By using <em>metatables</em>,
+the programmer can define operations for full userdata values
+(see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
+Userdata values cannot be created or modified in Lua,
+only through the C&nbsp;API.
+This guarantees the integrity of data owned by the host program.
+
+
+<p>
+The type <em>thread</em> represents independent threads of execution
+and it is used to implement coroutines (see <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a>).
+Do not confuse Lua threads with operating-system threads.
+Lua supports coroutines on all systems,
+even those that do not support threads.
+
+
+<p>
+The type <em>table</em> implements associative arrays,
+that is, arrays that can be indexed not only with numbers,
+but with any Lua value except <b>nil</b> and NaN
+(<em>Not a Number</em>, a special numeric value used to represent
+undefined or unrepresentable results, such as <code>0/0</code>).
+Tables can be <em>heterogeneous</em>;
+that is, they can contain values of all types (except <b>nil</b>).
+Any key with value <b>nil</b> is not considered part of the table.
+Conversely, any key that is not part of a table has
+an associated value <b>nil</b>.
+
+
+<p>
+Tables are the sole data structuring mechanism in Lua;
+they can be used to represent ordinary arrays, sequences,
+symbol tables, sets, records, graphs, trees, etc.
+To represent records, Lua uses the field name as an index.
+The language supports this representation by
+providing <code>a.name</code> as syntactic sugar for <code>a["name"]</code>.
+There are several convenient ways to create tables in Lua
+(see <a href="#3.4.8">&sect;3.4.8</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+We use the term <em>sequence</em> to denote a table where
+the set of all positive numeric keys is equal to <em>{1..n}</em>
+for some integer <em>n</em>,
+which is called the length of the sequence (see <a href="#3.4.6">&sect;3.4.6</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+Like indices,
+the values of table fields can be of any type.
+In particular,
+because functions are first-class values,
+table fields can contain functions.
+Thus tables can also carry <em>methods</em> (see <a href="#3.4.10">&sect;3.4.10</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+The indexing of tables follows
+the definition of raw equality in the language.
+The expressions <code>a[i]</code> and <code>a[j]</code>
+denote the same table element
+if and only if <code>i</code> and <code>j</code> are raw equal
+(that is, equal without metamethods).
+
+
+<p>
+Tables, functions, threads, and (full) userdata values are <em>objects</em>:
+variables do not actually <em>contain</em> these values,
+only <em>references</em> to them.
+Assignment, parameter passing, and function returns
+always manipulate references to such values;
+these operations do not imply any kind of copy.
+
+
+<p>
+The library function <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a> returns a string describing the type
+of a given value (see <a href="#6.1">&sect;6.1</a>).
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>2.2 &ndash; <a name="2.2">Environments and the Global Environment</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+As will be discussed in <a href="#3.2">&sect;3.2</a> and <a href="#3.3.3">&sect;3.3.3</a>,
+any reference to a global name <code>var</code> is syntactically translated
+to <code>_ENV.var</code>.
+Moreover, every chunk is compiled in the scope of
+an external local variable called <code>_ENV</code> (see <a href="#3.3.2">&sect;3.3.2</a>),
+so <code>_ENV</code> itself is never a global name in a chunk.
+
+
+<p>
+Despite the existence of this external <code>_ENV</code> variable and
+the translation of global names,
+<code>_ENV</code> is a completely regular name.
+In particular,
+you can define new variables and parameters with that name.
+Each reference to a global name uses the <code>_ENV</code> that is
+visible at that point in the program,
+following the usual visibility rules of Lua (see <a href="#3.5">&sect;3.5</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+Any table used as the value of <code>_ENV</code> is called an <em>environment</em>.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua keeps a distinguished environment called the <em>global environment</em>.
+This value is kept at a special index in the C registry (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
+In Lua, the variable <a href="#pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a> is initialized with this same value.
+
+
+<p>
+When Lua compiles a chunk,
+it initializes the value of its <code>_ENV</code> upvalue
+with the global environment (see <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>).
+Therefore, by default,
+global variables in Lua code refer to entries in the global environment.
+Moreover, all standard libraries are loaded in the global environment
+and several functions there operate on that environment.
+You can use <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a> (or <a href="#pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile</code></a>)
+to load a chunk with a different environment.
+(In C, you have to load the chunk and then change the value
+of its first upvalue.)
+
+
+<p>
+If you change the global environment in the registry
+(through C code or the debug library),
+all chunks loaded after the change will get the new environment.
+Previously loaded chunks are not affected, however,
+as each has its own reference to the environment in its <code>_ENV</code> variable.
+Moreover, the variable <a href="#pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a>
+(which is stored in the original global environment)
+is never updated by Lua.
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>2.3 &ndash; <a name="2.3">Error Handling</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Because Lua is an embedded extension language,
+all Lua actions start from C&nbsp;code in the host program
+calling a function from the Lua library (see <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>).
+Whenever an error occurs during
+the compilation or execution of a Lua chunk,
+control returns to the host,
+which can take appropriate measures
+(such as printing an error message).
+
+
+<p>
+Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the
+<a href="#pdf-error"><code>error</code></a> function.
+If you need to catch errors in Lua,
+you can use <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a> or <a href="#pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall</code></a>
+to call a given function in <em>protected mode</em>.
+
+
+<p>
+Whenever there is an error,
+an <em>error object</em> (also called an <em>error message</em>)
+is propagated with information about the error.
+Lua itself only generates errors where the error object is a string,
+but programs may generate errors with
+any value for the error object.
+
+
+<p>
+When you use <a href="#pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall</code></a> or <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
+you may give a <em>message handler</em>
+to be called in case of errors.
+This function is called with the original error message
+and returns a new error message.
+It is called before the error unwinds the stack,
+so that it can gather more information about the error,
+for instance by inspecting the stack and creating a stack traceback.
+This message handler is still protected by the protected call;
+so, an error inside the message handler
+will call the message handler again.
+If this loop goes on, Lua breaks it and returns an appropriate message.
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>2.4 &ndash; <a name="2.4">Metatables and Metamethods</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Every value in Lua can have a <em>metatable</em>.
+This <em>metatable</em> is an ordinary Lua table
+that defines the behavior of the original value
+under certain special operations.
+You can change several aspects of the behavior
+of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable.
+For instance, when a non-numeric value is the operand of an addition,
+Lua checks for a function in the field "<code>__add</code>" of the value's metatable.
+If it finds one,
+Lua calls this function to perform the addition.
+
+
+<p>
+The keys in a metatable are derived from the <em>event</em> names;
+the corresponding values are called <em>metamethods</em>.
+In the previous example, the event is <code>"add"</code>
+and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition.
+
+
+<p>
+You can query the metatable of any value
+using the <a href="#pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable</code></a> function.
+
+
+<p>
+You can replace the metatable of tables
+using the <a href="#pdf-setmetatable"><code>setmetatable</code></a> function.
+You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua
+(except by using the debug library);
+you must use the C&nbsp;API for that.
+
+
+<p>
+Tables and full userdata have individual metatables
+(although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables).
+Values of all other types share one single metatable per type;
+that is, there is one single metatable for all numbers,
+one for all strings, etc.
+By default, a value has no metatable,
+but the string library sets a metatable for the string type (see <a href="#6.4">&sect;6.4</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+A metatable controls how an object behaves in arithmetic operations,
+order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, and indexing.
+A metatable also can define a function to be called
+when a userdata or a table is garbage collected.
+When Lua performs one of these operations over a value,
+it checks whether this value has a metatable with the corresponding event.
+If so, the value associated with that key (the metamethod)
+controls how Lua will perform the operation.
+
+
+<p>
+Metatables control the operations listed next.
+Each operation is identified by its corresponding name.
+The key for each operation is a string with its name prefixed by
+two underscores, '<code>__</code>';
+for instance, the key for operation "add" is the
+string "<code>__add</code>".
+
+
+<p>
+The semantics of these operations is better explained by a Lua function
+describing how the interpreter executes the operation.
+The code shown here in Lua is only illustrative;
+the real behavior is hard coded in the interpreter
+and it is much more efficient than this simulation.
+All functions used in these descriptions
+(<a href="#pdf-rawget"><code>rawget</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-tonumber"><code>tonumber</code></a>, etc.)
+are described in <a href="#6.1">&sect;6.1</a>.
+In particular, to retrieve the metamethod of a given object,
+we use the expression
+
+<pre>
+ metatable(obj)[event]
+</pre><p>
+This should be read as
+
+<pre>
+ rawget(getmetatable(obj) or {}, event)
+</pre><p>
+This means that the access to a metamethod does not invoke other metamethods,
+and access to objects with no metatables does not fail
+(it simply results in <b>nil</b>).
+
+
+<p>
+For the unary <code>-</code> and <code>#</code> operators,
+the metamethod is called with a dummy second argument.
+This extra argument is only to simplify Lua's internals;
+it may be removed in future versions and therefore it is not present
+in the following code.
+(For most uses this extra argument is irrelevant.)
+
+
+
+<ul>
+
+<li><b>"add": </b>
+the <code>+</code> operation.
+
+
+
+<p>
+The function <code>getbinhandler</code> below defines how Lua chooses a handler
+for a binary operation.
+First, Lua tries the first operand.
+If its type does not define a handler for the operation,
+then Lua tries the second operand.
+
+<pre>
+ function getbinhandler (op1, op2, event)
+ return metatable(op1)[event] or metatable(op2)[event]
+ end
+</pre><p>
+By using this function,
+the behavior of the <code>op1 + op2</code> is
+
+<pre>
+ function add_event (op1, op2)
+ local o1, o2 = tonumber(op1), tonumber(op2)
+ if o1 and o2 then -- both operands are numeric?
+ return o1 + o2 -- '+' here is the primitive 'add'
+ else -- at least one of the operands is not numeric
+ local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__add")
+ if h then
+ -- call the handler with both operands
+ return (h(op1, op2))
+ else -- no handler available: default behavior
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"sub": </b>
+the <code>-</code> operation.
+
+Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"mul": </b>
+the <code>*</code> operation.
+
+Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"div": </b>
+the <code>/</code> operation.
+
+Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"mod": </b>
+the <code>%</code> operation.
+
+Behavior similar to the "add" operation,
+with the operation
+<code>o1 - floor(o1/o2)*o2</code> as the primitive operation.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"pow": </b>
+the <code>^</code> (exponentiation) operation.
+
+Behavior similar to the "add" operation,
+with the function <code>pow</code> (from the C&nbsp;math library)
+as the primitive operation.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"unm": </b>
+the unary <code>-</code> operation.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function unm_event (op)
+ local o = tonumber(op)
+ if o then -- operand is numeric?
+ return -o -- '-' here is the primitive 'unm'
+ else -- the operand is not numeric.
+ -- Try to get a handler from the operand
+ local h = metatable(op).__unm
+ if h then
+ -- call the handler with the operand
+ return (h(op))
+ else -- no handler available: default behavior
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"concat": </b>
+the <code>..</code> (concatenation) operation.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function concat_event (op1, op2)
+ if (type(op1) == "string" or type(op1) == "number") and
+ (type(op2) == "string" or type(op2) == "number") then
+ return op1 .. op2 -- primitive string concatenation
+ else
+ local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__concat")
+ if h then
+ return (h(op1, op2))
+ else
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"len": </b>
+the <code>#</code> operation.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function len_event (op)
+ if type(op) == "string" then
+ return strlen(op) -- primitive string length
+ else
+ local h = metatable(op).__len
+ if h then
+ return (h(op)) -- call handler with the operand
+ elseif type(op) == "table" then
+ return #op -- primitive table length
+ else -- no handler available: error
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+See <a href="#3.4.6">&sect;3.4.6</a> for a description of the length of a table.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"eq": </b>
+the <code>==</code> operation.
+
+The function <code>getequalhandler</code> defines how Lua chooses a metamethod
+for equality.
+A metamethod is selected only when both values
+being compared have the same type
+and the same metamethod for the selected operation,
+and the values are either tables or full userdata.
+
+<pre>
+ function getequalhandler (op1, op2)
+ if type(op1) ~= type(op2) or
+ (type(op1) ~= "table" and type(op1) ~= "userdata") then
+ return nil -- different values
+ end
+ local mm1 = metatable(op1).__eq
+ local mm2 = metatable(op2).__eq
+ if mm1 == mm2 then return mm1 else return nil end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+The "eq" event is defined as follows:
+
+<pre>
+ function eq_event (op1, op2)
+ if op1 == op2 then -- primitive equal?
+ return true -- values are equal
+ end
+ -- try metamethod
+ local h = getequalhandler(op1, op2)
+ if h then
+ return not not h(op1, op2)
+ else
+ return false
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+Note that the result is always a boolean.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"lt": </b>
+the <code>&lt;</code> operation.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function lt_event (op1, op2)
+ if type(op1) == "number" and type(op2) == "number" then
+ return op1 &lt; op2 -- numeric comparison
+ elseif type(op1) == "string" and type(op2) == "string" then
+ return op1 &lt; op2 -- lexicographic comparison
+ else
+ local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__lt")
+ if h then
+ return not not h(op1, op2)
+ else
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+Note that the result is always a boolean.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"le": </b>
+the <code>&lt;=</code> operation.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function le_event (op1, op2)
+ if type(op1) == "number" and type(op2) == "number" then
+ return op1 &lt;= op2 -- numeric comparison
+ elseif type(op1) == "string" and type(op2) == "string" then
+ return op1 &lt;= op2 -- lexicographic comparison
+ else
+ local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__le")
+ if h then
+ return not not h(op1, op2)
+ else
+ h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__lt")
+ if h then
+ return not h(op2, op1)
+ else
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+Note that, in the absence of a "le" metamethod,
+Lua tries the "lt", assuming that <code>a &lt;= b</code> is
+equivalent to <code>not (b &lt; a)</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+As with the other comparison operators,
+the result is always a boolean.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"index": </b>
+The indexing access <code>table[key]</code>.
+Note that the metamethod is tried only
+when <code>key</code> is not present in <code>table</code>.
+(When <code>table</code> is not a table,
+no key is ever present,
+so the metamethod is always tried.)
+
+
+<pre>
+ function gettable_event (table, key)
+ local h
+ if type(table) == "table" then
+ local v = rawget(table, key)
+ -- if key is present, return raw value
+ if v ~= nil then return v end
+ h = metatable(table).__index
+ if h == nil then return nil end
+ else
+ h = metatable(table).__index
+ if h == nil then
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ if type(h) == "function" then
+ return (h(table, key)) -- call the handler
+ else return h[key] -- or repeat operation on it
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"newindex": </b>
+The indexing assignment <code>table[key] = value</code>.
+Note that the metamethod is tried only
+when <code>key</code> is not present in <code>table</code>.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function settable_event (table, key, value)
+ local h
+ if type(table) == "table" then
+ local v = rawget(table, key)
+ -- if key is present, do raw assignment
+ if v ~= nil then rawset(table, key, value); return end
+ h = metatable(table).__newindex
+ if h == nil then rawset(table, key, value); return end
+ else
+ h = metatable(table).__newindex
+ if h == nil then
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ if type(h) == "function" then
+ h(table, key,value) -- call the handler
+ else h[key] = value -- or repeat operation on it
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"call": </b>
+called when Lua calls a value.
+
+
+<pre>
+ function function_event (func, ...)
+ if type(func) == "function" then
+ return func(...) -- primitive call
+ else
+ local h = metatable(func).__call
+ if h then
+ return h(func, ...)
+ else
+ error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
+ end
+ end
+ end
+</pre><p>
+</li>
+
+</ul>
+
+
+
+
+<h2>2.5 &ndash; <a name="2.5">Garbage Collection</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Lua performs automatic memory management.
+This means that
+you have to worry neither about allocating memory for new objects
+nor about freeing it when the objects are no longer needed.
+Lua manages memory automatically by running
+a <em>garbage collector</em> to collect all <em>dead objects</em>
+(that is, objects that are no longer accessible from Lua).
+All memory used by Lua is subject to automatic management:
+strings, tables, userdata, functions, threads, internal structures, etc.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua implements an incremental mark-and-sweep collector.
+It uses two numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles:
+the <em>garbage-collector pause</em> and
+the <em>garbage-collector step multiplier</em>.
+Both use percentage points as units
+(e.g., a value of 100 means an internal value of 1).
+
+
+<p>
+The garbage-collector pause
+controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle.
+Larger values make the collector less aggressive.
+Values smaller than 100 mean the collector will not wait to
+start a new cycle.
+A value of 200 means that the collector waits for the total memory in use
+to double before starting a new cycle.
+
+
+<p>
+The garbage-collector step multiplier
+controls the relative speed of the collector relative to
+memory allocation.
+Larger values make the collector more aggressive but also increase
+the size of each incremental step.
+Values smaller than 100 make the collector too slow and
+can result in the collector never finishing a cycle.
+The default is 200,
+which means that the collector runs at "twice"
+the speed of memory allocation.
+
+
+<p>
+If you set the step multiplier to a very large number
+(larger than 10% of the maximum number of
+bytes that the program may use),
+the collector behaves like a stop-the-world collector.
+If you then set the pause to 200,
+the collector behaves as in old Lua versions,
+doing a complete collection every time Lua doubles its
+memory usage.
+
+
+<p>
+You can change these numbers by calling <a href="#lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a> in C
+or <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> in Lua.
+You can also use these functions to control
+the collector directly (e.g., stop and restart it).
+
+
+<p>
+As an experimental feature in Lua 5.2,
+you can change the collector's operation mode
+from incremental to <em>generational</em>.
+A <em>generational collector</em> assumes that most objects die young,
+and therefore it traverses only young (recently created) objects.
+This behavior can reduce the time used by the collector,
+but also increases memory usage (as old dead objects may accumulate).
+To mitigate this second problem,
+from time to time the generational collector performs a full collection.
+Remember that this is an experimental feature;
+you are welcome to try it,
+but check your gains.
+
+
+
+<h3>2.5.1 &ndash; <a name="2.5.1">Garbage-Collection Metamethods</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+You can set garbage-collector metamethods for tables
+and, using the C&nbsp;API,
+for full userdata (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
+These metamethods are also called <em>finalizers</em>.
+Finalizers allow you to coordinate Lua's garbage collection
+with external resource management
+(such as closing files, network or database connections,
+or freeing your own memory).
+
+
+<p>
+For an object (table or userdata) to be finalized when collected,
+you must <em>mark</em> it for finalization.
+
+You mark an object for finalization when you set its metatable
+and the metatable has a field indexed by the string "<code>__gc</code>".
+Note that if you set a metatable without a <code>__gc</code> field
+and later create that field in the metatable,
+the object will not be marked for finalization.
+However, after an object is marked,
+you can freely change the <code>__gc</code> field of its metatable.
+
+
+<p>
+When a marked object becomes garbage,
+it is not collected immediately by the garbage collector.
+Instead, Lua puts it in a list.
+After the collection,
+Lua does the equivalent of the following function
+for each object in that list:
+
+<pre>
+ function gc_event (obj)
+ local h = metatable(obj).__gc
+ if type(h) == "function" then
+ h(obj)
+ end
+ end
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+At the end of each garbage-collection cycle,
+the finalizers for objects are called in
+the reverse order that they were marked for collection,
+among those collected in that cycle;
+that is, the first finalizer to be called is the one associated
+with the object marked last in the program.
+The execution of each finalizer may occur at any point during
+the execution of the regular code.
+
+
+<p>
+Because the object being collected must still be used by the finalizer,
+it (and other objects accessible only through it)
+must be <em>resurrected</em> by Lua.
+Usually, this resurrection is transient,
+and the object memory is freed in the next garbage-collection cycle.
+However, if the finalizer stores the object in some global place
+(e.g., a global variable),
+then there is a permanent resurrection.
+In any case,
+the object memory is freed only when it becomes completely inaccessible;
+its finalizer will never be called twice.
+
+
+<p>
+When you close a state (see <a href="#lua_close"><code>lua_close</code></a>),
+Lua calls the finalizers of all objects marked for finalization,
+following the reverse order that they were marked.
+If any finalizer marks new objects for collection during that phase,
+these new objects will not be finalized.
+
+
+
+
+
+<h3>2.5.2 &ndash; <a name="2.5.2">Weak Tables</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+A <em>weak table</em> is a table whose elements are
+<em>weak references</em>.
+A weak reference is ignored by the garbage collector.
+In other words,
+if the only references to an object are weak references,
+then the garbage collector will collect that object.
+
+
+<p>
+A weak table can have weak keys, weak values, or both.
+A table with weak keys allows the collection of its keys,
+but prevents the collection of its values.
+A table with both weak keys and weak values allows the collection of
+both keys and values.
+In any case, if either the key or the value is collected,
+the whole pair is removed from the table.
+The weakness of a table is controlled by the
+<code>__mode</code> field of its metatable.
+If the <code>__mode</code> field is a string containing the character&nbsp;'<code>k</code>',
+the keys in the table are weak.
+If <code>__mode</code> contains '<code>v</code>',
+the values in the table are weak.
+
+
+<p>
+A table with weak keys and strong values
+is also called an <em>ephemeron table</em>.
+In an ephemeron table,
+a value is considered reachable only if its key is reachable.
+In particular,
+if the only reference to a key comes through its value,
+the pair is removed.
+
+
+<p>
+Any change in the weakness of a table may take effect only
+at the next collect cycle.
+In particular, if you change the weakness to a stronger mode,
+Lua may still collect some items from that table
+before the change takes effect.
+
+
+<p>
+Only objects that have an explicit construction
+are removed from weak tables.
+Values, such as numbers and light C functions,
+are not subject to garbage collection,
+and therefore are not removed from weak tables
+(unless its associated value is collected).
+Although strings are subject to garbage collection,
+they do not have an explicit construction,
+and therefore are not removed from weak tables.
+
+
+<p>
+Resurrected objects
+(that is, objects being finalized
+and objects accessible only through objects being finalized)
+have a special behavior in weak tables.
+They are removed from weak values before running their finalizers,
+but are removed from weak keys only in the next collection
+after running their finalizers, when such objects are actually freed.
+This behavior allows the finalizer to access properties
+associated with the object through weak tables.
+
+
+<p>
+If a weak table is among the resurrected objects in a collection cycle,
+it may not be properly cleared until the next cycle.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>2.6 &ndash; <a name="2.6">Coroutines</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Lua supports coroutines,
+also called <em>collaborative multithreading</em>.
+A coroutine in Lua represents an independent thread of execution.
+Unlike threads in multithread systems, however,
+a coroutine only suspends its execution by explicitly calling
+a yield function.
+
+
+<p>
+You create a coroutine by calling <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>.
+Its sole argument is a function
+that is the main function of the coroutine.
+The <code>create</code> function only creates a new coroutine and
+returns a handle to it (an object of type <em>thread</em>);
+it does not start the coroutine.
+
+
+<p>
+You execute a coroutine by calling <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
+When you first call <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
+passing as its first argument
+a thread returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>,
+the coroutine starts its execution,
+at the first line of its main function.
+Extra arguments passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> are passed on
+to the coroutine main function.
+After the coroutine starts running,
+it runs until it terminates or <em>yields</em>.
+
+
+<p>
+A coroutine can terminate its execution in two ways:
+normally, when its main function returns
+(explicitly or implicitly, after the last instruction);
+and abnormally, if there is an unprotected error.
+In the first case, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>true</b>,
+plus any values returned by the coroutine main function.
+In case of errors, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>false</b>
+plus an error message.
+
+
+<p>
+A coroutine yields by calling <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a>.
+When a coroutine yields,
+the corresponding <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns immediately,
+even if the yield happens inside nested function calls
+(that is, not in the main function,
+but in a function directly or indirectly called by the main function).
+In the case of a yield, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> also returns <b>true</b>,
+plus any values passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a>.
+The next time you resume the same coroutine,
+it continues its execution from the point where it yielded,
+with the call to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a> returning any extra
+arguments passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
+Like <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>,
+the <a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> function also creates a coroutine,
+but instead of returning the coroutine itself,
+it returns a function that, when called, resumes the coroutine.
+Any arguments passed to this function
+go as extra arguments to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
+<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> returns all the values returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
+except the first one (the boolean error code).
+Unlike <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
+<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> does not catch errors;
+any error is propagated to the caller.
+
+
+<p>
+As an example of how coroutines work,
+consider the following code:
+
+<pre>
+ function foo (a)
+ print("foo", a)
+ return coroutine.yield(2*a)
+ end
+
+ co = coroutine.create(function (a,b)
+ print("co-body", a, b)
+ local r = foo(a+1)
+ print("co-body", r)
+ local r, s = coroutine.yield(a+b, a-b)
+ print("co-body", r, s)
+ return b, "end"
+ end)
+
+ print("main", coroutine.resume(co, 1, 10))
+ print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "r"))
+ print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "x", "y"))
+ print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "x", "y"))
+</pre><p>
+When you run it, it produces the following output:
+
+<pre>
+ co-body 1 10
+ foo 2
+ main true 4
+ co-body r
+ main true 11 -9
+ co-body x y
+ main true 10 end
+ main false cannot resume dead coroutine
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+You can also create and manipulate coroutines through the C API:
+see functions <a href="#lua_newthread"><code>lua_newthread</code></a>, <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>,
+and <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<h1>3 &ndash; <a name="3">The Language</a></h1>
<p>
This section describes the lexis, the syntax, and the semantics of Lua.
@@ -96,19 +1133,26 @@ and what their combinations mean.
<p>
-The language constructs will be explained using the usual extended BNF notation,
+Language constructs will be explained using the usual extended BNF notation,
in which
{<em>a</em>}&nbsp;means&nbsp;0 or more <em>a</em>'s, and
[<em>a</em>]&nbsp;means an optional <em>a</em>.
Non-terminals are shown like non-terminal,
keywords are shown like <b>kword</b>,
-and other terminal symbols are shown like `<b>=</b>&acute;.
-The complete syntax of Lua can be found in <a href="#8">&sect;8</a>
+and other terminal symbols are shown like &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo;.
+The complete syntax of Lua can be found in <a href="#9">&sect;9</a>
at the end of this manual.
-<h2>2.1 - <a name="2.1">Lexical Conventions</a></h2>
+<h2>3.1 &ndash; <a name="3.1">Lexical Conventions</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Lua is a free-form language.
+It ignores spaces (including new lines) and comments
+between lexical elements (tokens),
+except as delimiters between names and keywords.
+
<p>
<em>Names</em>
@@ -116,11 +1160,7 @@ at the end of this manual.
in Lua can be any string of letters,
digits, and underscores,
not beginning with a digit.
-This coincides with the definition of names in most languages.
-(The definition of letter depends on the current locale:
-any character considered alphabetic by the current locale
-can be used in an identifier.)
-Identifiers are used to name variables and table fields.
+Identifiers are used to name variables, table fields, and labels.
<p>
@@ -129,10 +1169,10 @@ and cannot be used as names:
<pre>
- and break do else elseif
- end false for function if
- in local nil not or
- repeat return then true until while
+ and break do else elseif end
+ false for function goto if in
+ local nil not or repeat return
+ then true until while
</pre>
<p>
@@ -141,7 +1181,7 @@ Lua is a case-sensitive language:
are two different, valid names.
As a convention, names starting with an underscore followed by
uppercase letters (such as <a href="#pdf-_VERSION"><code>_VERSION</code></a>)
-are reserved for internal global variables used by Lua.
+are reserved for variables used by Lua.
<p>
@@ -150,7 +1190,7 @@ The following strings denote other tokens:
<pre>
+ - * / % ^ #
== ~= &lt;= &gt;= &lt; &gt; =
- ( ) { } [ ]
+ ( ) { } [ ] ::
; : , . .. ...
</pre>
@@ -168,12 +1208,23 @@ and can contain the following C-like escape sequences:
'<code>\\</code>' (backslash),
'<code>\"</code>' (quotation mark [double quote]),
and '<code>\'</code>' (apostrophe [single quote]).
-Moreover, a backslash followed by a real newline
+A backslash followed by a real newline
results in a newline in the string.
-A character in a string can also be specified by its numerical value
-using the escape sequence <code>\<em>ddd</em></code>,
+The escape sequence '<code>\z</code>' skips the following span
+of white-space characters,
+including line breaks;
+it is particularly useful to break and indent a long literal string
+into multiple lines without adding the newlines and spaces
+into the string contents.
+
+
+<p>
+A byte in a literal string can also be specified by its numerical value.
+This can be done with the escape sequence <code>\x<em>XX</em></code>,
+where <em>XX</em> is a sequence of exactly two hexadecimal digits,
+or with the escape sequence <code>\<em>ddd</em></code>,
where <em>ddd</em> is a sequence of up to three decimal digits.
-(Note that if a numerical escape is to be followed by a digit,
+(Note that if a decimal escape is to be followed by a digit,
it must be expressed using exactly three digits.)
Strings in Lua can contain any 8-bit value, including embedded zeros,
which can be specified as '<code>\0</code>'.
@@ -190,12 +1241,27 @@ an opening long bracket of level&nbsp;1 is written as <code>[=[</code>,
and so on.
A <em>closing long bracket</em> is defined similarly;
for instance, a closing long bracket of level&nbsp;4 is written as <code>]====]</code>.
-A long string starts with an opening long bracket of any level and
+A <em>long literal</em> starts with an opening long bracket of any level and
ends at the first closing long bracket of the same level.
+It can contain any text except a closing bracket of the proper level.
Literals in this bracketed form can run for several lines,
do not interpret any escape sequences,
and ignore long brackets of any other level.
-They can contain anything except a closing bracket of the proper level.
+Any kind of end-of-line sequence
+(carriage return, newline, carriage return followed by newline,
+or newline followed by carriage return)
+is converted to a simple newline.
+
+
+<p>
+Any byte in a literal string not
+explicitly affected by the previous rules represents itself.
+However, Lua opens files for parsing in text mode,
+and the system file functions may have problems with
+some control characters.
+So, it is safer to represent
+non-text data as a quoted literal with
+explicit escape sequences for non-text characters.
<p>
@@ -219,14 +1285,19 @@ the five literal strings below denote the same string:
</pre>
<p>
-A <em>numerical constant</em> can be written with an optional decimal part
-and an optional decimal exponent.
-Lua also accepts integer hexadecimal constants,
-by prefixing them with <code>0x</code>.
+A <em>numerical constant</em> can be written with an optional fractional part
+and an optional decimal exponent,
+marked by a letter '<code>e</code>' or '<code>E</code>'.
+Lua also accepts hexadecimal constants,
+which start with <code>0x</code> or <code>0X</code>.
+Hexadecimal constants also accept an optional fractional part
+plus an optional binary exponent,
+marked by a letter '<code>p</code>' or '<code>P</code>'.
Examples of valid numerical constants are
<pre>
- 3 3.0 3.1416 314.16e-2 0.31416E1 0xff 0x56
+ 3 3.0 3.1416 314.16e-2 0.31416E1
+ 0xff 0x0.1E 0xA23p-4 0X1.921FB54442D18P+1
</pre>
<p>
@@ -243,137 +1314,10 @@ Long comments are frequently used to disable code temporarily.
-<h2>2.2 - <a name="2.2">Values and Types</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua is a <em>dynamically typed language</em>.
-This means that
-variables do not have types; only values do.
-There are no type definitions in the language.
-All values carry their own type.
-
-
-<p>
-All values in Lua are <em>first-class values</em>.
-This means that all values can be stored in variables,
-passed as arguments to other functions, and returned as results.
-
-
-<p>
-There are eight basic types in Lua:
-<em>nil</em>, <em>boolean</em>, <em>number</em>,
-<em>string</em>, <em>function</em>, <em>userdata</em>,
-<em>thread</em>, and <em>table</em>.
-<em>Nil</em> is the type of the value <b>nil</b>,
-whose main property is to be different from any other value;
-it usually represents the absence of a useful value.
-<em>Boolean</em> is the type of the values <b>false</b> and <b>true</b>.
-Both <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> make a condition false;
-any other value makes it true.
-<em>Number</em> represents real (double-precision floating-point) numbers.
-(It is easy to build Lua interpreters that use other
-internal representations for numbers,
-such as single-precision float or long integers;
-see file <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
-<em>String</em> represents arrays of characters.
-
-Lua is 8-bit clean:
-strings can contain any 8-bit character,
-including embedded zeros ('<code>\0</code>') (see <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Lua can call (and manipulate) functions written in Lua and
-functions written in C
-(see <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The type <em>userdata</em> is provided to allow arbitrary C&nbsp;data to
-be stored in Lua variables.
-This type corresponds to a block of raw memory
-and has no pre-defined operations in Lua,
-except assignment and identity test.
-However, by using <em>metatables</em>,
-the programmer can define operations for userdata values
-(see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-Userdata values cannot be created or modified in Lua,
-only through the C&nbsp;API.
-This guarantees the integrity of data owned by the host program.
-
-
-<p>
-The type <em>thread</em> represents independent threads of execution
-and it is used to implement coroutines (see <a href="#2.11">&sect;2.11</a>).
-Do not confuse Lua threads with operating-system threads.
-Lua supports coroutines on all systems,
-even those that do not support threads.
-
-
-<p>
-The type <em>table</em> implements associative arrays,
-that is, arrays that can be indexed not only with numbers,
-but with any value (except <b>nil</b>).
-Tables can be <em>heterogeneous</em>;
-that is, they can contain values of all types (except <b>nil</b>).
-Tables are the sole data structuring mechanism in Lua;
-they can be used to represent ordinary arrays,
-symbol tables, sets, records, graphs, trees, etc.
-To represent records, Lua uses the field name as an index.
-The language supports this representation by
-providing <code>a.name</code> as syntactic sugar for <code>a["name"]</code>.
-There are several convenient ways to create tables in Lua
-(see <a href="#2.5.7">&sect;2.5.7</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Like indices,
-the value of a table field can be of any type (except <b>nil</b>).
-In particular,
-because functions are first-class values,
-table fields can contain functions.
-Thus tables can also carry <em>methods</em> (see <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Tables, functions, threads, and (full) userdata values are <em>objects</em>:
-variables do not actually <em>contain</em> these values,
-only <em>references</em> to them.
-Assignment, parameter passing, and function returns
-always manipulate references to such values;
-these operations do not imply any kind of copy.
-
-
-<p>
-The library function <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a> returns a string describing the type
-of a given value.
-
-
-
-<h3>2.2.1 - <a name="2.2.1">Coercion</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-Lua provides automatic conversion between
-string and number values at run time.
-Any arithmetic operation applied to a string tries to convert
-this string to a number, following the usual conversion rules.
-Conversely, whenever a number is used where a string is expected,
-the number is converted to a string, in a reasonable format.
-For complete control over how numbers are converted to strings,
-use the <code>format</code> function from the string library
-(see <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.3 - <a name="2.3">Variables</a></h2>
+<h2>3.2 &ndash; <a name="3.2">Variables</a></h2>
<p>
Variables are places that store values.
-
There are three kinds of variables in Lua:
global variables, local variables, and table fields.
@@ -386,15 +1330,15 @@ which is a particular kind of local variable):
<pre>
var ::= Name
</pre><p>
-Name denotes identifiers, as defined in <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>.
+Name denotes identifiers, as defined in <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>.
<p>
-Any variable is assumed to be global unless explicitly declared
-as a local (see <a href="#2.4.7">&sect;2.4.7</a>).
+Any variable name is assumed to be global unless explicitly declared
+as a local (see <a href="#3.3.7">&sect;3.3.7</a>).
Local variables are <em>lexically scoped</em>:
local variables can be freely accessed by functions
-defined inside their scope (see <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a>).
+defined inside their scope (see <a href="#3.5">&sect;3.5</a>).
<p>
@@ -405,13 +1349,12 @@ Before the first assignment to a variable, its value is <b>nil</b>.
Square brackets are used to index a table:
<pre>
- var ::= prefixexp `<b>[</b>&acute; exp `<b>]</b>&acute;
+ var ::= prefixexp &lsquo;<b>[</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>]</b>&rsquo;
</pre><p>
-The meaning of accesses to global variables
-and table fields can be changed via metatables.
+The meaning of accesses to table fields can be changed via metatables.
An access to an indexed variable <code>t[i]</code> is equivalent to
a call <code>gettable_event(t,i)</code>.
-(See <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a> for a complete description of the
+(See <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a> for a complete description of the
<code>gettable_event</code> function.
This function is not defined or callable in Lua.
We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
@@ -422,46 +1365,20 @@ The syntax <code>var.Name</code> is just syntactic sugar for
<code>var["Name"]</code>:
<pre>
- var ::= prefixexp `<b>.</b>&acute; Name
+ var ::= prefixexp &lsquo;<b>.</b>&rsquo; Name
</pre>
<p>
-All global variables live as fields in ordinary Lua tables,
-called <em>environment tables</em> or simply
-<em>environments</em> (see <a href="#2.9">&sect;2.9</a>).
-Each function has its own reference to an environment,
-so that all global variables in this function
-will refer to this environment table.
-When a function is created,
-it inherits the environment from the function that created it.
-To get the environment table of a Lua function,
-you call <a href="#pdf-getfenv"><code>getfenv</code></a>.
-To replace it,
-you call <a href="#pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv</code></a>.
-(You can only manipulate the environment of C&nbsp;functions
-through the debug library; (see <a href="#5.9">&sect;5.9</a>).)
-
-
-<p>
An access to a global variable <code>x</code>
-is equivalent to <code>_env.x</code>,
-which in turn is equivalent to
-
-<pre>
- gettable_event(_env, "x")
-</pre><p>
-where <code>_env</code> is the environment of the running function.
-(See <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a> for a complete description of the
-<code>gettable_event</code> function.
-This function is not defined or callable in Lua.
-Similarly, the <code>_env</code> variable is not defined in Lua.
-We use them here only for explanatory purposes.)
+is equivalent to <code>_ENV.x</code>.
+Due to the way that chunks are compiled,
+<code>_ENV</code> is never a global name (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
-<h2>2.4 - <a name="2.4">Statements</a></h2>
+<h2>3.3 &ndash; <a name="3.3">Statements</a></h2>
<p>
Lua supports an almost conventional set of statements,
@@ -472,72 +1389,112 @@ and variable declarations.
-<h3>2.4.1 - <a name="2.4.1">Chunks</a></h3>
+<h3>3.3.1 &ndash; <a name="3.3.1">Blocks</a></h3>
<p>
-The unit of execution of Lua is called a <em>chunk</em>.
-A chunk is simply a sequence of statements,
-which are executed sequentially.
-Each statement can be optionally followed by a semicolon:
+A block is a list of statements,
+which are executed sequentially:
<pre>
- chunk ::= {stat [`<b>;</b>&acute;]}
+ block ::= {stat}
</pre><p>
-There are no empty statements and thus '<code>;;</code>' is not legal.
+Lua has <em>empty statements</em>
+that allow you to separate statements with semicolons,
+start a block with a semicolon
+or write two semicolons in sequence:
+<pre>
+ stat ::= &lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo;
+</pre>
<p>
-Lua handles a chunk as the body of an anonymous function
-with a variable number of arguments
-(see <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>).
-As such, chunks can define local variables,
-receive arguments, and return values.
+Function calls and assignments
+can start with an open parenthesis.
+This possibility leads to an ambiguity in Lua's grammar.
+Consider the following fragment:
+<pre>
+ a = b + c
+ (print or io.write)('done')
+</pre><p>
+The grammar could see it in two ways:
-<p>
-A chunk can be stored in a file or in a string inside the host program.
-To execute a chunk,
-Lua first pre-compiles the chunk into instructions for a virtual machine,
-and then it executes the compiled code
-with an interpreter for the virtual machine.
+<pre>
+ a = b + c(print or io.write)('done')
+
+ a = b + c; (print or io.write)('done')
+</pre><p>
+The current parser always sees such constructions
+in the first way,
+interpreting the open parenthesis
+as the start of the arguments to a call.
+To avoid this ambiguity,
+it is a good practice to always precede with a semicolon
+statements that start with a parenthesis:
+<pre>
+ ;(print or io.write)('done')
+</pre>
<p>
-Chunks can also be pre-compiled into binary form;
-see program <code>luac</code> for details.
-Programs in source and compiled forms are interchangeable;
-Lua automatically detects the file type and acts accordingly.
+A block can be explicitly delimited to produce a single statement:
+<pre>
+ stat ::= <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
+</pre><p>
+Explicit blocks are useful
+to control the scope of variable declarations.
+Explicit blocks are also sometimes used to
+add a <b>return</b> statement in the middle
+of another block (see <a href="#3.3.4">&sect;3.3.4</a>).
-<h3>2.4.2 - <a name="2.4.2">Blocks</a></h3><p>
-A block is a list of statements;
-syntactically, a block is the same as a chunk:
+<h3>3.3.2 &ndash; <a name="3.3.2">Chunks</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The unit of compilation of Lua is called a <em>chunk</em>.
+Syntactically,
+a chunk is simply a block:
<pre>
- block ::= chunk
+ chunk ::= block
</pre>
<p>
-A block can be explicitly delimited to produce a single statement:
+Lua handles a chunk as the body of an anonymous function
+with a variable number of arguments
+(see <a href="#3.4.10">&sect;3.4.10</a>).
+As such, chunks can define local variables,
+receive arguments, and return values.
+Moreover, such anonymous function is compiled as in the
+scope of an external local variable called <code>_ENV</code> (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
+The resulting function always has <code>_ENV</code> as its only upvalue,
+even if it does not use that variable.
+
+
+<p>
+A chunk can be stored in a file or in a string inside the host program.
+To execute a chunk,
+Lua first precompiles the chunk into instructions for a virtual machine,
+and then it executes the compiled code
+with an interpreter for the virtual machine.
+
+
+<p>
+Chunks can also be precompiled into binary form;
+see program <code>luac</code> for details.
+Programs in source and compiled forms are interchangeable;
+Lua automatically detects the file type and acts accordingly.
-<pre>
- stat ::= <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
-</pre><p>
-Explicit blocks are useful
-to control the scope of variable declarations.
-Explicit blocks are also sometimes used to
-add a <b>return</b> or <b>break</b> statement in the middle
-of another block (see <a href="#2.4.4">&sect;2.4.4</a>).
-<h3>2.4.3 - <a name="2.4.3">Assignment</a></h3>
+<h3>3.3.3 &ndash; <a name="3.3.3">Assignment</a></h3>
<p>
Lua allows multiple assignments.
@@ -547,11 +1504,11 @@ and a list of expressions on the right side.
The elements in both lists are separated by commas:
<pre>
- stat ::= varlist `<b>=</b>&acute; explist
- varlist ::= var {`<b>,</b>&acute; var}
- explist ::= exp {`<b>,</b>&acute; exp}
+ stat ::= varlist &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist
+ varlist ::= var {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; var}
+ explist ::= exp {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp}
</pre><p>
-Expressions are discussed in <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>.
+Expressions are discussed in <a href="#3.4">&sect;3.4</a>.
<p>
@@ -565,7 +1522,7 @@ the list is extended with as many <b>nil</b>'s as needed.
If the list of expressions ends with a function call,
then all values returned by that call enter the list of values,
before the adjustment
-(except when the call is enclosed in parentheses; see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
+(except when the call is enclosed in parentheses; see <a href="#3.4">&sect;3.4</a>).
<p>
@@ -599,7 +1556,7 @@ The meaning of assignments to global variables
and table fields can be changed via metatables.
An assignment to an indexed variable <code>t[i] = val</code> is equivalent to
<code>settable_event(t,i,val)</code>.
-(See <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a> for a complete description of the
+(See <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a> for a complete description of the
<code>settable_event</code> function.
This function is not defined or callable in Lua.
We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
@@ -608,21 +1565,13 @@ We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
<p>
An assignment to a global variable <code>x = val</code>
is equivalent to the assignment
-<code>_env.x = val</code>,
-which in turn is equivalent to
+<code>_ENV.x = val</code> (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
-<pre>
- settable_event(_env, "x", val)
-</pre><p>
-where <code>_env</code> is the environment of the running function.
-(The <code>_env</code> variable is not defined in Lua.
-We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
-
-<h3>2.4.4 - <a name="2.4.4">Control Structures</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.3.4 &ndash; <a name="3.3.4">Control Structures</a></h3><p>
The control structures
<b>if</b>, <b>while</b>, and <b>repeat</b> have the usual meaning and
familiar syntax:
@@ -635,7 +1584,7 @@ familiar syntax:
stat ::= <b>repeat</b> block <b>until</b> exp
stat ::= <b>if</b> exp <b>then</b> block {<b>elseif</b> exp <b>then</b> block} [<b>else</b> block] <b>end</b>
</pre><p>
-Lua also has a <b>for</b> statement, in two flavors (see <a href="#2.4.5">&sect;2.4.5</a>).
+Lua also has a <b>for</b> statement, in two flavors (see <a href="#3.3.5">&sect;3.3.5</a>).
<p>
@@ -655,18 +1604,34 @@ declared inside the loop block.
<p>
-The <b>return</b> statement is used to return values
-from a function or a chunk (which is just a function).
+The <b>goto</b> statement transfers the program control to a label.
+For syntactical reasons,
+labels in Lua are considered statements too:
+
-Functions and chunks can return more than one value,
-and so the syntax for the <b>return</b> statement is
<pre>
- stat ::= <b>return</b> [explist]
+ stat ::= <b>goto</b> Name
+ stat ::= label
+ label ::= &lsquo;<b>::</b>&rsquo; Name &lsquo;<b>::</b>&rsquo;
</pre>
<p>
-The <b>break</b> statement is used to terminate the execution of a
+A label is visible in the entire block where it is defined,
+except
+inside nested blocks where a label with the same name is defined and
+inside nested functions.
+A goto may jump to any visible label as long as it does not
+enter into the scope of a local variable.
+
+
+<p>
+Labels and empty statements are called <em>void statements</em>,
+as they perform no actions.
+
+
+<p>
+The <b>break</b> statement terminates the execution of a
<b>while</b>, <b>repeat</b>, or <b>for</b> loop,
skipping to the next statement after the loop:
@@ -678,21 +1643,29 @@ A <b>break</b> ends the innermost enclosing loop.
<p>
-The <b>return</b> and <b>break</b>
-statements can only be written as the <em>last</em> statement of a block.
-If it is really necessary to <b>return</b> or <b>break</b> in the
-middle of a block,
+The <b>return</b> statement is used to return values
+from a function or a chunk (which is a function in disguise).
+
+Functions can return more than one value,
+so the syntax for the <b>return</b> statement is
+
+<pre>
+ stat ::= <b>return</b> [explist] [&lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo;]
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+The <b>return</b> statement can only be written
+as the last statement of a block.
+If it is really necessary to <b>return</b> in the middle of a block,
then an explicit inner block can be used,
-as in the idioms
-<code>do return end</code> and <code>do break end</code>,
-because now <b>return</b> and <b>break</b> are the last statements in
-their (inner) blocks.
+as in the idiom <code>do return end</code>,
+because now <b>return</b> is the last statement in its (inner) block.
-<h3>2.4.5 - <a name="2.4.5">For Statement</a></h3>
+<h3>3.3.5 &ndash; <a name="3.3.5">For Statement</a></h3>
<p>
@@ -706,7 +1679,7 @@ control variable runs through an arithmetic progression.
It has the following syntax:
<pre>
- stat ::= <b>for</b> Name `<b>=</b>&acute; exp `<b>,</b>&acute; exp [`<b>,</b>&acute; exp] <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
+ stat ::= <b>for</b> Name &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp [&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp] <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
</pre><p>
The <em>block</em> is repeated for <em>name</em> starting at the value of
the first <em>exp</em>, until it passes the second <em>exp</em> by steps of the
@@ -771,7 +1744,7 @@ The generic <b>for</b> loop has the following syntax:
<pre>
stat ::= <b>for</b> namelist <b>in</b> explist <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
- namelist ::= Name {`<b>,</b>&acute; Name}
+ namelist ::= Name {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; Name}
</pre><p>
A <b>for</b> statement like
@@ -785,8 +1758,8 @@ is equivalent to the code:
local <em>f</em>, <em>s</em>, <em>var</em> = <em>explist</em>
while true do
local <em>var_1</em>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <em>var_n</em> = <em>f</em>(<em>s</em>, <em>var</em>)
+ if <em>var_1</em> == nil then break end
<em>var</em> = <em>var_1</em>
- if <em>var</em> == nil then break end
<em>block</em>
end
end
@@ -823,7 +1796,7 @@ then assign them to other variables before breaking or exiting the loop.
-<h3>2.4.6 - <a name="2.4.6">Function Calls as Statements</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.3.6 &ndash; <a name="3.3.6">Function Calls as Statements</a></h3><p>
To allow possible side-effects,
function calls can be executed as statements:
@@ -831,32 +1804,31 @@ function calls can be executed as statements:
stat ::= functioncall
</pre><p>
In this case, all returned values are thrown away.
-Function calls are explained in <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>.
+Function calls are explained in <a href="#3.4.9">&sect;3.4.9</a>.
-<h3>2.4.7 - <a name="2.4.7">Local Declarations</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.3.7 &ndash; <a name="3.3.7">Local Declarations</a></h3><p>
Local variables can be declared anywhere inside a block.
The declaration can include an initial assignment:
<pre>
- stat ::= <b>local</b> namelist [`<b>=</b>&acute; explist]
+ stat ::= <b>local</b> namelist [&lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist]
</pre><p>
If present, an initial assignment has the same semantics
-of a multiple assignment (see <a href="#2.4.3">&sect;2.4.3</a>).
+of a multiple assignment (see <a href="#3.3.3">&sect;3.3.3</a>).
Otherwise, all variables are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
<p>
-A chunk is also a block (see <a href="#2.4.1">&sect;2.4.1</a>),
+A chunk is also a block (see <a href="#3.3.2">&sect;3.3.2</a>),
and so local variables can be declared in a chunk outside any explicit block.
-The scope of such local variables extends until the end of the chunk.
<p>
-The visibility rules for local variables are explained in <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a>.
+The visibility rules for local variables are explained in <a href="#3.5">&sect;3.5</a>.
@@ -864,7 +1836,7 @@ The visibility rules for local variables are explained in <a href="#2.6">&sect;2
-<h2>2.5 - <a name="2.5">Expressions</a></h2>
+<h2>3.4 &ndash; <a name="3.4">Expressions</a></h2>
<p>
The basic expressions in Lua are the following:
@@ -874,48 +1846,48 @@ The basic expressions in Lua are the following:
exp ::= <b>nil</b> | <b>false</b> | <b>true</b>
exp ::= Number
exp ::= String
- exp ::= function
+ exp ::= functiondef
exp ::= tableconstructor
- exp ::= `<b>...</b>&acute;
+ exp ::= &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;
exp ::= exp binop exp
exp ::= unop exp
- prefixexp ::= var | functioncall | `<b>(</b>&acute; exp `<b>)</b>&acute;
+ prefixexp ::= var | functioncall | &lsquo;<b>(</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>)</b>&rsquo;
</pre>
<p>
-Numbers and literal strings are explained in <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>;
-variables are explained in <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>;
-function definitions are explained in <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>;
-function calls are explained in <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>;
-table constructors are explained in <a href="#2.5.7">&sect;2.5.7</a>.
+Numbers and literal strings are explained in <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>;
+variables are explained in <a href="#3.2">&sect;3.2</a>;
+function definitions are explained in <a href="#3.4.10">&sect;3.4.10</a>;
+function calls are explained in <a href="#3.4.9">&sect;3.4.9</a>;
+table constructors are explained in <a href="#3.4.8">&sect;3.4.8</a>.
Vararg expressions,
denoted by three dots ('<code>...</code>'), can only be used when
directly inside a vararg function;
-they are explained in <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>.
+they are explained in <a href="#3.4.10">&sect;3.4.10</a>.
<p>
-Binary operators comprise arithmetic operators (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>),
-relational operators (see <a href="#2.5.2">&sect;2.5.2</a>), logical operators (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
-and the concatenation operator (see <a href="#2.5.4">&sect;2.5.4</a>).
-Unary operators comprise the unary minus (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>),
-the unary <b>not</b> (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
-and the unary <em>length operator</em> (see <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a>).
+Binary operators comprise arithmetic operators (see <a href="#3.4.1">&sect;3.4.1</a>),
+relational operators (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>), logical operators (see <a href="#3.4.4">&sect;3.4.4</a>),
+and the concatenation operator (see <a href="#3.4.5">&sect;3.4.5</a>).
+Unary operators comprise the unary minus (see <a href="#3.4.1">&sect;3.4.1</a>),
+the unary <b>not</b> (see <a href="#3.4.4">&sect;3.4.4</a>),
+and the unary <em>length operator</em> (see <a href="#3.4.6">&sect;3.4.6</a>).
<p>
Both function calls and vararg expressions can result in multiple values.
-If an expression is used as a statement
-(only possible for function calls (see <a href="#2.4.6">&sect;2.4.6</a>)),
+If a function call is used as a statement (see <a href="#3.3.6">&sect;3.3.6</a>),
then its return list is adjusted to zero elements,
thus discarding all returned values.
If an expression is used as the last (or the only) element
of a list of expressions,
then no adjustment is made
-(unless the call is enclosed in parentheses).
+(unless the expression is enclosed in parentheses).
In all other contexts,
Lua adjusts the result list to one element,
-discarding all values except the first one.
+either discarding all values except the first one
+or adding a single <b>nil</b> if there are no values.
<p>
@@ -950,14 +1922,14 @@ or <b>nil</b> if <code>f</code> does not return any values.)
-<h3>2.5.1 - <a name="2.5.1">Arithmetic Operators</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.4.1 &ndash; <a name="3.4.1">Arithmetic Operators</a></h3><p>
Lua supports the usual arithmetic operators:
the binary <code>+</code> (addition),
<code>-</code> (subtraction), <code>*</code> (multiplication),
<code>/</code> (division), <code>%</code> (modulo), and <code>^</code> (exponentiation);
-and unary <code>-</code> (negation).
+and unary <code>-</code> (mathematical negation).
If the operands are numbers, or strings that can be converted to
-numbers (see <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>),
+numbers (see <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>),
then all operations have the usual meaning.
Exponentiation works for any exponent.
For instance, <code>x^(-0.5)</code> computes the inverse of the square root of <code>x</code>.
@@ -973,7 +1945,25 @@ the quotient towards minus infinity.
-<h3>2.5.2 - <a name="2.5.2">Relational Operators</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.4.2 &ndash; <a name="3.4.2">Coercion</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Lua provides automatic conversion between
+string and number values at run time.
+Any arithmetic operation applied to a string tries to convert
+this string to a number, following the rules of the Lua lexer.
+(The string may have leading and trailing spaces and a sign.)
+Conversely, whenever a number is used where a string is expected,
+the number is converted to a string, in a reasonable format.
+For complete control over how numbers are converted to strings,
+use the <code>format</code> function from the string library
+(see <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>).
+
+
+
+
+
+<h3>3.4.3 &ndash; <a name="3.4.3">Relational Operators</a></h3><p>
The relational operators in Lua are
<pre>
@@ -987,22 +1977,25 @@ Equality (<code>==</code>) first compares the type of its operands.
If the types are different, then the result is <b>false</b>.
Otherwise, the values of the operands are compared.
Numbers and strings are compared in the usual way.
-Objects (tables, userdata, threads, and functions)
-are compared by <em>reference</em>:
-two objects are considered equal only if they are the <em>same</em> object.
+Tables, userdata, and threads
+are compared by reference:
+two objects are considered equal only if they are the same object.
Every time you create a new object
-(a table, userdata, thread, or function),
+(a table, userdata, or thread),
this new object is different from any previously existing object.
+Closures with the same reference are always equal.
+Closures with any detectable difference
+(different behavior, different definition) are always different.
<p>
-You can change the way that Lua compares tables and userdata
-by using the "eq" metamethod (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+You can change the way that Lua compares tables and userdata
+by using the "eq" metamethod (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
<p>
-The conversion rules of <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>
-<em>do not</em> apply to equality comparisons.
+The conversion rules of <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>
+do not apply to equality comparisons.
Thus, <code>"0"==0</code> evaluates to <b>false</b>,
and <code>t[0]</code> and <code>t["0"]</code> denote different
entries in a table.
@@ -1018,7 +2011,7 @@ If both arguments are numbers, then they are compared as such.
Otherwise, if both arguments are strings,
then their values are compared according to the current locale.
Otherwise, Lua tries to call the "lt" or the "le"
-metamethod (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+metamethod (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
A comparison <code>a &gt; b</code> is translated to <code>b &lt; a</code>
and <code>a &gt;= b</code> is translated to <code>b &lt;= a</code>.
@@ -1026,10 +2019,10 @@ and <code>a &gt;= b</code> is translated to <code>b &lt;= a</code>.
-<h3>2.5.3 - <a name="2.5.3">Logical Operators</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.4.4 &ndash; <a name="3.4.4">Logical Operators</a></h3><p>
The logical operators in Lua are
<b>and</b>, <b>or</b>, and <b>not</b>.
-Like the control structures (see <a href="#2.4.4">&sect;2.4.4</a>),
+Like the control structures (see <a href="#3.3.4">&sect;3.3.4</a>),
all logical operators consider both <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b> as false
and anything else as true.
@@ -1064,46 +2057,56 @@ Here are some examples:
-<h3>2.5.4 - <a name="2.5.4">Concatenation</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.4.5 &ndash; <a name="3.4.5">Concatenation</a></h3><p>
The string concatenation operator in Lua is
denoted by two dots ('<code>..</code>').
If both operands are strings or numbers, then they are converted to
-strings according to the rules mentioned in <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>.
-Otherwise, the "concat" metamethod is called (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+strings according to the rules mentioned in <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>.
+Otherwise, the <code>__concat</code> metamethod is called (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
-<h3>2.5.5 - <a name="2.5.5">The Length Operator</a></h3>
+<h3>3.4.6 &ndash; <a name="3.4.6">The Length Operator</a></h3>
<p>
-The length operator is denoted by the unary operator <code>#</code>.
+The length operator is denoted by the unary prefix operator <code>#</code>.
The length of a string is its number of bytes
(that is, the usual meaning of string length when each
character is one byte).
<p>
-The length of a table <code>t</code> is defined to be any
-integer index <code>n</code>
-such that <code>t[n]</code> is not <b>nil</b> and <code>t[n+1]</code> is <b>nil</b>;
-moreover, if <code>t[1]</code> is <b>nil</b>, <code>n</code> can be zero.
-For a regular array, with non-nil values from 1 to a given <code>n</code>,
-its length is exactly that <code>n</code>,
-the index of its last value.
-If the array has "holes"
-(that is, <b>nil</b> values between other non-nil values),
-then <code>#t</code> can be any of the indices that
-directly precedes a <b>nil</b> value
-(that is, it may consider any such <b>nil</b> value as the end of
-the array).
+A program can modify the behavior of the length operator for
+any value but strings through the <code>__len</code> metamethod (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
+
+<p>
+Unless a <code>__len</code> metamethod is given,
+the length of a table <code>t</code> is only defined if the
+table is a <em>sequence</em>,
+that is,
+the set of its positive numeric keys is equal to <em>{1..n}</em>
+for some integer <em>n</em>.
+In that case, <em>n</em> is its length.
+Note that a table like
+<pre>
+ {10, 20, nil, 40}
+</pre><p>
+is not a sequence, because it has the key <code>4</code>
+but does not have the key <code>3</code>.
+(So, there is no <em>n</em> such that the set <em>{1..n}</em> is equal
+to the set of positive numeric keys of that table.)
+Note, however, that non-numeric keys do not interfere
+with whether a table is a sequence.
-<h3>2.5.6 - <a name="2.5.6">Precedence</a></h3><p>
+
+
+<h3>3.4.7 &ndash; <a name="3.4.7">Precedence</a></h3><p>
Operator precedence in Lua follows the table below,
from lower to higher priority:
@@ -1127,7 +2130,7 @@ All other binary operators are left associative.
-<h3>2.5.7 - <a name="2.5.7">Table Constructors</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.4.8 &ndash; <a name="3.4.8">Table Constructors</a></h3><p>
Table constructors are expressions that create tables.
Every time a constructor is evaluated, a new table is created.
A constructor can be used to create an empty table
@@ -1135,10 +2138,10 @@ or to create a table and initialize some of its fields.
The general syntax for constructors is
<pre>
- tableconstructor ::= `<b>{</b>&acute; [fieldlist] `<b>}</b>&acute;
+ tableconstructor ::= &lsquo;<b>{</b>&rsquo; [fieldlist] &lsquo;<b>}</b>&rsquo;
fieldlist ::= field {fieldsep field} [fieldsep]
- field ::= `<b>[</b>&acute; exp `<b>]</b>&acute; `<b>=</b>&acute; exp | Name `<b>=</b>&acute; exp | exp
- fieldsep ::= `<b>,</b>&acute; | `<b>;</b>&acute;
+ field ::= &lsquo;<b>[</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>]</b>&rsquo; &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp | Name &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp | exp
+ fieldsep ::= &lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo;
</pre>
<p>
@@ -1175,10 +2178,7 @@ is equivalent to
If the last field in the list has the form <code>exp</code>
and the expression is a function call or a vararg expression,
then all values returned by this expression enter the list consecutively
-(see <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>).
-To avoid this,
-enclose the function call or the vararg expression
-in parentheses (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
+(see <a href="#3.4.9">&sect;3.4.9</a>).
<p>
@@ -1189,7 +2189,7 @@ as a convenience for machine-generated code.
-<h3>2.5.8 - <a name="2.5.8">Function Calls</a></h3><p>
+<h3>3.4.9 &ndash; <a name="3.4.9">Function Calls</a></h3><p>
A function call in Lua has the following syntax:
<pre>
@@ -1203,14 +2203,14 @@ with the given arguments.
Otherwise, the prefixexp "call" metamethod is called,
having as first parameter the value of prefixexp,
followed by the original call arguments
-(see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+(see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
<p>
The form
<pre>
- functioncall ::= prefixexp `<b>:</b>&acute; Name args
+ functioncall ::= prefixexp &lsquo;<b>:</b>&rsquo; Name args
</pre><p>
can be used to call "methods".
A call <code>v:name(<em>args</em>)</code>
@@ -1222,7 +2222,7 @@ except that <code>v</code> is evaluated only once.
Arguments have the following syntax:
<pre>
- args ::= `<b>(</b>&acute; [explist] `<b>)</b>&acute;
+ args ::= &lsquo;<b>(</b>&rsquo; [explist] &lsquo;<b>)</b>&rsquo;
args ::= tableconstructor
args ::= String
</pre><p>
@@ -1237,23 +2237,7 @@ that is, the argument list is a single literal string.
<p>
-As an exception to the free-format syntax of Lua,
-you cannot put a line break before the '<code>(</code>' in a function call.
-This restriction avoids some ambiguities in the language.
-If you write
-
-<pre>
- a = f
- (g).x(a)
-</pre><p>
-Lua would see that as a single statement, <code>a = f(g).x(a)</code>.
-So, if you want two statements, you must add a semi-colon between them.
-If you actually want to call <code>f</code>,
-you must remove the line break before <code>(g)</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-A call of the form <code>return</code> <em>functioncall</em> is called
+A call of the form <code>return <em>functioncall</em></code> is called
a <em>tail call</em>.
Lua implements <em>proper tail calls</em>
(or <em>proper tail recursion</em>):
@@ -1280,14 +2264,14 @@ So, none of the following examples are tail calls:
-<h3>2.5.9 - <a name="2.5.9">Function Definitions</a></h3>
+<h3>3.4.10 &ndash; <a name="3.4.10">Function Definitions</a></h3>
<p>
The syntax for function definition is
<pre>
- function ::= <b>function</b> funcbody
- funcbody ::= `<b>(</b>&acute; [parlist] `<b>)</b>&acute; block <b>end</b>
+ functiondef ::= <b>function</b> funcbody
+ funcbody ::= &lsquo;<b>(</b>&rsquo; [parlist] &lsquo;<b>)</b>&rsquo; block <b>end</b>
</pre>
<p>
@@ -1296,7 +2280,7 @@ The following syntactic sugar simplifies function definitions:
<pre>
stat ::= <b>function</b> funcname funcbody
stat ::= <b>local</b> <b>function</b> Name funcbody
- funcname ::= Name {`<b>.</b>&acute; Name} [`<b>:</b>&acute; Name]
+ funcname ::= Name {&lsquo;<b>.</b>&rsquo; Name} [&lsquo;<b>:</b>&rsquo; Name]
</pre><p>
The statement
@@ -1328,7 +2312,7 @@ translates to
<pre>
local f; f = function () <em>body</em> end
</pre><p>
-<em>not</em> to
+not to
<pre>
local f = function () <em>body</em> end
@@ -1340,15 +2324,12 @@ contains references to <code>f</code>.)
<p>
A function definition is an executable expression,
whose value has type <em>function</em>.
-When Lua pre-compiles a chunk,
-all its function bodies are pre-compiled too.
+When Lua precompiles a chunk,
+all its function bodies are precompiled too.
Then, whenever Lua executes the function definition,
the function is <em>instantiated</em> (or <em>closed</em>).
This function instance (or <em>closure</em>)
is the final value of the expression.
-Different instances of the same function
-can refer to different external local variables
-and can have different environment tables.
<p>
@@ -1356,14 +2337,14 @@ Parameters act as local variables that are
initialized with the argument values:
<pre>
- parlist ::= namelist [`<b>,</b>&acute; `<b>...</b>&acute;] | `<b>...</b>&acute;
+ parlist ::= namelist [&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;] | &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;
</pre><p>
When a function is called,
the list of arguments is adjusted to
the length of the list of parameters,
-unless the function is a variadic or <em>vararg function</em>,
-which is
-indicated by three dots ('<code>...</code>') at the end of its parameter list.
+unless the function is a <em>vararg function</em>,
+which is indicated by three dots ('<code>...</code>')
+at the end of its parameter list.
A vararg function does not adjust its argument list;
instead, it collects all extra arguments and supplies them
to the function through a <em>vararg expression</em>,
@@ -1405,13 +2386,20 @@ to the vararg expression:
</pre>
<p>
-Results are returned using the <b>return</b> statement (see <a href="#2.4.4">&sect;2.4.4</a>).
+Results are returned using the <b>return</b> statement (see <a href="#3.3.4">&sect;3.3.4</a>).
If control reaches the end of a function
without encountering a <b>return</b> statement,
then the function returns with no results.
<p>
+
+There is a system-dependent limit on the number of values
+that a function may return.
+This limit is guaranteed to be larger than 1000.
+
+
+<p>
The <em>colon</em> syntax
is used for defining <em>methods</em>,
that is, functions that have an implicit extra parameter <code>self</code>.
@@ -1431,14 +2419,14 @@ is syntactic sugar for
-<h2>2.6 - <a name="2.6">Visibility Rules</a></h2>
+<h2>3.5 &ndash; <a name="3.5">Visibility Rules</a></h2>
<p>
Lua is a lexically scoped language.
-The scope of variables begins at the first statement <em>after</em>
-their declaration and lasts until the end of the innermost block that
-includes the declaration.
+The scope of a local variable begins at the first statement after
+its declaration and lasts until the last non-void statement
+of the innermost block that includes the declaration.
Consider the following example:
<pre>
@@ -1493,745 +2481,7 @@ while all of them share the same <code>x</code>.
-<h2>2.7 - <a name="2.7">Error Handling</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Because Lua is an embedded extension language,
-all Lua actions start from C&nbsp;code in the host program
-calling a function from the Lua library (see <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>).
-Whenever an error occurs during Lua compilation or execution,
-control returns to C,
-which can take appropriate measures
-(such as printing an error message).
-
-
-<p>
-Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the
-<a href="#pdf-error"><code>error</code></a> function.
-If you need to catch errors in Lua,
-you can use the <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a> function.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.8 - <a name="2.8">Metatables</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Every value in Lua can have a <em>metatable</em>.
-This <em>metatable</em> is an ordinary Lua table
-that defines the behavior of the original value
-under certain special operations.
-You can change several aspects of the behavior
-of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable.
-For instance, when a non-numeric value is the operand of an addition,
-Lua checks for a function in the field <code>"__add"</code> in its metatable.
-If it finds one,
-Lua calls this function to perform the addition.
-
-
-<p>
-We call the keys in a metatable <em>events</em>
-and the values <em>metamethods</em>.
-In the previous example, the event is <code>"add"</code>
-and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition.
-
-
-<p>
-You can query the metatable of any value
-through the <a href="#pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable</code></a> function.
-
-
-<p>
-You can replace the metatable of tables
-through the <a href="#pdf-setmetatable"><code>setmetatable</code></a>
-function.
-You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua
-(except by using the debug library);
-you must use the C&nbsp;API for that.
-
-
-<p>
-Tables and full userdata have individual metatables
-(although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables).
-Values of all other types share one single metatable per type;
-that is, there is one single metatable for all numbers,
-one for all strings, etc.
-
-
-<p>
-A metatable controls how an object behaves in arithmetic operations,
-order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, and indexing.
-A metatable also can define a function to be called when a userdata
-is garbage collected.
-For each of these operations Lua associates a specific key
-called an <em>event</em>.
-When Lua performs one of these operations over a value,
-it checks whether this value has a metatable with the corresponding event.
-If so, the value associated with that key (the metamethod)
-controls how Lua will perform the operation.
-
-
-<p>
-Metatables control the operations listed next.
-Each operation is identified by its corresponding name.
-The key for each operation is a string with its name prefixed by
-two underscores, '<code>__</code>';
-for instance, the key for operation "add" is the
-string <code>"__add"</code>.
-The semantics of these operations is better explained by a Lua function
-describing how the interpreter executes the operation.
-
-
-<p>
-The code shown here in Lua is only illustrative;
-the real behavior is hard coded in the interpreter
-and it is much more efficient than this simulation.
-All functions used in these descriptions
-(<a href="#pdf-rawget"><code>rawget</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-tonumber"><code>tonumber</code></a>, etc.)
-are described in <a href="#5.1">&sect;5.1</a>.
-In particular, to retrieve the metamethod of a given object,
-we use the expression
-
-<pre>
- metatable(obj)[event]
-</pre><p>
-This should be read as
-
-<pre>
- rawget(getmetatable(obj) or {}, event)
-</pre><p>
-
-That is, the access to a metamethod does not invoke other metamethods,
-and the access to objects with no metatables does not fail
-(it simply results in <b>nil</b>).
-
-
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b>"add":</b>
-the <code>+</code> operation.
-
-
-
-<p>
-The function <code>getbinhandler</code> below defines how Lua chooses a handler
-for a binary operation.
-First, Lua tries the first operand.
-If its type does not define a handler for the operation,
-then Lua tries the second operand.
-
-<pre>
- function getbinhandler (op1, op2, event)
- return metatable(op1)[event] or metatable(op2)[event]
- end
-</pre><p>
-By using this function,
-the behavior of the <code>op1 + op2</code> is
-
-<pre>
- function add_event (op1, op2)
- local o1, o2 = tonumber(op1), tonumber(op2)
- if o1 and o2 then -- both operands are numeric?
- return o1 + o2 -- '+' here is the primitive 'add'
- else -- at least one of the operands is not numeric
- local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__add")
- if h then
- -- call the handler with both operands
- return (h(op1, op2))
- else -- no handler available: default behavior
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"sub":</b>
-the <code>-</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"mul":</b>
-the <code>*</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"div":</b>
-the <code>/</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"mod":</b>
-the <code>%</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation,
-with the operation
-<code>o1 - floor(o1/o2)*o2</code> as the primitive operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"pow":</b>
-the <code>^</code> (exponentiation) operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation,
-with the function <code>pow</code> (from the C&nbsp;math library)
-as the primitive operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"unm":</b>
-the unary <code>-</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
- function unm_event (op)
- local o = tonumber(op)
- if o then -- operand is numeric?
- return -o -- '-' here is the primitive 'unm'
- else -- the operand is not numeric.
- -- Try to get a handler from the operand
- local h = metatable(op).__unm
- if h then
- -- call the handler with the operand
- return (h(op))
- else -- no handler available: default behavior
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"concat":</b>
-the <code>..</code> (concatenation) operation.
-
-
-<pre>
- function concat_event (op1, op2)
- if (type(op1) == "string" or type(op1) == "number") and
- (type(op2) == "string" or type(op2) == "number") then
- return op1 .. op2 -- primitive string concatenation
- else
- local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__concat")
- if h then
- return (h(op1, op2))
- else
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"len":</b>
-the <code>#</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
- function len_event (op)
- if type(op) == "string" then
- return strlen(op) -- primitive string length
- elseif type(op) == "table" then
- return #op -- primitive table length
- else
- local h = metatable(op).__len
- if h then
- -- call the handler with the operand
- return (h(op))
- else -- no handler available: default behavior
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-See <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a> for a description of the length of a table.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"eq":</b>
-the <code>==</code> operation.
-
-The function <code>getcomphandler</code> defines how Lua chooses a metamethod
-for comparison operators.
-A metamethod only is selected when both objects
-being compared have the same type
-and the same metamethod for the selected operation.
-
-<pre>
- function getcomphandler (op1, op2, event)
- if type(op1) ~= type(op2) then return nil end
- local mm1 = metatable(op1)[event]
- local mm2 = metatable(op2)[event]
- if mm1 == mm2 then return mm1 else return nil end
- end
-</pre><p>
-The "eq" event is defined as follows:
-
-<pre>
- function eq_event (op1, op2)
- if type(op1) ~= type(op2) then -- different types?
- return false -- different objects
- end
- if op1 == op2 then -- primitive equal?
- return true -- objects are equal
- end
- -- try metamethod
- local h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__eq")
- if h then
- return (h(op1, op2))
- else
- return false
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-<code>a ~= b</code> is equivalent to <code>not (a == b)</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"lt":</b>
-the <code>&lt;</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
- function lt_event (op1, op2)
- if type(op1) == "number" and type(op2) == "number" then
- return op1 &lt; op2 -- numeric comparison
- elseif type(op1) == "string" and type(op2) == "string" then
- return op1 &lt; op2 -- lexicographic comparison
- else
- local h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__lt")
- if h then
- return (h(op1, op2))
- else
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-<code>a &gt; b</code> is equivalent to <code>b &lt; a</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"le":</b>
-the <code>&lt;=</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
- function le_event (op1, op2)
- if type(op1) == "number" and type(op2) == "number" then
- return op1 &lt;= op2 -- numeric comparison
- elseif type(op1) == "string" and type(op2) == "string" then
- return op1 &lt;= op2 -- lexicographic comparison
- else
- local h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__le")
- if h then
- return (h(op1, op2))
- else
- h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__lt")
- if h then
- return not h(op2, op1)
- else
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-<code>a &gt;= b</code> is equivalent to <code>b &lt;= a</code>.
-Note that, in the absence of a "le" metamethod,
-Lua tries the "lt", assuming that <code>a &lt;= b</code> is
-equivalent to <code>not (b &lt; a)</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"index":</b>
-The indexing access <code>table[key]</code>.
-
-
-<pre>
- function gettable_event (table, key)
- local h
- if type(table) == "table" then
- local v = rawget(table, key)
- if v ~= nil then return v end
- h = metatable(table).__index
- if h == nil then return nil end
- else
- h = metatable(table).__index
- if h == nil then
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- if type(h) == "function" then
- return (h(table, key)) -- call the handler
- else return h[key] -- or repeat operation on it
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"newindex":</b>
-The indexing assignment <code>table[key] = value</code>.
-
-
-<pre>
- function settable_event (table, key, value)
- local h
- if type(table) == "table" then
- local v = rawget(table, key)
- if v ~= nil then rawset(table, key, value); return end
- h = metatable(table).__newindex
- if h == nil then rawset(table, key, value); return end
- else
- h = metatable(table).__newindex
- if h == nil then
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- if type(h) == "function" then
- h(table, key,value) -- call the handler
- else h[key] = value -- or repeat operation on it
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"call":</b>
-called when Lua calls a value.
-
-
-<pre>
- function function_event (func, ...)
- if type(func) == "function" then
- return func(...) -- primitive call
- else
- local h = metatable(func).__call
- if h then
- return h(func, ...)
- else
- error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
- end
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.9 - <a name="2.9">Environments</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Besides metatables,
-objects of types thread, function, and userdata
-have another table associated with them,
-called their <em>environment</em>.
-Like metatables, environments are regular tables and
-multiple objects can share the same environment.
-
-
-<p>
-Threads are created sharing the environment of the creating thread.
-Userdata and C&nbsp;functions are created sharing the environment
-of the creating C&nbsp;function.
-Non-nested Lua functions
-(created by <a href="#pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-loadstring"><code>loadstring</code></a> or <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>)
-are created sharing the environment of the creating thread.
-Nested Lua functions are created sharing the environment of
-the creating Lua function.
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with userdata have no meaning for Lua.
-It is only a convenience feature for programmers to associate a table to
-a userdata.
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with threads are called
-<em>global environments</em>.
-They are used as the default environment for threads and
-non-nested Lua functions created by the thread
-and can be directly accessed by C&nbsp;code (see <a href="#3.3">&sect;3.3</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The environment associated with a C&nbsp;function can be directly
-accessed by C&nbsp;code (see <a href="#3.3">&sect;3.3</a>).
-It is used as the default environment for other C&nbsp;functions
-and userdata created by the function.
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with Lua functions are used to resolve
-all accesses to global variables within the function (see <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>).
-They are used as the default environment for nested Lua functions
-created by the function.
-
-
-<p>
-You can change the environment of a Lua function or the
-running thread by calling <a href="#pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv</code></a>.
-You can get the environment of a Lua function or the running thread
-by calling <a href="#pdf-getfenv"><code>getfenv</code></a>.
-To manipulate the environment of other objects
-(userdata, C&nbsp;functions, other threads) you must
-use the C&nbsp;API.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.10 - <a name="2.10">Garbage Collection</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua performs automatic memory management.
-This means that
-you have to worry neither about allocating memory for new objects
-nor about freeing it when the objects are no longer needed.
-Lua manages memory automatically by running
-a <em>garbage collector</em> from time to time
-to collect all <em>dead objects</em>
-(that is, objects that are no longer accessible from Lua).
-All memory used by Lua is subject to automatic management:
-tables, userdata, functions, threads, strings, etc.
-
-
-<p>
-Lua implements an incremental mark-and-sweep collector.
-It uses two numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles:
-the <em>garbage-collector pause</em> and
-the <em>garbage-collector step multiplier</em>.
-Both use percentage points as units
-(so that a value of 100 means an internal value of 1).
-
-
-<p>
-The garbage-collector pause
-controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle.
-Larger values make the collector less aggressive.
-Values smaller than 100 mean the collector will not wait to
-start a new cycle.
-A value of 200 means that the collector waits for the total memory in use
-to double before starting a new cycle.
-
-
-<p>
-The step multiplier
-controls the relative speed of the collector relative to
-memory allocation.
-Larger values make the collector more aggressive but also increase
-the size of each incremental step.
-Values smaller than 100 make the collector too slow and
-can result in the collector never finishing a cycle.
-The default, 200, means that the collector runs at "twice"
-the speed of memory allocation.
-
-
-<p>
-You can change these numbers by calling <a href="#lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a> in C
-or <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> in Lua.
-With these functions you can also control
-the collector directly (e.g., stop and restart it).
-
-
-
-<h3>2.10.1 - <a name="2.10.1">Garbage-Collection Metamethods</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-Using the C&nbsp;API,
-you can set garbage-collector metamethods for userdata (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-These metamethods are also called <em>finalizers</em>.
-Finalizers allow you to coordinate Lua's garbage collection
-with external resource management
-(such as closing files, network or database connections,
-or freeing your own memory).
-
-
-<p>
-Garbage userdata with a field <code>__gc</code> in their metatables are not
-collected immediately by the garbage collector.
-Instead, Lua puts them in a list.
-After the collection,
-Lua does the equivalent of the following function
-for each userdata in that list:
-
-<pre>
- function gc_event (udata)
- local h = metatable(udata).__gc
- if h then
- h(udata)
- end
- end
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-At the end of each garbage-collection cycle,
-the finalizers for userdata are called in <em>reverse</em>
-order of their creation,
-among those collected in that cycle.
-That is, the first finalizer to be called is the one associated
-with the userdata created last in the program.
-The userdata itself is freed only in the next garbage-collection cycle.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.10.2 - <a name="2.10.2">Weak Tables</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-A <em>weak table</em> is a table whose elements are
-<em>weak references</em>.
-A weak reference is ignored by the garbage collector.
-In other words,
-if the only references to an object are weak references,
-then the garbage collector will collect this object.
-
-
-<p>
-A weak table can have weak keys, weak values, or both.
-A table with weak keys allows the collection of its keys,
-but prevents the collection of its values.
-A table with both weak keys and weak values allows the collection of
-both keys and values.
-In any case, if either the key or the value is collected,
-the whole pair is removed from the table.
-The weakness of a table is controlled by the
-<code>__mode</code> field of its metatable.
-If the <code>__mode</code> field is a string containing the character&nbsp;'<code>k</code>',
-the keys in the table are weak.
-If <code>__mode</code> contains '<code>v</code>',
-the values in the table are weak.
-
-
-<p>
-After you use a table as a metatable,
-you should not change the value of its <code>__mode</code> field.
-Otherwise, the weak behavior of the tables controlled by this
-metatable is undefined.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.11 - <a name="2.11">Coroutines</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua supports coroutines,
-also called <em>collaborative multithreading</em>.
-A coroutine in Lua represents an independent thread of execution.
-Unlike threads in multithread systems, however,
-a coroutine only suspends its execution by explicitly calling
-a yield function.
-
-
-<p>
-You create a coroutine with a call to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>.
-Its sole argument is a function
-that is the main function of the coroutine.
-The <code>create</code> function only creates a new coroutine and
-returns a handle to it (an object of type <em>thread</em>);
-it does not start the coroutine execution.
-
-
-<p>
-When you first call <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-passing as its first argument
-a thread returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>,
-the coroutine starts its execution,
-at the first line of its main function.
-Extra arguments passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> are passed on
-to the coroutine main function.
-After the coroutine starts running,
-it runs until it terminates or <em>yields</em>.
-
-
-<p>
-A coroutine can terminate its execution in two ways:
-normally, when its main function returns
-(explicitly or implicitly, after the last instruction);
-and abnormally, if there is an unprotected error.
-In the first case, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>true</b>,
-plus any values returned by the coroutine main function.
-In case of errors, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>false</b>
-plus an error message.
-
-
-<p>
-A coroutine yields by calling <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a>.
-When a coroutine yields,
-the corresponding <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns immediately,
-even if the yield happens inside nested function calls
-(that is, not in the main function,
-but in a function directly or indirectly called by the main function).
-In the case of a yield, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> also returns <b>true</b>,
-plus any values passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a>.
-The next time you resume the same coroutine,
-it continues its execution from the point where it yielded,
-with the call to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a> returning any extra
-arguments passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Like <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>,
-the <a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> function also creates a coroutine,
-but instead of returning the coroutine itself,
-it returns a function that, when called, resumes the coroutine.
-Any arguments passed to this function
-go as extra arguments to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
-<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> returns all the values returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-except the first one (the boolean error code).
-Unlike <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> does not catch errors;
-any error is propagated to the caller.
-
-
-<p>
-As an example,
-consider the following code:
-
-<pre>
- function foo (a)
- print("foo", a)
- return coroutine.yield(2*a)
- end
-
- co = coroutine.create(function (a,b)
- print("co-body", a, b)
- local r = foo(a+1)
- print("co-body", r)
- local r, s = coroutine.yield(a+b, a-b)
- print("co-body", r, s)
- return b, "end"
- end)
-
- print("main", coroutine.resume(co, 1, 10))
- print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "r"))
- print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "x", "y"))
- print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "x", "y"))
-</pre><p>
-When you run it, it produces the following output:
-
-<pre>
- co-body 1 10
- foo 2
-
- main true 4
- co-body r
- main true 11 -9
- co-body x y
- main true 10 end
- main false cannot resume dead coroutine
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<h1>3 - <a name="3">The Application Program Interface</a></h1>
+<h1>4 &ndash; <a name="4">The Application Program Interface</a></h1>
<p>
@@ -2245,7 +2495,8 @@ are declared in the header file <a name="pdf-lua.h"><code>lua.h</code></a>.
<p>
Even when we use the term "function",
any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead.
-All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once
+Except where stated otherwise,
+all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once
(except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state),
and so do not generate any hidden side-effects.
@@ -2254,12 +2505,11 @@ and so do not generate any hidden side-effects.
As in most C&nbsp;libraries,
the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.
However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua
-with a proper definition for the macro <a name="pdf-luai_apicheck"><code>luai_apicheck</code></a>,
-in file <code>luaconf.h</code>.
+with the macro <a name="pdf-LUA_USE_APICHECK"><code>LUA_USE_APICHECK</code></a> defined.
-<h2>3.1 - <a name="3.1">The Stack</a></h2>
+<h2>4.1 &ndash; <a name="4.1">The Stack</a></h2>
<p>
Lua uses a <em>virtual stack</em> to pass values to and from C.
@@ -2281,9 +2531,9 @@ For convenience,
most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack
by using an <em>index</em>:
-A positive index represents an <em>absolute</em> stack position
+A positive index represents an absolute stack position
(starting at&nbsp;1);
-a negative index represents an <em>offset</em> relative to the top of the stack.
+a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack.
More specifically, if the stack has <em>n</em> elements,
then index&nbsp;1 represents the first element
(that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first)
@@ -2292,150 +2542,208 @@ index&nbsp;<em>n</em> represents the last element;
index&nbsp;-1 also represents the last element
(that is, the element at the&nbsp;top)
and index <em>-n</em> represents the first element.
-We say that an index is <em>valid</em>
-if it lies between&nbsp;1 and the stack top
-(that is, if <code>1 &le; abs(index) &le; top</code>).
-
-<h2>3.2 - <a name="3.2">Stack Size</a></h2>
+<h2>4.2 &ndash; <a name="4.2">Stack Size</a></h2>
<p>
-When you interact with Lua API,
+When you interact with the Lua API,
you are responsible for ensuring consistency.
In particular,
<em>you are responsible for controlling stack overflow</em>.
You can use the function <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>
-to grow the stack size.
+to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements.
<p>
Whenever Lua calls C,
-it ensures that at least <a name="pdf-LUA_MINSTACK"><code>LUA_MINSTACK</code></a> stack positions are available.
+it ensures that the stack has at least <a name="pdf-LUA_MINSTACK"><code>LUA_MINSTACK</code></a> extra slots.
<code>LUA_MINSTACK</code> is defined as 20,
so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space
unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
<p>
-Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the
-available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size
-you have set through <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>.
-Such indices are called <em>acceptable indices</em>.
-More formally, we define an <em>acceptable index</em>
-as follows:
+When you call a Lua function
+without a fixed number of results (see <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>),
+Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results,
+but it does not ensure any extra space.
+So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call
+you should use <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>.
-<pre>
- (index &lt; 0 &amp;&amp; abs(index) &lt;= top) ||
- (index &gt; 0 &amp;&amp; index &lt;= stackspace)
-</pre><p>
-Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.
+<h2>4.3 &ndash; <a name="4.3">Valid and Acceptable Indices</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Any function in the API that receives stack indices
+works only with <em>valid indices</em> or <em>acceptable indices</em>.
+
+
+<p>
+A <em>valid index</em> is an index that refers to a
+real position within the stack, that is,
+its position lies between&nbsp;1 and the stack top
+(<code>1 &le; abs(index) &le; top</code>).
+
+Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index
+require valid indices.
-<h2>3.3 - <a name="3.3">Pseudo-Indices</a></h2>
<p>
Unless otherwise noted,
-any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with
-<em>pseudo-indices</em>,
+any function that accepts valid indices also accepts <em>pseudo-indices</em>,
which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C&nbsp;code
but which are not in the stack.
-Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment,
-the function environment,
-the registry,
-and the upvalues of a C&nbsp;function (see <a href="#3.4">&sect;3.4</a>).
+Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry
+and the upvalues of a C&nbsp;function (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>).
<p>
-The thread environment (where global variables live) is
-always at pseudo-index <a name="pdf-LUA_GLOBALSINDEX"><code>LUA_GLOBALSINDEX</code></a>.
-The environment of the running C&nbsp;function is always
-at pseudo-index <a name="pdf-LUA_ENVIRONINDEX"><code>LUA_ENVIRONINDEX</code></a>.
+Functions that do not need a specific stack position,
+but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions),
+can be called with acceptable indices.
+An <em>acceptable index</em> can be any valid index,
+including the pseudo-indices,
+but it also can be any positive index after the stack top
+within the space allocated for the stack,
+that is, indices up to the stack size.
+(Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.)
+Except when noted otherwise,
+functions in the API work with acceptable indices.
<p>
-To access and change the value of global variables,
-you can use regular table operations over an environment table.
-For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do
+Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests
+against the stack top when querying the stack.
+For instance, a C&nbsp;function can query its third argument
+without the need to first check whether there is a third argument,
+that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index.
+
+
+<p>
+For functions that can be called with acceptable indices,
+any non-valid index is treated as if it
+contains a value of a virtual type <a name="pdf-LUA_TNONE"><code>LUA_TNONE</code></a>,
+which behaves like a nil value.
-<pre>
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, varname);
-</pre>
-<h2>3.4 - <a name="3.4">C Closures</a></h2>
+<h2>4.4 &ndash; <a name="4.4">C Closures</a></h2>
<p>
When a C&nbsp;function is created,
it is possible to associate some values with it,
-thus creating a <em>C&nbsp;closure</em>;
+thus creating a <em>C&nbsp;closure</em>
+(see <a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a>);
these values are called <em>upvalues</em> and are
-accessible to the function whenever it is called
-(see <a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a>).
+accessible to the function whenever it is called.
<p>
Whenever a C&nbsp;function is called,
its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro
-<a name="lua_upvalueindex"><code>lua_upvalueindex</code></a>.
+<a href="#lua_upvalueindex"><code>lua_upvalueindex</code></a>.
The first value associated with a function is at position
<code>lua_upvalueindex(1)</code>, and so on.
Any access to <code>lua_upvalueindex(<em>n</em>)</code>,
where <em>n</em> is greater than the number of upvalues of the
current function (but not greater than 256),
-produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
+produces an acceptable but invalid index.
-<h2>3.5 - <a name="3.5">Registry</a></h2>
+<h2>4.5 &ndash; <a name="4.5">Registry</a></h2>
<p>
Lua provides a <em>registry</em>,
-a pre-defined table that can be used by any C&nbsp;code to
-store whatever Lua value it needs to store.
-This table is always located at pseudo-index
-<a name="pdf-LUA_REGISTRYINDEX"><code>LUA_REGISTRYINDEX</code></a>.
+a predefined table that can be used by any C&nbsp;code to
+store whatever Lua values it needs to store.
+The registry table is always located at pseudo-index
+<a name="pdf-LUA_REGISTRYINDEX"><code>LUA_REGISTRYINDEX</code></a>,
+which is a valid index.
Any C&nbsp;library can store data into this table,
-but it should take care to choose keys different from those used
+but it should take care to choose keys
+that are different from those used
by other libraries, to avoid collisions.
-Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name
-or a light userdata with the address of a C&nbsp;object in your code.
+Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name,
+or a light userdata with the address of a C&nbsp;object in your code,
+or any Lua object created by your code.
+As with global names,
+string keys starting with an underscore followed by
+uppercase letters are reserved for Lua.
<p>
The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism,
implemented by the auxiliary library,
-and therefore should not be used for other purposes.
+and by some predefined values.
+Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes.
+<p>
+When you create a new Lua state,
+its registry comes with some predefined values.
+These predefined values are indexed with integer keys
+defined as constants in <code>lua.h</code>.
+The following constants are defined:
+
+<ul>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD"><code>LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD</code></a>: </b> At this index the registry has
+the main thread of the state.
+(The main thread is the one created together with the state.)
+</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS"><code>LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS</code></a>: </b> At this index the registry has
+the global environment.
+</li>
+</ul>
-<h2>3.6 - <a name="3.6">Error Handling in C</a></h2>
+
+
+<h2>4.6 &ndash; <a name="4.6">Error Handling in C</a></h2>
<p>
Internally, Lua uses the C <code>longjmp</code> facility to handle errors.
-(You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++;
-see file <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+(You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++;
+search for <code>LUAI_THROW</code> in the source code.)
When Lua faces any error
-(such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors,
+(such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors,
and runtime errors)
it <em>raises</em> an error;
that is, it does a long jump.
A <em>protected environment</em> uses <code>setjmp</code>
-to set a recover point;
-any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
+to set a recovery point;
+any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point.
+
+
+<p>
+If an error happens outside any protected environment,
+Lua calls a <em>panic function</em> (see <a href="#lua_atpanic"><code>lua_atpanic</code></a>)
+and then calls <code>abort</code>,
+thus exiting the host application.
+Your panic function can avoid this exit by
+never returning
+(e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua).
+
+
+<p>
+The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>);
+in particular, the error message is at the top of the stack.
+However, there is no guarantees about stack space.
+To push anything on the stack,
+the panic function should first check the available space (see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>).
<p>
@@ -2452,7 +2760,74 @@ Inside a C&nbsp;function you can throw an error by calling <a href="#lua_error">
-<h2>3.7 - <a name="3.7">Functions and Types</a></h2>
+<h2>4.7 &ndash; <a name="4.7">Handling Yields in C</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+Internally, Lua uses the C <code>longjmp</code> facility to yield a coroutine.
+Therefore, if a function <code>foo</code> calls an API function
+and this API function yields
+(directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields),
+Lua cannot return to <code>foo</code> any more,
+because the <code>longjmp</code> removes its frame from the C stack.
+
+
+<p>
+To avoid this kind of problem,
+Lua raises an error whenever it tries to yield across an API call,
+except for three functions:
+<a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>, <a href="#lua_callk"><code>lua_callk</code></a>, and <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>.
+All those functions receive a <em>continuation function</em>
+(as a parameter called <code>k</code>) to continue execution after a yield.
+
+
+<p>
+We need to set some terminology to explain continuations.
+We have a C function called from Lua which we will call
+the <em>original function</em>.
+This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API,
+which we will call the <em>callee function</em>,
+that then yields the current thread.
+(This can happen when the callee function is <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>,
+or when the callee function is either <a href="#lua_callk"><code>lua_callk</code></a> or <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>
+and the function called by them yields.)
+
+
+<p>
+Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function.
+After the thread resumes,
+it eventually will finish running the callee function.
+However,
+the callee function cannot return to the original function,
+because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield.
+Instead, Lua calls a <em>continuation function</em>,
+which was given as an argument to the callee function.
+As the name implies,
+the continuation function should continue the task
+of the original function.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua treats the continuation function as if it were the original function.
+The continuation function receives the same Lua stack
+from the original function,
+in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned.
+(For instance,
+after a <a href="#lua_callk"><code>lua_callk</code></a> the function and its arguments are
+removed from the stack and replaced by the results from the call.)
+It also has the same upvalues.
+Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return
+of the original function.
+
+
+<p>
+The only difference in the Lua state between the original function
+and its continuation is the result of a call to <a href="#lua_getctx"><code>lua_getctx</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>4.8 &ndash; <a name="4.8">Functions and Types</a></h2>
<p>
Here we list all functions and types from the C&nbsp;API in
@@ -2477,13 +2852,23 @@ by looking only at its arguments
The third field, <code>x</code>,
tells whether the function may throw errors:
'<code>-</code>' means the function never throws any error;
-'<code>m</code>' means the function may throw an error
-only due to not enough memory;
-'<code>e</code>' means the function may throw other kinds of errors;
+'<code>e</code>' means the function may throw errors;
'<code>v</code>' means the function may throw an error on purpose.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_absindex"><code>lua_absindex</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_absindex (lua_State *L, int idx);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Converts the acceptable index <code>idx</code> into an absolute index
+(that is, one that does not depend on the stack top).
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_Alloc"><code>lua_Alloc</code></a></h3>
<pre>typedef void * (*lua_Alloc) (void *ud,
void *ptr,
@@ -2498,18 +2883,43 @@ but not exactly the same.
Its arguments are
<code>ud</code>, an opaque pointer passed to <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a>;
<code>ptr</code>, a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed;
-<code>osize</code>, the original size of the block;
+<code>osize</code>, the original size of the block or some code about what
+is being allocated;
<code>nsize</code>, the new size of the block.
-<code>ptr</code> is <code>NULL</code> if and only if <code>osize</code> is zero.
-When <code>nsize</code> is zero, the allocator must return <code>NULL</code>;
-if <code>osize</code> is not zero,
-it should free the block pointed to by <code>ptr</code>.
-When <code>nsize</code> is not zero, the allocator returns <code>NULL</code>
-if and only if it cannot fill the request.
-When <code>nsize</code> is not zero and <code>osize</code> is zero,
-the allocator should behave like <code>malloc</code>.
-When <code>nsize</code> and <code>osize</code> are not zero,
-the allocator behaves like <code>realloc</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+When <code>ptr</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
+<code>osize</code> is the size of the block pointed by <code>ptr</code>,
+that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated.
+
+
+<p>
+When <code>ptr</code> is <code>NULL</code>,
+<code>osize</code> encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating.
+<code>osize</code> is any of
+<a href="#pdf-LUA_TSTRING"><code>LUA_TSTRING</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-LUA_TTABLE"><code>LUA_TTABLE</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-LUA_TFUNCTION"><code>LUA_TFUNCTION</code></a>,
+<a href="#pdf-LUA_TUSERDATA"><code>LUA_TUSERDATA</code></a>, or <a href="#pdf-LUA_TTHREAD"><code>LUA_TTHREAD</code></a> when (and only when)
+Lua is creating a new object of that type.
+When <code>osize</code> is some other value,
+Lua is allocating memory for something else.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function:
+
+
+<p>
+When <code>nsize</code> is zero,
+the allocator should behave like <code>free</code>
+and return <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+When <code>nsize</code> is not zero,
+the allocator should behave like <code>realloc</code>.
+The allocator returns <code>NULL</code>
+if and only if it cannot fulfill the request.
Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when
<code>osize &gt;= nsize</code>.
@@ -2530,41 +2940,62 @@ It is used in the auxiliary library by <a href="#luaL_newstate"><code>luaL_newst
return realloc(ptr, nsize);
}
</pre><p>
-This code assumes
+Note that Standard&nbsp;C ensures
that <code>free(NULL)</code> has no effect and that
<code>realloc(NULL, size)</code> is equivalent to <code>malloc(size)</code>.
-ANSI&nbsp;C ensures both behaviors.
+This code assumes that <code>realloc</code> does not fail when shrinking a block.
+(Although Standard&nbsp;C does not ensure this behavior,
+it seems to be a safe assumption.)
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_atpanic"><code>lua_atpanic</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_arith"><code>lua_arith</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-(2|1), +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void lua_arith (lua_State *L, int op);</pre>
<p>
-Sets a new panic function and returns the old one.
+Performs an arithmetic operation over the two values
+(or one, in the case of negation)
+at the top of the stack,
+with the value at the top being the second operand,
+pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation.
+The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator
+(that is, it may call metamethods).
<p>
-If an error happens outside any protected environment,
-Lua calls a <em>panic function</em>
-and then calls <code>exit(EXIT_FAILURE)</code>,
-thus exiting the host application.
-Your panic function can avoid this exit by
-never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).
+The value of <code>op</code> must be one of the following constants:
+
+<ul>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPADD"><code>LUA_OPADD</code></a>: </b> performs addition (<code>+</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPSUB"><code>LUA_OPSUB</code></a>: </b> performs subtraction (<code>-</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPMUL"><code>LUA_OPMUL</code></a>: </b> performs multiplication (<code>*</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPDIV"><code>LUA_OPDIV</code></a>: </b> performs division (<code>/</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPMOD"><code>LUA_OPMOD</code></a>: </b> performs modulo (<code>%</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPPOW"><code>LUA_OPPOW</code></a>: </b> performs exponentiation (<code>^</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPUNM"><code>LUA_OPUNM</code></a>: </b> performs mathematical negation (unary <code>-</code>)</li>
+</ul>
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_atpanic"><code>lua_atpanic</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf);</pre>
<p>
-The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack.
+Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see <a href="#4.6">&sect;4.6</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +nresults, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-(nargs+1), +nresults, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_call (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults);</pre>
<p>
@@ -2584,7 +3015,7 @@ when the function is called.
The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.
The number of results is adjusted to <code>nresults</code>,
unless <code>nresults</code> is <a name="pdf-LUA_MULTRET"><code>LUA_MULTRET</code></a>.
-In this case, <em>all</em> results from the function are pushed.
+In this case, all results from the function are pushed.
Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order
(the first result is pushed first),
@@ -2606,14 +3037,14 @@ equivalent to this Lua code:
Here it is in&nbsp;C:
<pre>
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "f"); /* function to be called */
+ lua_getglobal(L, "f"); /* function to be called */
lua_pushstring(L, "how"); /* 1st argument */
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "t"); /* table to be indexed */
+ lua_getglobal(L, "t"); /* table to be indexed */
lua_getfield(L, -1, "x"); /* push result of t.x (2nd arg) */
lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove 't' from the stack */
lua_pushinteger(L, 14); /* 3rd argument */
lua_call(L, 3, 1); /* call 'f' with 3 arguments and 1 result */
- lua_setfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "a"); /* set global 'a' */
+ lua_setglobal(L, "a"); /* set global 'a' */
</pre><p>
Note that the code above is "balanced":
at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration.
@@ -2623,6 +3054,19 @@ This is considered good programming practice.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_callk"><code>lua_callk</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +nresults, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void lua_callk (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int ctx,
+ lua_CFunction k);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function behaves exactly like <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>,
+but allows the called function to yield (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a></h3>
<pre>typedef int (*lua_CFunction) (lua_State *L);</pre>
@@ -2675,12 +3119,15 @@ of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:
<hr><h3><a name="lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_checkstack (lua_State *L, int extra);</pre>
<p>
Ensures that there are at least <code>extra</code> free stack slots in the stack.
-It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size.
+It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request,
+because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size
+(typically at least a few thousand elements) or
+because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size.
This function never shrinks the stack;
if the stack is already larger than the new size,
it is left unchanged.
@@ -2690,7 +3137,7 @@ it is left unchanged.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_close"><code>lua_close</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_close (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -2699,11 +3146,38 @@ Destroys all objects in the given Lua state
and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.
On several platforms, you may not need to call this function,
because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
-On the other hand, long-running programs,
-such as a daemon or a web server,
-might need to release states as soon as they are not needed,
-to avoid growing too large.
+On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states,
+such as daemons or web servers,
+might need to close states as soon as they are not needed.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_compare"><code>lua_compare</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>int lua_compare (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2, int op);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Compares two Lua values.
+Returns 1 if the value at index <code>index1</code> satisfies <code>op</code>
+when compared with the value at index <code>index2</code>,
+following the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator
+(that is, it may call metamethods).
+Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
+Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices is non valid.
+
+
+<p>
+The value of <code>op</code> must be one of the following constants:
+
+<ul>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPEQ"><code>LUA_OPEQ</code></a>: </b> compares for equality (<code>==</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPLT"><code>LUA_OPLT</code></a>: </b> compares for less than (<code>&lt;</code>)</li>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OPLE"><code>LUA_OPLE</code></a>: </b> compares for less or equal (<code>&lt;=</code>)</li>
+
+</ul>
@@ -2719,40 +3193,39 @@ If <code>n</code>&nbsp;is&nbsp;1, the result is the single value on the stack
(that is, the function does nothing);
if <code>n</code> is 0, the result is the empty string.
Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua
-(see <a href="#2.5.4">&sect;2.5.4</a>).
+(see <a href="#3.4.5">&sect;3.4.5</a>).
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_cpcall"><code>lua_cpcall</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_cpcall (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction func, void *ud);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_copy"><code>lua_copy</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_copy (lua_State *L, int fromidx, int toidx);</pre>
<p>
-Calls the C&nbsp;function <code>func</code> in protected mode.
-<code>func</code> starts with only one element in its stack,
-a light userdata containing <code>ud</code>.
-In case of errors,
-<a href="#lua_cpcall"><code>lua_cpcall</code></a> returns the same error codes as <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
-plus the error object on the top of the stack;
-otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack.
-All values returned by <code>func</code> are discarded.
+Moves the element at index <code>fromidx</code>
+into the valid index <code>toidx</code>
+without shifting any element
+(therefore replacing the value at that position).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_createtable"><code>lua_createtable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_createtable (lua_State *L, int narr, int nrec);</pre>
<p>
Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.
-The new table has space pre-allocated
-for <code>narr</code> array elements and <code>nrec</code> non-array elements.
-This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements
+Parameter <code>narr</code> is a hint for how many elements the table
+will have as a sequence;
+parameter <code>nrec</code> is a hint for how many other elements
the table will have.
+Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table.
+This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance
+how many elements the table will have.
Otherwise you can use the function <a href="#lua_newtable"><code>lua_newtable</code></a>.
@@ -2760,7 +3233,7 @@ Otherwise you can use the function <a href="#lua_newtable"><code>lua_newtable</c
<hr><h3><a name="lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_dump (lua_State *L, lua_Writer writer, void *data);</pre>
<p>
@@ -2788,22 +3261,6 @@ This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_equal"><code>lua_equal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_equal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices <code>index1</code> and
-<code>index2</code> are equal,
-following the semantics of the Lua <code>==</code> operator
-(that is, may call metamethods).
-Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
-Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices is non valid.
-
-
-
-
-
<hr><h3><a name="lua_error"><code>lua_error</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_error (lua_State *L);</pre>
@@ -2813,7 +3270,7 @@ Generates a Lua error.
The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type)
must be on the stack top.
This function does a long jump,
-and therefore never returns.
+and therefore never returns
(see <a href="#luaL_error"><code>luaL_error</code></a>).
@@ -2834,28 +3291,28 @@ according to the value of the parameter <code>what</code>:
<ul>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTOP</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTOP</code>: </b>
stops the garbage collector.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCRESTART</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCRESTART</code>: </b>
restarts the garbage collector.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOLLECT</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOLLECT</code>: </b>
performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNT</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNT</code>: </b>
returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNTB</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNTB</code>: </b>
returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of
memory in use by Lua by 1024.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTEP</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTEP</code>: </b>
performs an incremental step of garbage collection.
The step "size" is controlled by <code>data</code>
(larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
@@ -2865,25 +3322,45 @@ The function returns 1 if the step finished a
garbage-collection cycle.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETPAUSE</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETPAUSE</code>: </b>
sets <code>data</code> as the new value
-for the <em>pause</em> of the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
+for the <em>pause</em> of the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
The function returns the previous value of the pause.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL</code>: </b>
sets <code>data</code> as the new value for the <em>step multiplier</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
+the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.
</li>
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCISRUNNING</code>: </b>
+returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running
+(i.e., not stopped).
+</li>
+
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCGEN</code>: </b>
+changes the collector to generational mode
+(see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
+</li>
+
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCINC</code>: </b>
+changes the collector to incremental mode.
+This is the default mode.
+</li>
+
</ul>
+<p>
+For more details about these options,
+see <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a>.
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getallocf"><code>lua_getallocf</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_Alloc lua_getallocf (lua_State *L, void **ud);</pre>
<p>
@@ -2895,13 +3372,37 @@ opaque pointer passed to <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a>.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getfenv"><code>lua_getfenv</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_getfenv (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_getctx"><code>lua_getctx</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_getctx (lua_State *L, int *ctx);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function is called by a continuation function (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>)
+to retrieve the status of the thread and a context information.
+
+
+<p>
+When called in the original function,
+<a href="#lua_getctx"><code>lua_getctx</code></a> always returns <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>
+and does not change the value of its argument <code>ctx</code>.
+When called inside a continuation function,
+<a href="#lua_getctx"><code>lua_getctx</code></a> returns <a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> and sets
+the value of <code>ctx</code> to be the context information
+(the value passed as the <code>ctx</code> argument
+to the callee together with the continuation function).
+
<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the environment table of
-the value at the given index.
+When the callee is <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>,
+Lua may also call its continuation function
+to handle errors during the call.
+That is, upon an error in the function called by <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>,
+Lua may not return to the original function
+but instead may call the continuation function.
+In that case, a call to <a href="#lua_getctx"><code>lua_getctx</code></a> will return the error code
+(the value that would be returned by <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>);
+the value of <code>ctx</code> will be set to the context information,
+as in the case of a yield.
@@ -2913,9 +3414,9 @@ the value at the given index.
<p>
Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index.
+where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
@@ -2927,24 +3428,18 @@ for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
<p>
Pushes onto the stack the value of the global <code>name</code>.
-It is defined as a macro:
-<pre>
- #define lua_getglobal(L,s) lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, s)
-</pre>
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getmetatable"><code>lua_getmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given
-acceptable index.
-If the index is not valid,
-or if the value does not have a metatable,
+Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index.
+If the value does not have a metatable,
the function returns&nbsp;0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
@@ -2957,7 +3452,7 @@ the function returns&nbsp;0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
<p>
Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index
+where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index
and <code>k</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
@@ -2965,14 +3460,14 @@ and <code>k</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
This function pops the key from the stack
(putting the resulting value in its place).
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_gettop"><code>lua_gettop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_gettop (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -2985,14 +3480,27 @@ this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_getuservalue"><code>lua_getuservalue</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_getuservalue (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the userdata
+at the given index.
+This Lua value must be a table or <b>nil</b>.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_insert"><code>lua_insert</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_insert (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
Moves the top element into the given valid index,
shifting up the elements above this index to open space.
-Cannot be called with a pseudo-index,
+This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index,
because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
@@ -3003,7 +3511,7 @@ because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
<pre>typedef ptrdiff_t lua_Integer;</pre>
<p>
-The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
+The type used by the Lua API to represent signed integral values.
<p>
@@ -3016,11 +3524,11 @@ which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isboolean"><code>lua_isboolean</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isboolean (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean,
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a boolean,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3028,11 +3536,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_iscfunction"><code>lua_iscfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_iscfunction (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C&nbsp;function,
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C&nbsp;function,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3040,11 +3548,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isfunction"><code>lua_isfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isfunction (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a function
(either C or Lua), and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3052,11 +3560,11 @@ Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function
<hr><h3><a name="lua_islightuserdata"><code>lua_islightuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_islightuserdata (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata,
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a light userdata,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3064,11 +3572,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnil"><code>lua_isnil</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isnil (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is <b>nil</b>,
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is <b>nil</b>,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3076,12 +3584,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnone"><code>lua_isnone</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isnone (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid
-(that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack),
+Returns 1 if the given index is not valid,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3089,12 +3596,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnoneornil"><code>lua_isnoneornil</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isnoneornil (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid
-(that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack)
+Returns 1 if the given index is not valid
or if the value at this index is <b>nil</b>,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3103,11 +3609,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnumber"><code>lua_isnumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isnumber (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a number
or a string convertible to a number,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3116,11 +3622,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isstring"><code>lua_isstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isstring (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a string
or a number (which is always convertible to a string),
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3129,11 +3635,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_istable"><code>lua_istable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_istable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table,
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3141,11 +3647,11 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isthread"><code>lua_isthread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isthread (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread,
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread,
and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
@@ -3153,103 +3659,122 @@ and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_isuserdata"><code>lua_isuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_isuserdata (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata
+Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a userdata
(either full or light), and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_lessthan"><code>lua_lessthan</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_lessthan (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_len"><code>lua_len</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void lua_len (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index <code>index1</code> is smaller
-than the value at acceptable index <code>index2</code>,
-following the semantics of the Lua <code>&lt;</code> operator
-(that is, may call metamethods).
-Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
-Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices is non valid.
+Returns the "length" of the value at the given index;
+it is equivalent to the '<code>#</code>' operator in Lua (see <a href="#3.4.6">&sect;3.4.6</a>).
+The result is pushed on the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_load (lua_State *L,
lua_Reader reader,
void *data,
- const char *chunkname);</pre>
+ const char *source,
+ const char *mode);</pre>
<p>
-Loads a Lua chunk.
+Loads a Lua chunk (without running it).
If there are no errors,
-<a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua
+<code>lua_load</code> pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua
function on top of the stack.
Otherwise, it pushes an error message.
-The return values of <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> are:
+
+
+<p>
+The return values of <code>lua_load</code> are:
<ul>
-<li><b>0:</b> no errors;</li>
+<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>: </b> no errors;</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX"><code>LUA_ERRSYNTAX</code></a>: </b>
+syntax error during precompilation;</li>
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX"><code>LUA_ERRSYNTAX</code></a>:</b>
-syntax error during pre-compilation;</li>
+<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>: </b>
+memory allocation error;</li>
-<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>:</b>
-memory allocation error.</li>
+<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRGCMM"><code>LUA_ERRGCMM</code></a>: </b>
+error while running a <code>__gc</code> metamethod.
+(This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded.
+It is generated by the garbage collector.)
+</li>
</ul>
<p>
-This function only loads a chunk;
-it does not run it.
+The <code>lua_load</code> function uses a user-supplied <code>reader</code> function
+to read the chunk (see <a href="#lua_Reader"><code>lua_Reader</code></a>).
+The <code>data</code> argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function.
+
+
+<p>
+The <code>source</code> argument gives a name to the chunk,
+which is used for error messages and in debug information (see <a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>).
<p>
-<a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary,
+<code>lua_load</code> automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary
and loads it accordingly (see program <code>luac</code>).
+The string <code>mode</code> works as in function <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>,
+with the addition that
+a <code>NULL</code> value is equivalent to the string "<code>bt</code>".
<p>
-The <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> function uses a user-supplied <code>reader</code> function
-to read the chunk (see <a href="#lua_Reader"><code>lua_Reader</code></a>).
-The <code>data</code> argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function.
+<code>lua_load</code> uses the stack internally,
+so the reader function should always leave the stack
+unmodified when returning.
<p>
-The <code>chunkname</code> argument gives a name to the chunk,
-which is used for error messages and in debug information (see <a href="#3.8">&sect;3.8</a>).
+If the resulting function has one upvalue,
+this upvalue is set to the value of the global environment
+stored at index <code>LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS</code> in the registry (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
+When loading main chunks,
+this upvalue will be the <code>_ENV</code> variable (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_State *lua_newstate (lua_Alloc f, void *ud);</pre>
<p>
-Creates a new, independent state.
-Returns <code>NULL</code> if cannot create the state
+Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state.
+Returns <code>NULL</code> if cannot create the thread or the state
(due to lack of memory).
The argument <code>f</code> is the allocator function;
Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.
The second argument, <code>ud</code>, is an opaque pointer that Lua
-simply passes to the allocator in every call.
+passes to the allocator in every call.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_newtable"><code>lua_newtable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_newtable (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3261,14 +3786,14 @@ It is equivalent to <code>lua_createtable(L, 0, 0)</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_newthread"><code>lua_newthread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>lua_State *lua_newthread (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack,
and returns a pointer to a <a href="#lua_State"><code>lua_State</code></a> that represents this new thread.
-The new state returned by this function shares with the original state
-all global objects (such as tables),
+The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread
+its global environment,
but has an independent execution stack.
@@ -3282,29 +3807,14 @@ like any Lua object.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_newuserdata"><code>lua_newuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size);</pre>
<p>
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size,
pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address,
and returns this address.
-
-
-<p>
-Userdata represent C&nbsp;values in Lua.
-A <em>full userdata</em> represents a block of memory.
-It is an object (like a table):
-you must create it, it can have its own metatable,
-and you can detect when it is being collected.
-A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality).
-
-
-<p>
-When Lua collects a full userdata with a <code>gc</code> metamethod,
-Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized.
-When this userdata is collected again then
-Lua frees its corresponding memory.
+The host program can freely use this memory.
@@ -3316,7 +3826,7 @@ Lua frees its corresponding memory.
<p>
Pops a key from the stack,
-and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index
+and pushes a key&ndash;value pair from the table at the given index
(the "next" pair after the given key).
If there are no more elements in the table,
then <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a> returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
@@ -3342,11 +3852,16 @@ A typical traversal looks like this:
While traversing a table,
do not call <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> directly on a key,
unless you know that the key is actually a string.
-Recall that <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> <em>changes</em>
+Recall that <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> may change
the value at the given index;
this confuses the next call to <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a>.
+<p>
+See function <a href="#pdf-next"><code>next</code></a> for the caveats of modifying
+the table during its traversal.
+
+
@@ -3356,35 +3871,16 @@ this confuses the next call to <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a>.
<p>
The type of numbers in Lua.
By default, it is double, but that can be changed in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-Through the configuration file you can change
+Through this configuration file you can change
Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long).
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_objlen"><code>lua_objlen</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>size_t lua_objlen (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the "length" of the value at the given acceptable index:
-for strings, this is the string length;
-for tables, this is the result of the length operator ('<code>#</code>');
-for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated
-for the userdata;
-for other values, it is&nbsp;0.
-
-
-
-
-
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +(nresults|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_pcall (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int errfunc);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +(nresults|1), &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_pcall (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int msgh);</pre>
<p>
Calls a function in protected mode.
@@ -3405,42 +3901,51 @@ and its arguments from the stack.
<p>
-If <code>errfunc</code> is 0,
+If <code>msgh</code> is 0,
then the error message returned on the stack
is exactly the original error message.
-Otherwise, <code>errfunc</code> is the stack index of an
-<em>error handler function</em>.
+Otherwise, <code>msgh</code> is the stack index of a
+<em>message handler</em>.
(In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.)
In case of runtime errors,
this function will be called with the error message
-and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>.
+and its return value will be the message
+returned on the stack by <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>.
<p>
-Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug
+Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug
information to the error message, such as a stack traceback.
Such information cannot be gathered after the return of <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
since by then the stack has unwound.
<p>
-The <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> function returns 0 in case of success
-or one of the following error codes
+The <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> function returns one of the following codes
(defined in <code>lua.h</code>):
<ul>
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRRUN"><code>LUA_ERRRUN</code></a>:</b>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> (0): </b>
+success.</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRRUN"><code>LUA_ERRRUN</code></a>: </b>
a runtime error.
</li>
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>:</b>
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>: </b>
memory allocation error.
-For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function.
+For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler.
</li>
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRERR"><code>LUA_ERRERR</code></a>:</b>
-error while running the error handler function.
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRERR"><code>LUA_ERRERR</code></a>: </b>
+error while running the message handler.
+</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRGCMM"><code>LUA_ERRGCMM</code></a>: </b>
+error while running a <code>__gc</code> metamethod.
+(This error typically has no relation with the function being called.
+It is generated by the garbage collector.)
</li>
</ul>
@@ -3448,8 +3953,25 @@ error while running the error handler function.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +(nresults|1), &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_pcallk (lua_State *L,
+ int nargs,
+ int nresults,
+ int errfunc,
+ int ctx,
+ lua_CFunction k);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function behaves exactly like <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
+but allows the called function to yield (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pop"><code>lua_pop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-n, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-n, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pop (lua_State *L, int n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3460,7 +3982,7 @@ Pops <code>n</code> elements from the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushboolean"><code>lua_pushboolean</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushboolean (lua_State *L, int b);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3471,7 +3993,7 @@ Pushes a boolean value with value <code>b</code> onto the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-n, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-n, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushcclosure (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction fn, int n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3481,7 +4003,7 @@ Pushes a new C&nbsp;closure onto the stack.
<p>
When a C&nbsp;function is created,
it is possible to associate some values with it,
-thus creating a C&nbsp;closure (see <a href="#3.4">&sect;3.4</a>);
+thus creating a C&nbsp;closure (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>);
these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C&nbsp;function,
first these values should be pushed onto the stack
@@ -3497,11 +4019,18 @@ associated with the function.
The maximum value for <code>n</code> is 255.
+<p>
+When <code>n</code> is zero,
+this function creates a <em>light C function</em>,
+which is just a pointer to the C&nbsp;function.
+In that case, it never throws a memory error.
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushcfunction"><code>lua_pushcfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushcfunction (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction f);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3522,19 +4051,21 @@ and return its results (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code><
<pre>
#define lua_pushcfunction(L,f) lua_pushcclosure(L,f,0)
-</pre>
+</pre><p>
+Note that <code>f</code> is used twice.
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushfstring"><code>lua_pushfstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_pushfstring (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...);</pre>
<p>
Pushes onto the stack a formatted string
and returns a pointer to this string.
-It is similar to the C&nbsp;function <code>sprintf</code>,
+It is similar to the ANSI&nbsp;C function <code>sprintf</code>,
but has some important differences:
<ul>
@@ -3554,7 +4085,7 @@ The conversion specifiers can only be
'<code>%f</code>' (inserts a <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a>),
'<code>%p</code>' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral),
'<code>%d</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code>), and
-'<code>%c</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code> as a character).
+'<code>%c</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code> as a byte).
</li>
</ul>
@@ -3562,8 +4093,19 @@ The conversion specifiers can only be
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushglobaltable"><code>lua_pushglobaltable</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_pushglobaltable (lua_State *L);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pushes the global environment onto the stack.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushinteger"><code>lua_pushinteger</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushinteger (lua_State *L, lua_Integer n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3574,7 +4116,7 @@ Pushes a number with value <code>n</code> onto the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushlightuserdata"><code>lua_pushlightuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushlightuserdata (lua_State *L, void *p);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3583,7 +4125,7 @@ Pushes a light userdata onto the stack.
<p>
Userdata represent C&nbsp;values in Lua.
-A <em>light userdata</em> represents a pointer.
+A <em>light userdata</em> represents a pointer, a <code>void*</code>.
It is a value (like a number):
you do not create it, it has no individual metatable,
and it is not collected (as it was never created).
@@ -3595,21 +4137,21 @@ light userdata with the same C&nbsp;address.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushliteral"><code>lua_pushliteral</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushliteral (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>const char *lua_pushliteral (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
<p>
This macro is equivalent to <a href="#lua_pushlstring"><code>lua_pushlstring</code></a>,
but can be used only when <code>s</code> is a literal string.
-In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
+It automatically provides the string length.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushlstring"><code>lua_pushlstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushlstring (lua_State *L, const char *s, size_t len);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>const char *lua_pushlstring (lua_State *L, const char *s, size_t len);</pre>
<p>
Pushes the string pointed to by <code>s</code> with size <code>len</code>
@@ -3617,14 +4159,19 @@ onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string,
so the memory at <code>s</code> can be freed or reused immediately after
the function returns.
-The string can contain embedded zeros.
+The string can contain any binary data,
+including embedded zeros.
+
+
+<p>
+Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushnil"><code>lua_pushnil</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushnil (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3635,7 +4182,7 @@ Pushes a nil value onto the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushnumber"><code>lua_pushnumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushnumber (lua_State *L, lua_Number n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3646,8 +4193,8 @@ Pushes a number with value <code>n</code> onto the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushstring"><code>lua_pushstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushstring (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>const char *lua_pushstring (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
<p>
Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by <code>s</code>
@@ -3655,15 +4202,21 @@ onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string,
so the memory at <code>s</code> can be freed or reused immediately after
the function returns.
-The string cannot contain embedded zeros;
-it is assumed to end at the first zero.
+
+
+<p>
+Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string.
+
+
+<p>
+If <code>s</code> is <code>NULL</code>, pushes <b>nil</b> and returns <code>NULL</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushthread"><code>lua_pushthread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_pushthread (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3674,12 +4227,23 @@ Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushunsigned"><code>lua_pushunsigned</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_pushunsigned (lua_State *L, lua_Unsigned n);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pushes a number with value <code>n</code> onto the stack.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushvalue"><code>lua_pushvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_pushvalue (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index
+Pushes a copy of the element at the given index
onto the stack.
@@ -3687,7 +4251,7 @@ onto the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushvfstring"><code>lua_pushvfstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_pushvfstring (lua_State *L,
const char *fmt,
va_list argp);</pre>
@@ -3701,11 +4265,11 @@ instead of a variable number of arguments.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawequal"><code>lua_rawequal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_rawequal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2);</pre>
<p>
-Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices <code>index1</code> and
+Returns 1 if the two values in indices <code>index1</code> and
<code>index2</code> are primitively equal
(that is, without calling metamethods).
Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
@@ -3716,7 +4280,7 @@ Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices are non valid.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawget"><code>lua_rawget</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_rawget (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3728,12 +4292,27 @@ Similar to <a href="#lua_gettable"><code>lua_gettable</code></a>, but does a raw
<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawgeti"><code>lua_rawgeti</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_rawgeti (lua_State *L, int index, int n);</pre>
<p>
Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[n]</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index.
+where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index.
+The access is raw;
+that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawgetp"><code>lua_rawgetp</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_rawgetp (lua_State *L, int index, const void *p);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
+where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index and
+<code>k</code> is the pointer <code>p</code> represented as a light userdata.
The access is raw;
that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
@@ -3741,8 +4320,25 @@ that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawlen"><code>lua_rawlen</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>size_t lua_rawlen (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the raw "length" of the value at the given index:
+for strings, this is the string length;
+for tables, this is the result of the length operator ('<code>#</code>')
+with no metamethods;
+for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated
+for the userdata;
+for other values, it is&nbsp;0.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawset"><code>lua_rawset</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-2, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-2, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_rawset (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3754,12 +4350,32 @@ Similar to <a href="#lua_settable"><code>lua_settable</code></a>, but does a raw
<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawseti"><code>lua_rawseti</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_rawseti (lua_State *L, int index, int n);</pre>
<p>
Does the equivalent of <code>t[n] = v</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index
+where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index
+and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
+
+
+<p>
+This function pops the value from the stack.
+The assignment is raw;
+that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawsetp"><code>lua_rawsetp</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void lua_rawsetp (lua_State *L, int index, const void *p);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Does the equivalent of <code>t[k] = v</code>,
+where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index,
+<code>k</code> is the pointer <code>p</code> represented as a light userdata,
and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
@@ -3796,9 +4412,7 @@ The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_register"><code>lua_register</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_register (lua_State *L,
- const char *name,
- lua_CFunction f);</pre>
+<pre>void lua_register (lua_State *L, const char *name, lua_CFunction f);</pre>
<p>
Sets the C function <code>f</code> as the new value of global <code>name</code>.
@@ -3813,13 +4427,13 @@ It is defined as a macro:
<hr><h3><a name="lua_remove"><code>lua_remove</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_remove (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
Removes the element at the given valid index,
shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap.
-Cannot be called with a pseudo-index,
+This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index,
because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
@@ -3827,54 +4441,68 @@ because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_replace"><code>lua_replace</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_replace (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it),
+Moves the top element into the given valid index
without shifting any element
-(therefore replacing the value at the given position).
+(therefore replacing the value at the given index),
+and then pops the top element.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_resume (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_resume (lua_State *L, lua_State *from, int nargs);</pre>
<p>
Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.
<p>
-To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread
-(see <a href="#lua_newthread"><code>lua_newthread</code></a>);
-then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments;
+To start a coroutine,
+you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments;
then you call <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>,
-with <code>narg</code> being the number of arguments.
+with <code>nargs</code> being the number of arguments.
This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>,
or all values returned by the body function.
<a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> returns
<a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the coroutine yields,
-0 if the coroutine finishes its execution
+<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> if the coroutine finishes its execution
without errors,
or an error code in case of errors (see <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>).
+
+
+<p>
In case of errors,
the stack is not unwound,
so you can use the debug API over it.
The error message is on the top of the stack.
-To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to
+
+
+<p>
+To resume a coroutine,
+you remove any results from the last <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>,
+put on its stack only the values to
be passed as results from <code>yield</code>,
and then call <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>.
+<p>
+The parameter <code>from</code> represents the coroutine that is resuming <code>L</code>.
+If there is no such coroutine,
+this parameter can be <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_setallocf"><code>lua_setallocf</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_setallocf (lua_State *L, lua_Alloc f, void *ud);</pre>
<p>
@@ -3885,36 +4513,20 @@ with user data <code>ud</code>.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setfenv"><code>lua_setfenv</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_setfenv (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pops a table from the stack and sets it as
-the new environment for the value at the given index.
-If the value at the given index is
-neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata,
-<a href="#lua_setfenv"><code>lua_setfenv</code></a> returns 0.
-Otherwise it returns 1.
-
-
-
-
-
<hr><h3><a name="lua_setfield"><code>lua_setfield</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_setfield (lua_State *L, int index, const char *k);</pre>
<p>
Does the equivalent to <code>t[k] = v</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index
+where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index
and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
<p>
This function pops the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
@@ -3927,23 +4539,18 @@ for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
<p>
Pops a value from the stack and
sets it as the new value of global <code>name</code>.
-It is defined as a macro:
-<pre>
- #define lua_setglobal(L,s) lua_setfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, s)
-</pre>
<hr><h3><a name="lua_setmetatable"><code>lua_setmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
Pops a table from the stack and
-sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given
-acceptable index.
+sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index.
@@ -3955,7 +4562,7 @@ acceptable index.
<p>
Does the equivalent to <code>t[k] = v</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index,
+where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index,
<code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack,
and <code>k</code> is the value just below the top.
@@ -3963,18 +4570,18 @@ and <code>k</code> is the value just below the top.
<p>
This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
+for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_settop"><code>lua_settop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Accepts any acceptable index, or&nbsp;0,
+Accepts any index, or&nbsp;0,
and sets the stack top to this index.
If the new top is larger than the old one,
then the new elements are filled with <b>nil</b>.
@@ -3984,18 +4591,31 @@ If <code>index</code> is&nbsp;0, then all stack elements are removed.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_setuservalue"><code>lua_setuservalue</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_setuservalue (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pops a table or <b>nil</b> from the stack and sets it as
+the new value associated to the userdata at the given index.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_State"><code>lua_State</code></a></h3>
<pre>typedef struct lua_State lua_State;</pre>
<p>
-Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter.
+An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly
+(through the thread) to the whole state of a Lua interpreter.
The Lua library is fully reentrant:
it has no global variables.
-All information about a state is kept in this structure.
+All information about a state is accessible through this structure.
<p>
-A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to
+A pointer to this structure must be passed as the first argument to
every function in the library, except to <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a>,
which creates a Lua state from scratch.
@@ -4004,7 +4624,7 @@ which creates a Lua state from scratch.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_status"><code>lua_status</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_status (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4012,26 +4632,33 @@ Returns the status of the thread <code>L</code>.
<p>
-The status can be 0 for a normal thread,
-an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error,
+The status can be 0 (<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>) for a normal thread,
+an error code if the thread finished the execution
+of a <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> with an error,
or <a name="pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the thread is suspended.
+<p>
+You can only call functions in threads with status <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>.
+You can resume threads with status <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>
+(to start a new coroutine) or <a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a>
+(to resume a coroutine).
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_toboolean"><code>lua_toboolean</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_toboolean (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C&nbsp;boolean
+Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C&nbsp;boolean
value (0&nbsp;or&nbsp;1).
Like all tests in Lua,
-<a href="#lua_toboolean"><code>lua_toboolean</code></a> returns 1 for any Lua value
+<a href="#lua_toboolean"><code>lua_toboolean</code></a> returns true for any Lua value
different from <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b>;
-otherwise it returns 0.
-It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index.
+otherwise it returns false.
(If you want to accept only actual boolean values,
use <a href="#lua_isboolean"><code>lua_isboolean</code></a> to test the value's type.)
@@ -4040,11 +4667,11 @@ use <a href="#lua_isboolean"><code>lua_isboolean</code></a> to test the value's
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tocfunction"><code>lua_tocfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_CFunction lua_tocfunction (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C&nbsp;function.
+Converts a value at the given index to a C&nbsp;function.
That value must be a C&nbsp;function;
otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
@@ -4053,15 +4680,26 @@ otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tointeger"><code>lua_tointeger</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_Integer lua_tointeger (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index
+Equivalent to <a href="#lua_tointegerx"><code>lua_tointegerx</code></a> with <code>isnum</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_tointegerx"><code>lua_tointegerx</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>lua_Integer lua_tointegerx (lua_State *L, int index, int *isnum);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Converts the Lua value at the given index
to the signed integral type <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number
-(see <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>);
-otherwise, <a href="#lua_tointeger"><code>lua_tointeger</code></a> returns&nbsp;0.
+(see <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>);
+otherwise, <code>lua_tointegerx</code> returns&nbsp;0.
<p>
@@ -4069,34 +4707,40 @@ If the number is not an integer,
it is truncated in some non-specified way.
+<p>
+If <code>isnum</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
+its referent is assigned a boolean value that
+indicates whether the operation succeeded.
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_tolstring (lua_State *L, int index, size_t *len);</pre>
<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C&nbsp;string.
+Converts the Lua value at the given index to a C&nbsp;string.
If <code>len</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
it also sets <code>*len</code> with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number;
otherwise, the function returns <code>NULL</code>.
If the value is a number,
-then <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> also
+then <code>lua_tolstring</code> also
<em>changes the actual value in the stack to a string</em>.
(This change confuses <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a>
-when <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> is applied to keys during a table traversal.)
+when <code>lua_tolstring</code> is applied to keys during a table traversal.)
<p>
-<a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> returns a fully aligned pointer
+<code>lua_tolstring</code> returns a fully aligned pointer
to a string inside the Lua state.
This string always has a zero ('<code>\0</code>')
after its last character (as in&nbsp;C),
but can contain other zeros in its body.
Because Lua has garbage collection,
-there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a>
+there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by <code>lua_tolstring</code>
will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack.
@@ -4104,29 +4748,46 @@ will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tonumber"><code>lua_tonumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_Number lua_tonumber (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index
+Equivalent to <a href="#lua_tonumberx"><code>lua_tonumberx</code></a> with <code>isnum</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_tonumberx"><code>lua_tonumberx</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>lua_Number lua_tonumberx (lua_State *L, int index, int *isnum);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Converts the Lua value at the given index
to the C&nbsp;type <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a> (see <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a>).
The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number
-(see <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>);
-otherwise, <a href="#lua_tonumber"><code>lua_tonumber</code></a> returns&nbsp;0.
+(see <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>);
+otherwise, <a href="#lua_tonumberx"><code>lua_tonumberx</code></a> returns&nbsp;0.
+
+
+<p>
+If <code>isnum</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
+its referent is assigned a boolean value that
+indicates whether the operation succeeded.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_topointer"><code>lua_topointer</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>const void *lua_topointer (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic
+Converts the value at the given index to a generic
C&nbsp;pointer (<code>void*</code>).
The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function;
-otherwise, <a href="#lua_topointer"><code>lua_topointer</code></a> returns <code>NULL</code>.
+otherwise, <code>lua_topointer</code> returns <code>NULL</code>.
Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
@@ -4139,7 +4800,7 @@ Typically this function is used only for debug information.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tostring"><code>lua_tostring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_tostring (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4150,11 +4811,11 @@ Equivalent to <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> with <code
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tothread"><code>lua_tothread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_State *lua_tothread (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread
+Converts the value at the given index to a Lua thread
(represented as <code>lua_State*</code>).
This value must be a thread;
otherwise, the function returns <code>NULL</code>.
@@ -4163,12 +4824,52 @@ otherwise, the function returns <code>NULL</code>.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_tounsigned"><code>lua_tounsigned</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>lua_Unsigned lua_tounsigned (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Equivalent to <a href="#lua_tounsignedx"><code>lua_tounsignedx</code></a> with <code>isnum</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_tounsignedx"><code>lua_tounsignedx</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>lua_Unsigned lua_tounsignedx (lua_State *L, int index, int *isnum);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Converts the Lua value at the given index
+to the unsigned integral type <a href="#lua_Unsigned"><code>lua_Unsigned</code></a>.
+The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number
+(see <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>);
+otherwise, <code>lua_tounsignedx</code> returns&nbsp;0.
+
+
+<p>
+If the number is not an integer,
+it is truncated in some non-specified way.
+If the number is outside the range of representable values,
+it is normalized to the remainder of its division by
+one more than the maximum representable value.
+
+
+<p>
+If <code>isnum</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
+its referent is assigned a boolean value that
+indicates whether the operation succeeded.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_touserdata"><code>lua_touserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata,
+If the value at the given index is a full userdata,
returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata,
returns its pointer.
@@ -4179,33 +4880,32 @@ Otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_type (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index,
-or <code>LUA_TNONE</code> for a non-valid index
-(that is, an index to an "empty" stack position).
+Returns the type of the value in the given valid index,
+or <code>LUA_TNONE</code> for a non-valid (but acceptable) index.
The types returned by <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> are coded by the following constants
defined in <code>lua.h</code>:
-<code>LUA_TNIL</code>,
-<code>LUA_TNUMBER</code>,
-<code>LUA_TBOOLEAN</code>,
-<code>LUA_TSTRING</code>,
-<code>LUA_TTABLE</code>,
-<code>LUA_TFUNCTION</code>,
-<code>LUA_TUSERDATA</code>,
-<code>LUA_TTHREAD</code>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TNIL"><code>LUA_TNIL</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TNUMBER"><code>LUA_TNUMBER</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TBOOLEAN"><code>LUA_TBOOLEAN</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TSTRING"><code>LUA_TSTRING</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TTABLE"><code>LUA_TTABLE</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TFUNCTION"><code>LUA_TFUNCTION</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TUSERDATA"><code>LUA_TUSERDATA</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TTHREAD"><code>LUA_TTHREAD</code></a>,
and
-<code>LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA</code>.
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA"><code>LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA</code></a>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_typename"><code>lua_typename</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_typename (lua_State *L, int tp);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>const char *lua_typename (lua_State *L, int tp);</pre>
<p>
Returns the name of the type encoded by the value <code>tp</code>,
@@ -4215,6 +4915,49 @@ which must be one the values returned by <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</cod
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_Unsigned"><code>lua_Unsigned</code></a></h3>
+<pre>typedef unsigned long lua_Unsigned;</pre>
+
+<p>
+The type used by the Lua API to represent unsigned integral values.
+It must have at least 32 bits.
+
+
+<p>
+By default it is an <code>unsigned int</code> or an <code>unsigned long</code>,
+whichever can hold 32-bit values.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_upvalueindex"><code>lua_upvalueindex</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_upvalueindex (int i);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the pseudo-index that represents the <code>i</code>-th upvalue of
+the running function (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>).
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_version"><code>lua_version</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
+<pre>const lua_Number *lua_version (lua_State *L);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core.
+When called with a valid <a href="#lua_State"><code>lua_State</code></a>,
+returns the address of the version used to create that state.
+When called with <code>NULL</code>,
+returns the address of the version running the call.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_Writer"><code>lua_Writer</code></a></h3>
<pre>typedef int (*lua_Writer) (lua_State *L,
const void* p,
@@ -4241,11 +4984,11 @@ calling the writer again.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_xmove"><code>lua_xmove</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void lua_xmove (lua_State *from, lua_State *to, int n);</pre>
<p>
-Exchange values between different threads of the <em>same</em> global state.
+Exchange values between different threads of the same state.
<p>
@@ -4257,8 +5000,23 @@ and pushes them onto the stack <code>to</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_yield (lua_State *L, int nresults);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_yield (lua_State *L, int nresults);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function is equivalent to <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>,
+but it has no continuation (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+Therefore, when the thread resumes,
+it returns to the function that called
+the function calling <code>lua_yield</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_yieldk (lua_State *L, int nresults, int ctx, lua_CFunction k);</pre>
<p>
Yields a coroutine.
@@ -4269,21 +5027,34 @@ This function should only be called as the
return expression of a C&nbsp;function, as follows:
<pre>
- return lua_yield (L, nresults);
+ return lua_yieldk (L, n, i, k);
</pre><p>
-When a C&nbsp;function calls <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a> in that way,
+When a C&nbsp;function calls <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a> in that way,
the running coroutine suspends its execution,
and the call to <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> that started this coroutine returns.
The parameter <code>nresults</code> is the number of values from the stack
that are passed as results to <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>.
+<p>
+When the coroutine is resumed again,
+Lua calls the given continuation function <code>k</code> to continue
+the execution of the C function that yielded (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+This continuation function receives the same stack
+from the previous function,
+with the results removed and
+replaced by the arguments passed to <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>.
+Moreover,
+the continuation function may access the value <code>ctx</code>
+by calling <a href="#lua_getctx"><code>lua_getctx</code></a>.
+
+
-<h2>3.8 - <a name="3.8">The Debug Interface</a></h2>
+<h2>4.9 &ndash; <a name="4.9">The Debug Interface</a></h2>
<p>
Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.
@@ -4303,9 +5074,12 @@ that need "inside information" from the interpreter.
const char *what; /* (S) */
const char *source; /* (S) */
int currentline; /* (l) */
- int nups; /* (u) number of upvalues */
int linedefined; /* (S) */
int lastlinedefined; /* (S) */
+ unsigned char nups; /* (u) number of upvalues */
+ unsigned char nparams; /* (u) number of parameters */
+ char isvararg; /* (u) */
+ char istailcall; /* (t) */
char short_src[LUA_IDSIZE]; /* (S) */
/* private part */
<em>other fields</em>
@@ -4313,7 +5087,7 @@ that need "inside information" from the interpreter.
<p>
A structure used to carry different pieces of
-information about an active function.
+information about a function or an activation record.
<a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> fills only the private part
of this structure, for later use.
To fill the other fields of <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> with useful information,
@@ -4325,41 +5099,43 @@ The fields of <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> have the following
<ul>
-<li><b><code>source</code>:</b>
-If the function was defined in a string,
-then <code>source</code> is that string.
-If the function was defined in a file,
-then <code>source</code> starts with a '<code>@</code>' followed by the file name.
+<li><b><code>source</code>: </b>
+the source of the chunk that created the function.
+If <code>source</code> starts with a '<code>@</code>',
+it means that the function was defined in a file where
+the file name follows the '<code>@</code>'.
+If <code>source</code> starts with a '<code>=</code>',
+the remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner.
+Otherwise,
+the function was defined in a string where
+<code>source</code> is that string.
</li>
-<li><b><code>short_src</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>short_src</code>: </b>
a "printable" version of <code>source</code>, to be used in error messages.
</li>
-<li><b><code>linedefined</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>linedefined</code>: </b>
the line number where the definition of the function starts.
</li>
-<li><b><code>lastlinedefined</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>lastlinedefined</code>: </b>
the line number where the definition of the function ends.
</li>
-<li><b><code>what</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>what</code>: </b>
the string <code>"Lua"</code> if the function is a Lua function,
<code>"C"</code> if it is a C&nbsp;function,
-<code>"main"</code> if it is the main part of a chunk,
-and <code>"tail"</code> if it was a function that did a tail call.
-In the latter case,
-Lua has no other information about the function.
+<code>"main"</code> if it is the main part of a chunk.
</li>
-<li><b><code>currentline</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>currentline</code>: </b>
the current line where the given function is executing.
When no line information is available,
<code>currentline</code> is set to -1.
</li>
-<li><b><code>name</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>name</code>: </b>
a reasonable name for the given function.
Because functions in Lua are first-class values,
they do not have a fixed name:
@@ -4371,7 +5147,7 @@ If it cannot find a name,
then <code>name</code> is set to <code>NULL</code>.
</li>
-<li><b><code>namewhat</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>namewhat</code>: </b>
explains the <code>name</code> field.
The value of <code>namewhat</code> can be
<code>"global"</code>, <code>"local"</code>, <code>"method"</code>,
@@ -4380,17 +5156,32 @@ according to how the function was called.
(Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.)
</li>
-<li><b><code>nups</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>istailcall</code>: </b>
+true if this function invocation was called by a tail call.
+In this case, the caller of this level is not in the stack.
+</li>
+
+<li><b><code>nups</code>: </b>
the number of upvalues of the function.
</li>
+<li><b><code>nparams</code>: </b>
+the number of fixed parameters of the function
+(always 0&nbsp;for C&nbsp;functions).
+</li>
+
+<li><b><code>isvararg</code>: </b>
+true if the function is a vararg function
+(always true for C&nbsp;functions).
+</li>
+
</ul>
<hr><h3><a name="lua_gethook"><code>lua_gethook</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_Hook lua_gethook (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4401,7 +5192,7 @@ Returns the current hook function.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_gethookcount"><code>lua_gethookcount</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_gethookcount (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4412,7 +5203,7 @@ Returns the current hook count.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_gethookmask"><code>lua_gethookmask</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_gethookmask (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4423,11 +5214,11 @@ Returns the current hook mask.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +(0|1|2), <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +(0|1|2), <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_getinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar);</pre>
<p>
-Returns information about a specific function or function invocation.
+Gets information about a specific function or function invocation.
<p>
@@ -4441,13 +5232,13 @@ given as argument to a hook (see <a href="#lua_Hook"><code>lua_Hook</code></a>).
To get information about a function you push it onto the stack
and start the <code>what</code> string with the character '<code>&gt;</code>'.
(In that case,
-<code>lua_getinfo</code> pops the function in the top of the stack.)
+<code>lua_getinfo</code> pops the function from the top of the stack.)
For instance, to know in which line a function <code>f</code> was defined,
you can write the following code:
<pre>
lua_Debug ar;
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "f"); /* get global 'f' */
+ lua_getglobal(L, "f"); /* get global 'f' */
lua_getinfo(L, "&gt;S", &amp;ar);
printf("%d\n", ar.linedefined);
</pre>
@@ -4459,26 +5250,30 @@ a value to be pushed on the stack:
<ul>
-<li><b>'<code>n</code>':</b> fills in the field <code>name</code> and <code>namewhat</code>;
+<li><b>'<code>n</code>': </b> fills in the field <code>name</code> and <code>namewhat</code>;
</li>
-<li><b>'<code>S</code>':</b>
+<li><b>'<code>S</code>': </b>
fills in the fields <code>source</code>, <code>short_src</code>,
<code>linedefined</code>, <code>lastlinedefined</code>, and <code>what</code>;
</li>
-<li><b>'<code>l</code>':</b> fills in the field <code>currentline</code>;
+<li><b>'<code>l</code>': </b> fills in the field <code>currentline</code>;
</li>
-<li><b>'<code>u</code>':</b> fills in the field <code>nups</code>;
+<li><b>'<code>t</code>': </b> fills in the field <code>istailcall</code>;
</li>
-<li><b>'<code>f</code>':</b>
+<li><b>'<code>u</code>': </b> fills in the fields
+<code>nups</code>, <code>nparams</code>, and <code>isvararg</code>;
+</li>
+
+<li><b>'<code>f</code>': </b>
pushes onto the stack the function that is
running at the given level;
</li>
-<li><b>'<code>L</code>':</b>
+<li><b>'<code>L</code>': </b>
pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the
numbers of the lines that are valid on the function.
(A <em>valid line</em> is a line with some associated code,
@@ -4497,25 +5292,35 @@ This function returns 0 on error
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), &ndash;]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_getlocal (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar, int n);</pre>
<p>
-Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record.
-The parameter <code>ar</code> must be a valid activation record that was
+Gets information about a local variable of
+a given activation record or a given function.
+
+
+<p>
+In the first case,
+the parameter <code>ar</code> must be a valid activation record that was
filled by a previous call to <a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> or
given as argument to a hook (see <a href="#lua_Hook"><code>lua_Hook</code></a>).
-The index <code>n</code> selects which local variable to inspect
-(1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on,
-until the last active local variable).
+The index <code>n</code> selects which local variable to inspect;
+see <a href="#pdf-debug.getlocal"><code>debug.getlocal</code></a> for details about variable indices
+and names.
+
+
+<p>
<a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a> pushes the variable's value onto the stack
and returns its name.
<p>
-Variable names starting with '<code>(</code>' (open parentheses)
-represent internal variables
-(loop control variables, temporaries, and C&nbsp;function locals).
+In the second case, <code>ar</code> should be <code>NULL</code> and the function
+to be inspected must be at the top of the stack.
+In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible
+(as there is no information about what variables are active)
+and no values are pushed onto the stack.
<p>
@@ -4528,11 +5333,11 @@ the number of active local variables.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_getstack (lua_State *L, int level, lua_Debug *ar);</pre>
<p>
-Get information about the interpreter runtime stack.
+Gets information about the interpreter runtime stack.
<p>
@@ -4540,7 +5345,8 @@ This function fills parts of a <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> s
an identification of the <em>activation record</em>
of the function executing at a given level.
Level&nbsp;0 is the current running function,
-whereas level <em>n+1</em> is the function that has called level <em>n</em>.
+whereas level <em>n+1</em> is the function that has called level <em>n</em>
+(except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack).
When there are no errors, <a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> returns 1;
when called with a level greater than the stack depth,
it returns 0.
@@ -4550,7 +5356,7 @@ it returns 0.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), &ndash;]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_getupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4589,16 +5395,17 @@ Whenever a hook is called, its <code>ar</code> argument has its field
<code>event</code> set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
Lua identifies these events with the following constants:
<a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKCALL"><code>LUA_HOOKCALL</code></a>, <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKRET"><code>LUA_HOOKRET</code></a>,
-<a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKTAILRET"><code>LUA_HOOKTAILRET</code></a>, <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKLINE"><code>LUA_HOOKLINE</code></a>,
+<a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKTAILCALL"><code>LUA_HOOKTAILCALL</code></a>, <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKLINE"><code>LUA_HOOKLINE</code></a>,
and <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKCOUNT"><code>LUA_HOOKCOUNT</code></a>.
Moreover, for line events, the field <code>currentline</code> is also set.
To get the value of any other field in <code>ar</code>,
the hook must call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
-For return events, <code>event</code> can be <code>LUA_HOOKRET</code>,
-the normal value, or <code>LUA_HOOKTAILRET</code>.
-In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from
-a function that did a tail call;
-in this case, it is useless to call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
+For call events, <code>event</code> can be <code>LUA_HOOKCALL</code>,
+the normal value, or <code>LUA_HOOKTAILCALL</code>, for a tail call;
+in this case, there will be no corresponding return event.
<p>
@@ -4607,11 +5414,25 @@ Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk,
this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.
+<p>
+Hook functions cannot have continuations,
+that is, they cannot call <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>,
+<a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>, or <a href="#lua_callk"><code>lua_callk</code></a> with a non-null <code>k</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+Hook functions can yield under the following conditions:
+Only count and line events can yield
+and they cannot yield any value;
+to yield a hook function must finish its execution
+calling <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a> with <code>nresults</code> equal to zero.
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_sethook"><code>lua_sethook</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int lua_sethook (lua_State *L, lua_Hook f, int mask, int count);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4632,23 +5453,24 @@ For each event, the hook is called as explained below:
<ul>
-<li><b>The call hook:</b> is called when the interpreter calls a function.
+<li><b>The call hook: </b> is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function,
before the function gets its arguments.
</li>
-<li><b>The return hook:</b> is called when the interpreter returns from a function.
+<li><b>The return hook: </b> is called when the interpreter returns from a function.
The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.
-You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.
+There is no standard way to access the values
+to be returned by the function.
</li>
-<li><b>The line hook:</b> is called when the interpreter is about to
+<li><b>The line hook: </b> is called when the interpreter is about to
start the execution of a new line of code,
or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line).
(This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
</li>
-<li><b>The count hook:</b> is called after the interpreter executes every
+<li><b>The count hook: </b> is called after the interpreter executes every
<code>count</code> instructions.
(This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
</li>
@@ -4663,7 +5485,7 @@ A hook is disabled by setting <code>mask</code> to zero.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_setlocal"><code>lua_setlocal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_setlocal (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar, int n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4685,7 +5507,7 @@ the number of active local variables.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_setupvalue"><code>lua_setupvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_setupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4705,22 +5527,58 @@ when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_upvalueid"><code>lua_upvalueid</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void *lua_upvalueid (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns an unique identifier for the upvalue numbered <code>n</code>
+from the closure at index <code>funcindex</code>.
+Parameters <code>funcindex</code> and <code>n</code> are as in the <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>
+(see <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>)
+(but <code>n</code> cannot be greater than the number of upvalues).
+
+
+<p>
+These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different
+closures share upvalues.
+Lua closures that share an upvalue
+(that is, that access a same external local variable)
+will return identical ids for those upvalue indices.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_upvaluejoin"><code>lua_upvaluejoin</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_upvaluejoin (lua_State *L, int funcindex1, int n1,
+ int funcindex2, int n2);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Make the <code>n1</code>-th upvalue of the Lua closure at index <code>funcindex1</code>
+refer to the <code>n2</code>-th upvalue of the Lua closure at index <code>funcindex2</code>.
+
+
-<h1>4 - <a name="4">The Auxiliary Library</a></h1>
+
+
+
+<h1>5 &ndash; <a name="5">The Auxiliary Library</a></h1>
<p>
The <em>auxiliary library</em> provides several convenient functions
to interface C with Lua.
-While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all
+While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all
interactions between C and Lua,
the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some
common tasks.
<p>
-All functions from the auxiliary library
+All functions and types from the auxiliary library
are defined in header file <code>lauxlib.h</code> and
have a prefix <code>luaL_</code>.
@@ -4728,21 +5586,34 @@ have a prefix <code>luaL_</code>.
<p>
All functions in the auxiliary library are built on
top of the basic API,
-and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API.
+and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API.
+Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures
+more consistency to your code.
+
+
+<p>
+Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some
+extra stack slots.
+When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots,
+it does not check the stack size;
+it simply assumes that there are enough slots.
<p>
Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to
check C&nbsp;function arguments.
-Their names are always <code>luaL_check*</code> or <code>luaL_opt*</code>.
-All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for arguments
(e.g., "<code>bad argument #1</code>"),
you should not use these functions for other stack values.
+<p>
+Functions called <code>luaL_check*</code>
+always throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
+
+
-<h2>4.1 - <a name="4.1">Functions and Types</a></h2>
+<h2>5.1 &ndash; <a name="5.1">Functions and Types</a></h2>
<p>
Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library
@@ -4751,11 +5622,11 @@ in alphabetical order.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addchar"><code>luaL_addchar</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_addchar (luaL_Buffer *B, char c);</pre>
<p>
-Adds the character <code>c</code> to the buffer <code>B</code>
+Adds the byte <code>c</code> to the buffer <code>B</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
@@ -4763,21 +5634,21 @@ Adds the character <code>c</code> to the buffer <code>B</code>
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addlstring"><code>luaL_addlstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_addlstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l);</pre>
<p>
Adds the string pointed to by <code>s</code> with length <code>l</code> to
the buffer <code>B</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-The string may contain embedded zeros.
+The string can contain embedded zeros.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_addsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t n);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4790,21 +5661,21 @@ buffer area (see <a href="#luaL_prepbuffer"><code>luaL_prepbuffer</code></a>).
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addstring"><code>luaL_addstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_addstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s);</pre>
<p>
Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by <code>s</code>
to the buffer <code>B</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-The string may not contain embedded zeros.
+The string cannot contain embedded zeros.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addvalue"><code>luaL_addvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_addvalue (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4827,32 +5698,25 @@ which is the value to be added to the buffer.
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_argcheck (lua_State *L,
int cond,
- int narg,
+ int arg,
const char *extramsg);</pre>
<p>
Checks whether <code>cond</code> is true.
-If not, raises an error with the following message,
-where <code>func</code> is retrieved from the call stack:
+If not, raises an error with a standard message.
-<pre>
- bad argument #&lt;narg&gt; to &lt;func&gt; (&lt;extramsg&gt;)
-</pre>
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_argerror"><code>luaL_argerror</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *extramsg);</pre>
+<pre>int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *extramsg);</pre>
<p>
-Raises an error with the following message,
-where <code>func</code> is retrieved from the call stack:
+Raises an error with a standard message
+that includes <code>extramsg</code> as a comment.
-<pre>
- bad argument #&lt;narg&gt; to &lt;func&gt; (&lt;extramsg&gt;)
-</pre>
<p>
This function never returns,
@@ -4876,23 +5740,44 @@ Its pattern of use is as follows:
<ul>
-<li>First you declare a variable <code>b</code> of type <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>.</li>
+<li>First declare a variable <code>b</code> of type <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>.</li>
-<li>Then you initialize it with a call <code>luaL_buffinit(L, &amp;b)</code>.</li>
+<li>Then initialize it with a call <code>luaL_buffinit(L, &amp;b)</code>.</li>
<li>
-Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of
+Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of
the <code>luaL_add*</code> functions.
</li>
<li>
-You finish by calling <code>luaL_pushresult(&amp;b)</code>.
+Finish by calling <code>luaL_pushresult(&amp;b)</code>.
This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.
</li>
</ul>
<p>
+If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string,
+you can use the buffer like this:
+
+<ul>
+
+<li>First declare a variable <code>b</code> of type <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>.</li>
+
+<li>Then initialize it and preallocate a space of
+size <code>sz</code> with a call <code>luaL_buffinitsize(L, &amp;b, sz)</code>.</li>
+
+<li>Then copy the string into that space.</li>
+
+<li>
+Finish by calling <code>luaL_pushresultsize(&amp;b, sz)</code>,
+where <code>sz</code> is the total size of the resulting string
+copied into that space.
+</li>
+
+</ul>
+
+<p>
During its normal operation,
a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots.
So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where
@@ -4913,7 +5798,7 @@ plus the final string on its top.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_buffinit"><code>luaL_buffinit</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
<p>
@@ -4926,6 +5811,18 @@ the buffer must be declared as a variable
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_buffinitsize"><code>luaL_buffinitsize</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>char *luaL_buffinitsize (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Equivalent to the sequence
+<a href="#luaL_buffinit"><code>luaL_buffinit</code></a>, <a href="#luaL_prepbuffsize"><code>luaL_prepbuffsize</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_callmeta"><code>luaL_callmeta</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_callmeta (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);</pre>
@@ -4937,11 +5834,11 @@ Calls a metamethod.
<p>
If the object at index <code>obj</code> has a metatable and this
metatable has a field <code>e</code>,
-this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument.
-In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the
+this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument.
+In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the
stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod,
-this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
+this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack).
@@ -4949,11 +5846,11 @@ this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkany"><code>luaL_checkany</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_checkany (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<pre>void luaL_checkany (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
Checks whether the function has an argument
-of any type (including <b>nil</b>) at position <code>narg</code>.
+of any type (including <b>nil</b>) at position <code>arg</code>.
@@ -4961,10 +5858,10 @@ of any type (including <b>nil</b>) at position <code>narg</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkint"><code>luaL_checkint</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_checkint (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<pre>int luaL_checkint (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number
and returns this number cast to an <code>int</code>.
@@ -4973,10 +5870,10 @@ and returns this number cast to an <code>int</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkinteger"><code>luaL_checkinteger</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Integer luaL_checkinteger (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<pre>lua_Integer luaL_checkinteger (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number
and returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
@@ -4985,10 +5882,10 @@ and returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checklong"><code>luaL_checklong</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>long luaL_checklong (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<pre>long luaL_checklong (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number
and returns this number cast to a <code>long</code>.
@@ -4997,10 +5894,10 @@ and returns this number cast to a <code>long</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checklstring"><code>luaL_checklstring</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_checklstring (lua_State *L, int narg, size_t *l);</pre>
+<pre>const char *luaL_checklstring (lua_State *L, int arg, size_t *l);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a string
and returns this string;
if <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code> fills <code>*l</code>
with the string's length.
@@ -5016,10 +5913,10 @@ so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checknumber"><code>luaL_checknumber</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Number luaL_checknumber (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<pre>lua_Number luaL_checknumber (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number
and returns this number.
@@ -5029,12 +5926,12 @@ and returns this number.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkoption"><code>luaL_checkoption</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_checkoption (lua_State *L,
- int narg,
+ int arg,
const char *def,
const char *const lst[]);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string and
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a string and
searches for this string in the array <code>lst</code>
(which must be NULL-terminated).
Returns the index in the array where the string was found.
@@ -5045,7 +5942,7 @@ if the string cannot be found.
<p>
If <code>def</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
the function uses <code>def</code> as a default value when
-there is no argument <code>narg</code> or if this argument is <b>nil</b>.
+there is no argument <code>arg</code> or when this argument is <b>nil</b>.
<p>
@@ -5064,7 +5961,8 @@ to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
<p>
Grows the stack size to <code>top + sz</code> elements,
raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size.
-<code>msg</code> is an additional text to go into the error message.
+<code>msg</code> is an additional text to go into the error message
+(or <code>NULL</code> for no additional text).
@@ -5072,10 +5970,10 @@ raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkstring"><code>luaL_checkstring</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_checkstring (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
+<pre>const char *luaL_checkstring (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a string
and returns this string.
@@ -5089,10 +5987,10 @@ so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checktype"><code>luaL_checktype</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_checktype (lua_State *L, int narg, int t);</pre>
+<pre>void luaL_checktype (lua_State *L, int arg, int t);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> has type <code>t</code>.
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> has type <code>t</code>.
See <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> for the encoding of types for <code>t</code>.
@@ -5101,18 +5999,47 @@ See <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> for the encoding of types for
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkudata"><code>luaL_checkudata</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname);</pre>
+<pre>void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *tname);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a userdata
+of the type <code>tname</code> (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>) and
+returns the userdata address (see <a href="#lua_touserdata"><code>lua_touserdata</code></a>).
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkunsigned"><code>luaL_checkunsigned</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
+<pre>lua_Unsigned luaL_checkunsigned (lua_State *L, int arg);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a userdata
-of the type <code>tname</code> (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>).
+Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number
+and returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Unsigned"><code>lua_Unsigned</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkversion"><code>luaL_checkversion</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_checkversion (lua_State *L);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Checks whether the core running the call,
+the core that created the Lua state,
+and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua.
+Also checks whether the core running the call
+and the core that created the Lua state
+are using the same address space.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_dofile"><code>luaL_dofile</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_dofile (lua_State *L, const char *filename);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5122,15 +6049,15 @@ It is defined as the following macro:
<pre>
(luaL_loadfile(L, filename) || lua_pcall(L, 0, LUA_MULTRET, 0))
</pre><p>
-It returns 0 if there are no errors
-or 1 in case of errors.
+It returns false if there are no errors
+or true in case of errors.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_dostring"><code>luaL_dostring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +?, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int luaL_dostring (lua_State *L, const char *str);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5140,8 +6067,8 @@ It is defined as the following macro:
<pre>
(luaL_loadstring(L, str) || lua_pcall(L, 0, LUA_MULTRET, 0))
</pre><p>
-It returns 0 if there are no errors
-or 1 in case of errors.
+It returns false if there are no errors
+or true in case of errors.
@@ -5170,8 +6097,34 @@ as <code>return luaL_error(<em>args</em>)</code>.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_execresult"><code>luaL_execresult</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +3, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>int luaL_execresult (lua_State *L, int stat);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function produces the return values for
+process-related functions in the standard library
+(<a href="#pdf-os.execute"><code>os.execute</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-io.close"><code>io.close</code></a>).
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_fileresult"><code>luaL_fileresult</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +(1|3), <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>int luaL_fileresult (lua_State *L, int stat, const char *fname);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function produces the return values for
+file-related functions in the standard library
+(<a href="#pdf-io.open"><code>io.open</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-os.rename"><code>os.rename</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-file:seek"><code>file:seek</code></a>, etc.).
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_getmetafield"><code>luaL_getmetafield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_getmetafield (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5179,14 +6132,14 @@ Pushes onto the stack the field <code>e</code> from the metatable
of the object at index <code>obj</code>.
If the object does not have a metatable,
or if the metatable does not have this field,
-returns 0 and pushes nothing.
+returns false and pushes nothing.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_getmetatable"><code>luaL_getmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void luaL_getmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5197,8 +6150,24 @@ in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code>
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_getsubtable"><code>luaL_getsubtable</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>int luaL_getsubtable (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *fname);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Ensures that the value <code>t[fname]</code>,
+where <code>t</code> is the value at index <code>idx</code>,
+is a table,
+and pushes that table onto the stack.
+Returns true if it finds a previous table there
+and false if it creates a new table.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_gsub"><code>luaL_gsub</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *luaL_gsub (lua_State *L,
const char *s,
const char *p,
@@ -5214,14 +6183,44 @@ Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_len"><code>luaL_len</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>int luaL_len (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the "length" of the value at the given index
+as a number;
+it is equivalent to the '<code>#</code>' operator in Lua (see <a href="#3.4.6">&sect;3.4.6</a>).
+Raises an error if the result of the operation is not a number.
+(This case only can happen through metamethods.)
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadbuffer"><code>luaL_loadbuffer</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int luaL_loadbuffer (lua_State *L,
const char *buff,
size_t sz,
const char *name);</pre>
<p>
+Equivalent to <a href="#luaL_loadbufferx"><code>luaL_loadbufferx</code></a> with <code>mode</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadbufferx"><code>luaL_loadbufferx</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int luaL_loadbufferx (lua_State *L,
+ const char *buff,
+ size_t sz,
+ const char *name,
+ const char *mode);</pre>
+
+<p>
Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
This function uses <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> to load the chunk in the
buffer pointed to by <code>buff</code> with size <code>sz</code>.
@@ -5231,16 +6230,29 @@ buffer pointed to by <code>buff</code> with size <code>sz</code>.
This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
<code>name</code> is the chunk name,
used for debug information and error messages.
+The string <code>mode</code> works as in function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadfile"><code>luaL_loadfile</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_loadfile (lua_State *L, const char *filename);</pre>
<p>
+Equivalent to <a href="#luaL_loadfilex"><code>luaL_loadfilex</code></a> with <code>mode</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadfilex"><code>luaL_loadfilex</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>int luaL_loadfilex (lua_State *L, const char *filename,
+ const char *mode);</pre>
+
+<p>
Loads a file as a Lua chunk.
This function uses <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> to load the chunk in the file
named <code>filename</code>.
@@ -5250,9 +6262,13 @@ The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a <code>#</code>.
<p>
+The string <code>mode</code> works as in function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>,
but it has an extra error code <a name="pdf-LUA_ERRFILE"><code>LUA_ERRFILE</code></a>
-if it cannot open/read the file.
+if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode.
<p>
@@ -5264,7 +6280,7 @@ it does not run it.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadstring"><code>luaL_loadstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>int luaL_loadstring (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5285,8 +6301,45 @@ it does not run it.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_newlib"><code>luaL_newlib</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_newlib (lua_State *L, const luaL_Reg *l);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Creates a new table and registers there
+the functions in list <code>l</code>.
+It is implemented as the following macro:
+
+<pre>
+ (luaL_newlibtable(L,l), luaL_setfuncs(L,l,0))
+</pre>
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_newlibtable"><code>luaL_newlibtable</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_newlibtable (lua_State *L, const luaL_Reg l[]);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Creates a new table with a size optimized
+to store all entries in the array <code>l</code>
+(but does not actually store them).
+It is intended to be used in conjunction with <a href="#luaL_setfuncs"><code>luaL_setfuncs</code></a>
+(see <a href="#luaL_newlib"><code>luaL_newlib</code></a>).
+
+
+<p>
+It is implemented as a macro.
+The array <code>l</code> must be the actual array,
+not a pointer to it.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_newmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5307,14 +6360,14 @@ with <code>tname</code> in the registry.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_newstate"><code>luaL_newstate</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_State *luaL_newstate (void);</pre>
<p>
Creates a new Lua state.
It calls <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a> with an
allocator based on the standard&nbsp;C <code>realloc</code> function
-and then sets a panic function (see <a href="#lua_atpanic"><code>lua_atpanic</code></a>) that prints
+and then sets a panic function (see <a href="#4.6">&sect;4.6</a>) that prints
an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal
errors.
@@ -5328,7 +6381,7 @@ or <code>NULL</code> if there is a memory allocation error.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_openlibs"><code>luaL_openlibs</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_openlibs (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5340,10 +6393,10 @@ Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optint"><code>luaL_optint</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_optint (lua_State *L, int narg, int d);</pre>
+<pre>int luaL_optint (lua_State *L, int arg, int d);</pre>
<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number,
returns this number cast to an <code>int</code>.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -5356,11 +6409,11 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optinteger"><code>luaL_optinteger</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>lua_Integer luaL_optinteger (lua_State *L,
- int narg,
+ int arg,
lua_Integer d);</pre>
<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number,
returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -5372,10 +6425,10 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optlong"><code>luaL_optlong</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>long luaL_optlong (lua_State *L, int narg, long d);</pre>
+<pre>long luaL_optlong (lua_State *L, int arg, long d);</pre>
<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number,
returns this number cast to a <code>long</code>.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -5388,12 +6441,12 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optlstring"><code>luaL_optlstring</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *luaL_optlstring (lua_State *L,
- int narg,
+ int arg,
const char *d,
size_t *l);</pre>
<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string,
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a string,
returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -5402,7 +6455,7 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
<p>
If <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
-fills the position <code>*l</code> with the results's length.
+fills the position <code>*l</code> with the result's length.
@@ -5410,10 +6463,10 @@ fills the position <code>*l</code> with the results's length.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optnumber"><code>luaL_optnumber</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Number luaL_optnumber (lua_State *L, int narg, lua_Number d);</pre>
+<pre>lua_Number luaL_optnumber (lua_State *L, int arg, lua_Number d);</pre>
<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number,
returns this number.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -5426,11 +6479,11 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optstring"><code>luaL_optstring</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *luaL_optstring (lua_State *L,
- int narg,
+ int arg,
const char *d);</pre>
<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string,
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a string,
returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -5440,16 +6493,45 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optunsigned"><code>luaL_optunsigned</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
+<pre>lua_Unsigned luaL_optunsigned (lua_State *L,
+ int arg,
+ lua_Unsigned u);</pre>
+
+<p>
+If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number,
+returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Unsigned"><code>lua_Unsigned</code></a>.
+If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
+returns <code>u</code>.
+Otherwise, raises an error.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_prepbuffer"><code>luaL_prepbuffer</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>char *luaL_prepbuffer (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
<p>
-Returns an address to a space of size <a name="pdf-LUAL_BUFFERSIZE"><code>LUAL_BUFFERSIZE</code></a>
+Equivalent to <a href="#luaL_prepbuffsize"><code>luaL_prepbuffsize</code></a>
+with the predefined size <a name="pdf-LUAL_BUFFERSIZE"><code>LUAL_BUFFERSIZE</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_prepbuffsize"><code>luaL_prepbuffsize</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>char *luaL_prepbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns an address to a space of size <code>sz</code>
where you can copy a string to be added to buffer <code>B</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
After copying the string into this space you must call
-<a href="#luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a> with the size of the string to actually add
+<a href="#luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a> with the size of the string to actually add
it to the buffer.
@@ -5457,7 +6539,7 @@ it to the buffer.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_pushresult (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5468,8 +6550,19 @@ the top of the stack.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_pushresultsize"><code>luaL_pushresultsize</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_pushresultsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Equivalent to the sequence <a href="#luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a>, <a href="#luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_ref (lua_State *L, int t);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5505,7 +6598,7 @@ from any reference returned by <a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a>.
<p>
Type for arrays of functions to be registered by
-<a href="#luaL_register"><code>luaL_register</code></a>.
+<a href="#luaL_setfuncs"><code>luaL_setfuncs</code></a>.
<code>name</code> is the function name and <code>func</code> is a pointer to
the function.
Any array of <a href="#luaL_Reg"><code>luaL_Reg</code></a> must end with an sentinel entry
@@ -5515,72 +6608,128 @@ in which both <code>name</code> and <code>func</code> are <code>NULL</code>.
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_register"><code>luaL_register</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_register (lua_State *L,
- const char *libname,
- const luaL_Reg *l);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_requiref"><code>luaL_requiref</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_requiref (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
+ lua_CFunction openf, int glb);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Calls function <code>openf</code> with string <code>modname</code> as an argument
+and sets the call result in <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>,
+as if that function has been called through <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
+
<p>
-Opens a library.
+If <code>glb</code> is true,
+also stores the result into global <code>modname</code>.
<p>
-When called with <code>libname</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>,
-it simply registers all functions in the list <code>l</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Reg"><code>luaL_Reg</code></a>) into the table on the top of the stack.
+Leaves a copy of that result on the stack.
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_setfuncs"><code>luaL_setfuncs</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-nup, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_setfuncs (lua_State *L, const luaL_Reg *l, int nup);</pre>
+
<p>
-When called with a non-null <code>libname</code>,
-<code>luaL_register</code> creates a new table <code>t</code>,
-sets it as the value of the global variable <code>libname</code>,
-sets it as the value of <code>package.loaded[libname]</code>,
-and registers on it all functions in the list <code>l</code>.
-If there is a table in <code>package.loaded[libname]</code> or in
-variable <code>libname</code>,
-reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
+Registers all functions in the array <code>l</code>
+(see <a href="#luaL_Reg"><code>luaL_Reg</code></a>) into the table on the top of the stack
+(below optional upvalues, see next).
<p>
-In any case the function leaves the table
-on the top of the stack.
+When <code>nup</code> is not zero,
+all functions are created sharing <code>nup</code> upvalues,
+which must be previously pushed on the stack
+on top of the library table.
+These values are popped from the stack after the registration.
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typename"><code>luaL_typename</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_typename (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_setmetatable"><code>luaL_setmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_setmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
<p>
-Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.
+Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack
+as the metatable associated with name <code>tname</code>
+in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>).
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typerror"><code>luaL_typerror</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_typerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname);</pre>
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_testudata"><code>luaL_testudata</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void *luaL_testudata (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *tname);</pre>
<p>
-Generates an error with a message like the following:
+This function works like <a href="#luaL_checkudata"><code>luaL_checkudata</code></a>,
+except that, when the test fails,
+it returns <code>NULL</code> instead of throwing an error.
-<pre>
- <em>location</em>: bad argument <em>narg</em> to '<em>func</em>' (<em>tname</em> expected, got <em>rt</em>)
-</pre><p>
-where <code><em>location</em></code> is produced by <a href="#luaL_where"><code>luaL_where</code></a>,
-<code><em>func</em></code> is the name of the current function,
-and <code><em>rt</em></code> is the type name of the actual argument.
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_tolstring"><code>luaL_tolstring</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>const char *luaL_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C&nbsp;string
+in a reasonable format.
+The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also
+returned by the function.
+If <code>len</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
+the function also sets <code>*len</code> with the string length.
+
+
+<p>
+If the value has a metatable with a <code>"__tostring"</code> field,
+then <code>luaL_tolstring</code> calls the corresponding metamethod
+with the value as argument,
+and uses the result of the call as its result.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_traceback"><code>luaL_traceback</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_traceback (lua_State *L, lua_State *L1, const char *msg,
+ int level);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack <code>L1</code>.
+If <code>msg</code> is not <code>NULL</code> it is appended
+at the beginning of the traceback.
+The <code>level</code> parameter tells at which level
+to start the traceback.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typename"><code>luaL_typename</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>const char *luaL_typename (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_unref"><code>luaL_unref</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void luaL_unref (lua_State *L, int t, int ref);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5600,7 +6749,7 @@ If <code>ref</code> is <a href="#pdf-LUA_NOREF"><code>LUA_NOREF</code></a> or <a
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_where"><code>luaL_where</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_where (lua_State *L, int lvl);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5625,7 +6774,7 @@ This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
-<h1>5 - <a name="5">Standard Libraries</a></h1>
+<h1>6 &ndash; <a name="6">Standard Libraries</a></h1>
<p>
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions
@@ -5645,24 +6794,28 @@ Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries:
<ul>
-<li>basic library,</li> which includes the coroutine sub-library;
+<li>basic library (<a href="#6.1">&sect;6.1</a>);</li>
-<li>package library;</li>
+<li>coroutine library (<a href="#6.2">&sect;6.2</a>);</li>
-<li>string manipulation;</li>
+<li>package library (<a href="#6.3">&sect;6.3</a>);</li>
-<li>table manipulation;</li>
+<li>string manipulation (<a href="#6.4">&sect;6.4</a>);</li>
-<li>mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.);</li>
+<li>table manipulation (<a href="#6.5">&sect;6.5</a>);</li>
-<li>input and output;</li>
+<li>mathematical functions (<a href="#6.6">&sect;6.6</a>) (sin, log, etc.);</li>
-<li>operating system facilities;</li>
+<li>bitwise operations (<a href="#6.7">&sect;6.7</a>);</li>
-<li>debug facilities.</li>
+<li>input and output (<a href="#6.8">&sect;6.8</a>);</li>
+
+<li>operating system facilities (<a href="#6.9">&sect;6.9</a>);</li>
+
+<li>debug facilities (<a href="#6.10">&sect;6.10</a>).</li>
</ul><p>
-Except for the basic and package libraries,
+Except for the basic and the package libraries,
each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table
or as methods of its objects.
@@ -5672,28 +6825,28 @@ To have access to these libraries,
the C&nbsp;host program should call the <a href="#luaL_openlibs"><code>luaL_openlibs</code></a> function,
which opens all standard libraries.
Alternatively,
-it can open them individually by calling
+the host program can open them individually by using
+<a href="#luaL_requiref"><code>luaL_requiref</code></a> to call
<a name="pdf-luaopen_base"><code>luaopen_base</code></a> (for the basic library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_package"><code>luaopen_package</code></a> (for the package library),
+<a name="pdf-luaopen_coroutine"><code>luaopen_coroutine</code></a> (for the coroutine library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_string"><code>luaopen_string</code></a> (for the string library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_table"><code>luaopen_table</code></a> (for the table library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_math"><code>luaopen_math</code></a> (for the mathematical library),
+<a name="pdf-luaopen_bit32"><code>luaopen_bit32</code></a> (for the bit library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_io"><code>luaopen_io</code></a> (for the I/O library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_os"><code>luaopen_os</code></a> (for the Operating System library),
and <a name="pdf-luaopen_debug"><code>luaopen_debug</code></a> (for the debug library).
-These functions are declared in <a name="pdf-lualib.h"><code>lualib.h</code></a>
-and should not be called directly:
-you must call them like any other Lua C&nbsp;function,
-e.g., by using <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>.
+These functions are declared in <a name="pdf-lualib.h"><code>lualib.h</code></a>.
-<h2>5.1 - <a name="5.1">Basic Functions</a></h2>
+<h2>6.1 &ndash; <a name="6.1">Basic Functions</a></h2>
<p>
-The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.
+The basic library provides core functions to Lua.
If you do not include this library in your application,
-you should check carefully whether you need to provide
+you should check carefully whether you need to provide
implementations for some of its facilities.
@@ -5709,7 +6862,7 @@ when absent, it defaults to "assertion failed!"
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage (opt [, arg])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage ([opt [, arg]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
@@ -5718,23 +6871,36 @@ It performs different functions according to its first argument, <code>opt</code
<ul>
-<li><b>"stop":</b>
-stops the garbage collector.
+<li><b>"<code>collect</code>": </b>
+performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
+This is the default option.
</li>
-<li><b>"restart":</b>
-restarts the garbage collector.
+<li><b>"<code>stop</code>": </b>
+stops automatic execution of the garbage collector.
+The collector will run only when explicitly invoked,
+until a call to restart it.
</li>
-<li><b>"collect":</b>
-performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
+<li><b>"<code>restart</code>": </b>
+restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector.
</li>
-<li><b>"count":</b>
-returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes).
+<li><b>"<code>count</code>": </b>
+returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and
+a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024.
+The first value has a fractional part,
+so the following equality is always true:
+
+<pre>
+ k, b = collectgarbage("count")
+ assert(k*1024 == math.floor(k)*1024 + b)
+</pre><p>
+(The second result is useful when Lua is compiled
+with a non floating-point type for numbers.)
</li>
-<li><b>"step":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>step</code>": </b>
performs a garbage-collection step.
The step "size" is controlled by <code>arg</code>
(larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
@@ -5743,24 +6909,39 @@ you must experimentally tune the value of <code>arg</code>.
Returns <b>true</b> if the step finished a collection cycle.
</li>
-<li><b>"setpause":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>setpause</code>": </b>
sets <code>arg</code> as the new value for the <em>pause</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
+the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
Returns the previous value for <em>pause</em>.
</li>
-<li><b>"setstepmul":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>setstepmul</code>": </b>
sets <code>arg</code> as the new value for the <em>step multiplier</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
+the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
Returns the previous value for <em>step</em>.
</li>
+<li><b>"<code>isrunning</code>": </b>
+returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running
+(i.e., not stopped).
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"<code>generational</code>": </b>
+changes the collector to generational mode.
+This is an experimental feature (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"<code>incremental</code>": </b>
+changes the collector to incremental mode.
+This is the default mode.
+</li>
+
</ul>
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-dofile"><code>dofile (filename)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-dofile"><code>dofile ([filename])</code></a></h3>
Opens the named file and executes its contents as a Lua chunk.
When called without arguments,
<code>dofile</code> executes the contents of the standard input (<code>stdin</code>).
@@ -5780,7 +6961,7 @@ Function <code>error</code> never returns.
<p>
Usually, <code>error</code> adds some information about the error position
-at the beginning of the message.
+at the beginning of the message, if the message is a string.
The <code>level</code> argument specifies how to get the error position.
With level&nbsp;1 (the default), the error position is where the
<code>error</code> function was called.
@@ -5795,25 +6976,10 @@ to the message.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a></h3>
A global variable (not a function) that
-holds the global environment (that is, <code>_G._G = _G</code>).
+holds the global environment (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
Lua itself does not use this variable;
changing its value does not affect any environment,
nor vice-versa.
-(Use <a href="#pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv</code></a> to change environments.)
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-getfenv"><code>getfenv ([f])</code></a></h3>
-Returns the current environment in use by the function.
-<code>f</code> can be a Lua function or a number
-that specifies the function at that stack level:
-Level&nbsp;1 is the function calling <code>getfenv</code>.
-If the given function is not a Lua function,
-or if <code>f</code> is 0,
-<code>getfenv</code> returns the global environment.
-The default for <code>f</code> is 1.
@@ -5837,77 +7003,88 @@ Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object.
<p>
-Returns three values: an iterator function, the table <code>t</code>, and 0,
+If <code>t</code> has a metamethod <code>__ipairs</code>,
+calls it with <code>t</code> as argument and returns the first three
+results from the call.
+
+
+<p>
+Otherwise,
+returns three values: an iterator function, the table <code>t</code>, and 0,
so that the construction
<pre>
for i,v in ipairs(t) do <em>body</em> end
</pre><p>
-will iterate over the pairs (<code>1,t[1]</code>), (<code>2,t[2]</code>), &middot;&middot;&middot;,
+will iterate over the pairs (<code>1,t[1]</code>), (<code>2,t[2]</code>), ...,
up to the first integer key absent from the table.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-load"><code>load (func [, chunkname])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-load"><code>load (ld [, source [, mode [, env]]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Loads a chunk using function <code>func</code> to get its pieces.
-Each call to <code>func</code> must return a string that concatenates
+Loads a chunk.
+
+
+<p>
+If <code>ld</code> is a string, the chunk is this string.
+If <code>ld</code> is a function,
+<code>load</code> calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces.
+Each call to <code>ld</code> must return a string that concatenates
with previous results.
A return of an empty string, <b>nil</b>, or no value signals the end of the chunk.
<p>
-If there are no errors,
+If there are no syntactic errors,
returns the compiled chunk as a function;
otherwise, returns <b>nil</b> plus the error message.
-The environment of the returned function is the global environment.
<p>
-<code>chunkname</code> is used as the chunk name for error messages
-and debug information.
-When absent,
-it defaults to "<code>=(load)</code>".
-
-
+If the resulting function has upvalues,
+the first upvalue is set to the value of <code>env</code>,
+if that parameter is given,
+or to the value of the global environment.
+(When you load a main chunk,
+the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue,
+the <code>_ENV</code> variable (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
+When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see <a href="#pdf-string.dump"><code>string.dump</code></a>),
+the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.)
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile ([filename])</code></a></h3>
+<code>source</code> is used as the source of the chunk for error messages
+and debug information (see <a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>).
+When absent,
+it defaults to <code>ld</code>, if <code>ld</code> is a string,
+or to "<code>=(load)</code>" otherwise.
<p>
-Similar to <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>,
-but gets the chunk from file <code>filename</code>
-or from the standard input,
-if no file name is given.
+The string <code>mode</code> controls whether the chunk can be text or binary
+(that is, a precompiled chunk).
+It may be the string "<code>b</code>" (only binary chunks),
+"<code>t</code>" (only text chunks),
+or "<code>bt</code>" (both binary and text).
+The default is "<code>bt</code>".
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-loadstring"><code>loadstring (string [, chunkname])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile ([filename [, mode [, env]]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
Similar to <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>,
-but gets the chunk from the given string.
-
-
-<p>
-To load and run a given string, use the idiom
-
-<pre>
- assert(loadstring(s))()
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-When absent,
-<code>chunkname</code> defaults to the given string.
+but gets the chunk from file <code>filename</code>
+or from the standard input,
+if no file name is given.
@@ -5937,11 +7114,11 @@ you can use <code>next(t)</code> to check whether a table is empty.
The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified,
<em>even for numeric indices</em>.
(To traverse a table in numeric order,
-use a numerical <b>for</b> or the <a href="#pdf-ipairs"><code>ipairs</code></a> function.)
+use a numerical <b>for</b>.)
<p>
-The behavior of <code>next</code> is <em>undefined</em> if,
+The behavior of <code>next</code> is undefined if,
during the traversal,
you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
You may however modify existing fields.
@@ -5955,7 +7132,14 @@ In particular, you may clear existing fields.
<p>
-Returns three values: the <a href="#pdf-next"><code>next</code></a> function, the table <code>t</code>, and <b>nil</b>,
+If <code>t</code> has a metamethod <code>__pairs</code>,
+calls it with <code>t</code> as argument and returns the first three
+results from the call.
+
+
+<p>
+Otherwise,
+returns three values: the <a href="#pdf-next"><code>next</code></a> function, the table <code>t</code>, and <b>nil</b>,
so that the construction
<pre>
@@ -5972,7 +7156,7 @@ the table during its traversal.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-pcall"><code>pcall (f, arg1, &middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-pcall"><code>pcall (f [, arg1, &middot;&middot;&middot;])</code></a></h3>
<p>
@@ -5992,13 +7176,14 @@ In case of any error, <code>pcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the error mes
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-print"><code>print (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-Receives any number of arguments,
+Receives any number of arguments
and prints their values to <code>stdout</code>,
-using the <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a> function to convert them to strings.
+using the <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a> function to convert each argument to a string.
<code>print</code> is not intended for formatted output,
but only as a quick way to show a value,
-typically for debugging.
-For formatted output, use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.
+for instance for debugging.
+For complete control over the output,
+use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-io.write"><code>io.write</code></a>.
@@ -6023,11 +7208,21 @@ without invoking any metamethod.
<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawlen"><code>rawlen (v)</code></a></h3>
+Returns the length of the object <code>v</code>,
+which must be a table or a string,
+without invoking any metamethod.
+Returns an integer number.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawset"><code>rawset (table, index, value)</code></a></h3>
Sets the real value of <code>table[index]</code> to <code>value</code>,
without invoking any metamethod.
<code>table</code> must be a table,
-<code>index</code> any value different from <b>nil</b>,
+<code>index</code> any value different from <b>nil</b> and NaN,
and <code>value</code> any Lua value.
@@ -6043,7 +7238,8 @@ This function returns <code>table</code>.
<p>
If <code>index</code> is a number,
-returns all arguments after argument number <code>index</code>.
+returns all arguments after argument number <code>index</code>;
+a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument).
Otherwise, <code>index</code> must be the string <code>"#"</code>,
and <code>select</code> returns the total number of extra arguments it received.
@@ -6051,26 +7247,6 @@ and <code>select</code> returns the total number of extra arguments it received.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv (f, table)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Sets the environment to be used by the given function.
-<code>f</code> can be a Lua function or a number
-that specifies the function at that stack level:
-Level&nbsp;1 is the function calling <code>setfenv</code>.
-<code>setfenv</code> returns the given function.
-
-
-<p>
-As a special case, when <code>f</code> is 0 <code>setfenv</code> changes
-the environment of the running thread.
-In this case, <code>setfenv</code> returns no values.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-setmetatable"><code>setmetatable (table, metatable)</code></a></h3>
@@ -6091,37 +7267,43 @@ This function returns <code>table</code>.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-tonumber"><code>tonumber (e [, base])</code></a></h3>
-Tries to convert its argument to a number.
-If the argument is already a number or a string convertible
-to a number, then <code>tonumber</code> returns this number;
+
+
+<p>
+When called with no <code>base</code>,
+<code>tonumber</code> tries to convert its argument to a number.
+If the argument is already a number or
+a string convertible to a number (see <a href="#3.4.2">&sect;3.4.2</a>),
+then <code>tonumber</code> returns this number;
otherwise, it returns <b>nil</b>.
<p>
-An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral.
+When called with <code>base</code>,
+then <code>e</code> should be a string to be interpreted as
+an integer numeral in that base.
The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive.
In bases above&nbsp;10, the letter '<code>A</code>' (in either upper or lower case)
represents&nbsp;10, '<code>B</code>' represents&nbsp;11, and so forth,
with '<code>Z</code>' representing 35.
-In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part,
-as well as an optional exponent part (see <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>).
-In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.
+If the string <code>e</code> is not a valid numeral in the given base,
+the function returns <b>nil</b>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-tostring"><code>tostring (e)</code></a></h3>
-Receives an argument of any type and
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-tostring"><code>tostring (v)</code></a></h3>
+Receives a value of any type and
converts it to a string in a reasonable format.
-For complete control of how numbers are converted,
-use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.
+(For complete control of how numbers are converted,
+use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.)
<p>
-If the metatable of <code>e</code> has a <code>"__tostring"</code> field,
+If the metatable of <code>v</code> has a <code>"__tostring"</code> field,
then <code>tostring</code> calls the corresponding value
-with <code>e</code> as argument,
+with <code>v</code> as argument,
and uses the result of the call as its result.
@@ -6144,52 +7326,21 @@ and "<code>userdata</code>".
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-unpack"><code>unpack (list [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
-Returns the elements from the given table.
-This function is equivalent to
-
-<pre>
- return list[i], list[i+1], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[j]
-</pre><p>
-except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number
-of elements.
-By default, <code>i</code> is&nbsp;1 and <code>j</code> is the length of the list,
-as defined by the length operator (see <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a>).
-
-
-
-
-<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-_VERSION"><code>_VERSION</code></a></h3>
A global variable (not a function) that
holds a string containing the current interpreter version.
-The current contents of this variable is "<code>Lua 5.1</code>".
+The current contents of this variable is "<code>Lua 5.2</code>".
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall (f, err)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall (f, msgh [, arg1, &middot;&middot;&middot;])</code></a></h3>
<p>
This function is similar to <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a>,
-except that you can set a new error handler.
-
-
-<p>
-<code>xpcall</code> calls function <code>f</code> in protected mode,
-using <code>err</code> as the error handler.
-Any error inside <code>f</code> is not propagated;
-instead, <code>xpcall</code> catches the error,
-calls the <code>err</code> function with the original error object,
-and returns a status code.
-Its first result is the status code (a boolean),
-which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
-In this case, <code>xpcall</code> also returns all results from the call,
-after this first result.
-In case of any error,
-<code>xpcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the result from <code>err</code>.
+except that it sets a new message handler <code>msgh</code>.
@@ -6197,12 +7348,12 @@ In case of any error,
-<h2>5.2 - <a name="5.2">Coroutine Manipulation</a></h2>
+<h2>6.2 &ndash; <a name="6.2">Coroutine Manipulation</a></h2>
<p>
The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of
the basic library and come inside the table <a name="pdf-coroutine"><code>coroutine</code></a>.
-See <a href="#2.11">&sect;2.11</a> for a general description of coroutines.
+See <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a> for a general description of coroutines.
<p>
@@ -6226,11 +7377,11 @@ an object with type <code>"thread"</code>.
Starts or continues the execution of coroutine <code>co</code>.
The first time you resume a coroutine,
it starts running its body.
-The values <code>val1</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot; are passed
+The values <code>val1</code>, ... are passed
as the arguments to the body function.
If the coroutine has yielded,
<code>resume</code> restarts it;
-the values <code>val1</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot; are passed
+the values <code>val1</code>, ... are passed
as the results from the yield.
@@ -6250,8 +7401,8 @@ If there is any error,
<p>
-Returns the running coroutine,
-or <b>nil</b> when called by the main thread.
+Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean,
+true when the running coroutine is the main one.
@@ -6297,8 +7448,6 @@ In case of error, propagates the error.
<p>
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
-The coroutine cannot be running a C&nbsp;function,
-a metamethod, or an iterator.
Any arguments to <code>yield</code> are passed as extra results to <code>resume</code>.
@@ -6307,57 +7456,17 @@ Any arguments to <code>yield</code> are passed as extra results to <code>resume<
-<h2>5.3 - <a name="5.3">Modules</a></h2>
+<h2>6.3 &ndash; <a name="6.3">Modules</a></h2>
<p>
The package library provides basic
-facilities for loading and building modules in Lua.
-It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment:
-<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-module"><code>module</code></a>.
+facilities for loading modules in Lua.
+It exports one function directly in the global environment:
+<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
Everything else is exported in a table <a name="pdf-package"><code>package</code></a>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-module"><code>module (name [, &middot;&middot;&middot;])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Creates a module.
-If there is a table in <code>package.loaded[name]</code>,
-this table is the module.
-Otherwise, if there is a global table <code>t</code> with the given name,
-this table is the module.
-Otherwise creates a new table <code>t</code> and
-sets it as the value of the global <code>name</code> and
-the value of <code>package.loaded[name]</code>.
-This function also initializes <code>t._NAME</code> with the given name,
-<code>t._M</code> with the module (<code>t</code> itself),
-and <code>t._PACKAGE</code> with the package name
-(the full module name minus last component; see below).
-Finally, <code>module</code> sets <code>t</code> as the new environment
-of the current function and the new value of <code>package.loaded[name]</code>,
-so that <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> returns <code>t</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>name</code> is a compound name
-(that is, one with components separated by dots),
-<code>module</code> creates (or reuses, if they already exist)
-tables for each component.
-For instance, if <code>name</code> is <code>a.b.c</code>,
-then <code>module</code> stores the module table in field <code>c</code> of
-field <code>b</code> of global <code>a</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-This function can receive optional <em>options</em> after
-the module name,
-where each option is a function to be applied over the module.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-require"><code>require (modname)</code></a></h3>
@@ -6372,11 +7481,11 @@ Otherwise, it tries to find a <em>loader</em> for the module.
<p>
To find a loader,
-<code>require</code> is guided by the <a href="#pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a> array.
-By changing this array,
+<code>require</code> is guided by the <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a> sequence.
+By changing this sequence,
we can change how <code>require</code> looks for a module.
The following explanation is based on the default configuration
-for <a href="#pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a>.
+for <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a>.
<p>
@@ -6388,15 +7497,18 @@ path stored in <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>.
If that also fails, it searches for a C&nbsp;loader using the
path stored in <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>.
If that also fails,
-it tries an <em>all-in-one</em> loader (see <a href="#pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a>).
+it tries an <em>all-in-one</em> loader (see <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a>).
<p>
Once a loader is found,
-<code>require</code> calls the loader with a single argument, <code>modname</code>.
-If the loader returns any value,
+<code>require</code> calls the loader with two arguments:
+<code>modname</code> and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader.
+(If the loader came from a file,
+this extra value is the file name.)
+If the loader returns any non-nil value,
<code>require</code> assigns the returned value to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
-If the loader returns no value and
+If the loader does not return a non-nil value and
has not assigned any value to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>,
then <code>require</code> assigns <b>true</b> to this entry.
In any case, <code>require</code> returns the
@@ -6406,8 +7518,40 @@ final value of <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
<p>
If there is any error loading or running the module,
or if it cannot find any loader for the module,
-then <code>require</code> signals an error.
+then <code>require</code> raises an error.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.config"><code>package.config</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages.
+This string is a sequence of lines:
+
+<ul>
+
+<li>The first line is the directory separator string.
+Default is '<code>\</code>' for Windows and '<code>/</code>' for all other systems.</li>
+
+<li>The second line is the character that separates templates in a path.
+Default is '<code>;</code>'.</li>
+
+<li>The third line is the string that marks the
+substitution points in a template.
+Default is '<code>?</code>'.</li>
+
+<li>The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows,
+is replaced by the executable's directory.
+Default is '<code>!</code>'.</li>
+
+<li>The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it
+when building the <code>luaopen_</code> function name.
+Default is '<code>-</code>'.</li>
+</ul>
@@ -6422,14 +7566,14 @@ The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a
<p>
Lua initializes the C&nbsp;path <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a> in the same way
it initializes the Lua path <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>,
-using the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH"><code>LUA_CPATH</code></a>
+using the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH_5_2"><code>LUA_CPATH_5_2</code></a>
+or the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH"><code>LUA_CPATH</code></a>
or a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
<p>
-
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loaded"><code>package.loaded</code></a></h3>
@@ -6441,10 +7585,94 @@ When you require a module <code>modname</code> and
<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> simply returns the value stored there.
+<p>
+This variable is only a reference to the real table;
+assignments to this variable do not change the
+table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loadlib"><code>package.loadlib (libname, funcname)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Dynamically links the host program with the C&nbsp;library <code>libname</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+If <code>funcname</code> is "<code>*</code>",
+then it only links with the library,
+making the symbols exported by the library
+available to other dynamically linked libraries.
+Otherwise,
+it looks for a function <code>funcname</code> inside the library
+and returns this function as a C&nbsp;function.
+So, <code>funcname</code> must follow the <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a> prototype
+(see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>).
+
+
+<p>
+This is a low-level function.
+It completely bypasses the package and module system.
+Unlike <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>,
+it does not perform any path searching and
+does not automatically adds extensions.
+<code>libname</code> must be the complete file name of the C&nbsp;library,
+including if necessary a path and an extension.
+<code>funcname</code> must be the exact name exported by the C&nbsp;library
+(which may depend on the C&nbsp;compiler and linker used).
+
+
+<p>
+This function is not supported by Standard&nbsp;C.
+As such, it is only available on some platforms
+(Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD,
+plus other Unix systems that support the <code>dlfcn</code> standard).
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a Lua loader.
+
+
+<p>
+At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with
+the value of the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH_5_2"><code>LUA_PATH_5_2</code></a> or
+the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH"><code>LUA_PATH</code></a> or
+with a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>,
+if those environment variables are not defined.
+Any "<code>;;</code>" in the value of the environment variable
+is replaced by the default path.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.preload"><code>package.preload</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+A table to store loaders for specific modules
+(see <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>).
+
+
+<p>
+This variable is only a reference to the real table;
+assignments to this variable do not change the
+table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
+
+
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a></h3>
<p>
@@ -6458,9 +7686,13 @@ When looking for a module,
with the module name (the argument given to <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>) as its
sole parameter.
The function can return another function (the module <em>loader</em>)
+plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader,
or a string explaining why it did not find that module
(or <b>nil</b> if it has nothing to say).
-Lua initializes this table with four functions.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions.
<p>
@@ -6471,27 +7703,14 @@ The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the
<p>
The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library,
using the path stored at <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>.
-A path is a sequence of <em>templates</em> separated by semicolons.
-For each template,
-the searcher will change each interrogation
-mark in the template by <code>filename</code>,
-which is the module name with each dot replaced by a
-"directory separator" (such as "<code>/</code>" in Unix);
-then it will try to open the resulting file name.
-So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string
-
-<pre>
- "./?.lua;./?.lc;/usr/local/?/init.lua"
-</pre><p>
-the search for a Lua file for module <code>foo</code>
-will try to open the files
-<code>./foo.lua</code>, <code>./foo.lc</code>, and
-<code>/usr/local/foo/init.lua</code>, in that order.
+The search is done as described in function <a href="#pdf-package.searchpath"><code>package.searchpath</code></a>.
<p>
The third searcher looks for a loader as a C&nbsp;library,
using the path given by the variable <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>.
+Again,
+the search is done as described in function <a href="#pdf-package.searchpath"><code>package.searchpath</code></a>.
For instance,
if the C&nbsp;path is the string
@@ -6529,80 +7748,53 @@ into one single library,
with each submodule keeping its original open function.
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loadlib"><code>package.loadlib (libname, funcname)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Dynamically links the host program with the C&nbsp;library <code>libname</code>.
-Inside this library, looks for a function <code>funcname</code>
-and returns this function as a C&nbsp;function.
-(So, <code>funcname</code> must follow the protocol (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>)).
-
-
<p>
-This is a low-level function.
-It completely bypasses the package and module system.
-Unlike <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>,
-it does not perform any path searching and
-does not automatically adds extensions.
-<code>libname</code> must be the complete file name of the C&nbsp;library,
-including if necessary a path and extension.
-<code>funcname</code> must be the exact name exported by the C&nbsp;library
-(which may depend on the C&nbsp;compiler and linker used).
-
-
-<p>
-This function is not supported by ANSI C.
-As such, it is only available on some platforms
-(Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD,
-plus other Unix systems that support the <code>dlfcn</code> standard).
+All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value
+the file name where the module was found,
+as returned by <a href="#pdf-package.searchpath"><code>package.searchpath</code></a>.
+The first searcher returns no extra value.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.searchpath"><code>package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a Lua loader.
-
-
-<p>
-At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with
-the value of the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH"><code>LUA_PATH</code></a> or
-with a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>,
-if the environment variable is not defined.
-Any "<code>;;</code>" in the value of the environment variable
-is replaced by the default path.
-
-
+Searches for the given <code>name</code> in the given <code>path</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.preload"><code>package.preload</code></a></h3>
+A path is a string containing a sequence of
+<em>templates</em> separated by semicolons.
+For each template,
+the function replaces each interrogation mark (if any)
+in the template with a copy of <code>name</code>
+wherein all occurrences of <code>sep</code>
+(a dot, by default)
+were replaced by <code>rep</code>
+(the system's directory separator, by default),
+and then tries to open the resulting file name.
<p>
-A table to store loaders for specific modules
-(see <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>).
-
-
+For instance, if the path is the string
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.seeall"><code>package.seeall (module)</code></a></h3>
+<pre>
+ "./?.lua;./?.lc;/usr/local/?/init.lua"
+</pre><p>
+the search for the name <code>foo.a</code>
+will try to open the files
+<code>./foo/a.lua</code>, <code>./foo/a.lc</code>, and
+<code>/usr/local/foo/a/init.lua</code>, in that order.
<p>
-Sets a metatable for <code>module</code> with
-its <code>__index</code> field referring to the global environment,
-so that this module inherits values
-from the global environment.
-To be used as an option to function <a href="#pdf-module"><code>module</code></a>.
+Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can
+open in read mode (after closing the file),
+or <b>nil</b> plus an error message if none succeeds.
+(This error message lists all file names it tried to open.)
@@ -6610,7 +7802,7 @@ To be used as an option to function <a href="#pdf-module"><code>module</code></a
-<h2>5.4 - <a name="5.4">String Manipulation</a></h2>
+<h2>6.4 &ndash; <a name="6.4">String Manipulation</a></h2>
<p>
This library provides generic functions for string manipulation,
@@ -6628,7 +7820,7 @@ The string library provides all its functions inside the table
It also sets a metatable for strings
where the <code>__index</code> field points to the <code>string</code> table.
Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style.
-For instance, <code>string.byte(s, i)</code>
+For instance, <code>string.byte(s,i)</code>
can be written as <code>s:byte(i)</code>.
@@ -6639,13 +7831,15 @@ The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.byte"><code>string.byte (s [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
Returns the internal numerical codes of the characters <code>s[i]</code>,
-<code>s[i+1]</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <code>s[j]</code>.
+<code>s[i+1]</code>, ..., <code>s[j]</code>.
The default value for <code>i</code> is&nbsp;1;
the default value for <code>j</code> is&nbsp;<code>i</code>.
+These indices are corrected
+following the same rules of function <a href="#pdf-string.sub"><code>string.sub</code></a>.
<p>
-Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
+Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
@@ -6659,7 +7853,7 @@ to its corresponding argument.
<p>
-Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
+Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
@@ -6670,15 +7864,17 @@ Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
<p>
Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function,
-so that a later <a href="#pdf-loadstring"><code>loadstring</code></a> on this string returns
-a copy of the function.
-<code>function</code> must be a Lua function without upvalues.
+so that a later <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a> on this string returns
+a copy of the function (but with new upvalues).
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.find"><code>string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Looks for the first match of
<code>pattern</code> in the string <code>s</code>.
If it finds a match, then <code>find</code> returns the indices of&nbsp;<code>s</code>
@@ -6690,7 +7886,7 @@ its default value is&nbsp;1 and can be negative.
A value of <b>true</b> as a fourth, optional argument <code>plain</code>
turns off the pattern matching facilities,
so the function does a plain "find substring" operation,
-with no characters in <code>pattern</code> being considered "magic".
+with no characters in <code>pattern</code> being considered magic.
Note that if <code>plain</code> is given, then <code>init</code> must be given as well.
@@ -6705,26 +7901,25 @@ after the two indices.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.format"><code>string.format (formatstring, &middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments
following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string).
-The format string follows the same rules as the <code>printf</code> family of
-standard C&nbsp;functions.
+The format string follows the same rules as the ANSI&nbsp;C function <code>sprintf</code>.
The only differences are that the options/modifiers
-<code>*</code>, <code>l</code>, <code>L</code>, <code>n</code>, <code>p</code>,
-and <code>h</code> are not supported
+<code>*</code>, <code>h</code>, <code>L</code>, <code>l</code>, <code>n</code>,
+and <code>p</code> are not supported
and that there is an extra option, <code>q</code>.
-The <code>q</code> option formats a string in a form suitable to be safely read
-back by the Lua interpreter:
-the string is written between double quotes,
-and all double quotes, newlines, embedded zeros,
-and backslashes in the string
-are correctly escaped when written.
+The <code>q</code> option formats a string between double quotes,
+using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that
+it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter.
For instance, the call
<pre>
string.format('%q', 'a string with "quotes" and \n new line')
</pre><p>
-will produce the string:
+may produce the string:
<pre>
"a string with \"quotes\" and \
@@ -6732,16 +7927,21 @@ will produce the string:
</pre>
<p>
-The options <code>c</code>, <code>d</code>, <code>E</code>, <code>e</code>, <code>f</code>,
-<code>g</code>, <code>G</code>, <code>i</code>, <code>o</code>, <code>u</code>, <code>X</code>, and <code>x</code> all
-expect a number as argument,
-whereas <code>q</code> and <code>s</code> expect a string.
-
-
-<p>
-This function does not accept string values
-containing embedded zeros,
-except as arguments to the <code>q</code> option.
+Options
+<code>A</code> and <code>a</code> (when available),
+<code>E</code>, <code>e</code>, <code>f</code>,
+<code>G</code>, and <code>g</code> all expect a number as argument.
+Options <code>c</code>, <code>d</code>,
+<code>i</code>, <code>o</code>, <code>u</code>, <code>X</code>, and <code>x</code>
+also expect a number,
+but the range of that number may be limited by
+the underlying C&nbsp;implementation.
+For options <code>o</code>, <code>u</code>, <code>X</code>, and <code>x</code>,
+the number cannot be negative.
+Option <code>q</code> expects a string;
+option <code>s</code> expects a string without embedded zeros.
+If the argument to option <code>s</code> is not a string,
+it is converted to one following the same rules of <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a>.
@@ -6750,13 +7950,15 @@ except as arguments to the <code>q</code> option.
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.gmatch"><code>string.gmatch (s, pattern)</code></a></h3>
Returns an iterator function that,
each time it is called,
-returns the next captures from <code>pattern</code> over string <code>s</code>.
+returns the next captures from <code>pattern</code> over the string <code>s</code>.
If <code>pattern</code> specifies no captures,
then the whole match is produced in each call.
<p>
As an example, the following loop
+will iterate over all the words from string <code>s</code>,
+printing one per line:
<pre>
s = "hello world from Lua"
@@ -6764,8 +7966,6 @@ As an example, the following loop
print(w)
end
</pre><p>
-will iterate over all the words from string <code>s</code>,
-printing one per line.
The next example collects all pairs <code>key=value</code> from the
given string into a table:
@@ -6778,7 +7978,7 @@ given string into a table:
</pre>
<p>
-For this function, a '<code>^</code>' at the start of a pattern does not
+For this function, a caret '<code>^</code>' at the start of a pattern does not
work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.
@@ -6793,31 +7993,34 @@ replaced by a replacement string specified by <code>repl</code>,
which can be a string, a table, or a function.
<code>gsub</code> also returns, as its second value,
the total number of matches that occurred.
+The name <code>gsub</code> comes from <em>Global SUBstitution</em>.
<p>
If <code>repl</code> is a string, then its value is used for replacement.
The character&nbsp;<code>%</code> works as an escape character:
-any sequence in <code>repl</code> of the form <code>%<em>n</em></code>,
-with <em>n</em> between 1 and 9,
-stands for the value of the <em>n</em>-th captured substring (see below).
+any sequence in <code>repl</code> of the form <code>%<em>d</em></code>,
+with <em>d</em> between 1 and 9,
+stands for the value of the <em>d</em>-th captured substring.
The sequence <code>%0</code> stands for the whole match.
The sequence <code>%%</code> stands for a single&nbsp;<code>%</code>.
<p>
If <code>repl</code> is a table, then the table is queried for every match,
-using the first capture as the key;
-if the pattern specifies no captures,
-then the whole match is used as the key.
+using the first capture as the key.
<p>
If <code>repl</code> is a function, then this function is called every time a
match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments,
-in order;
+in order.
+
+
+<p>
+In any case,
if the pattern specifies no captures,
-then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.
+then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.
<p>
@@ -6846,13 +8049,13 @@ Here are some examples:
--&gt; x="home = /home/roberto, user = roberto"
x = string.gsub("4+5 = $return 4+5$", "%$(.-)%$", function (s)
- return loadstring(s)()
+ return load(s)()
end)
--&gt; x="4+5 = 9"
- local t = {name="lua", version="5.1"}
+ local t = {name="lua", version="5.2"}
x = string.gsub("$name-$version.tar.gz", "%$(%w+)", t)
- --&gt; x="lua-5.1.tar.gz"
+ --&gt; x="lua-5.2.tar.gz"
</pre>
@@ -6894,9 +8097,11 @@ its default value is&nbsp;1 and can be negative.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.rep"><code>string.rep (s, n)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.rep"><code>string.rep (s, n [, sep])</code></a></h3>
Returns a string that is the concatenation of <code>n</code> copies of
-the string <code>s</code>.
+the string <code>s</code> separated by the string <code>sep</code>.
+The default value for <code>sep</code> is the empty string
+(that is, no separator).
@@ -6922,6 +8127,17 @@ and <code>string.sub(s, -i)</code> returns a suffix of <code>s</code>
with length <code>i</code>.
+<p>
+If, after the translation of negative indices,
+<code>i</code> is less than 1,
+it is corrected to 1.
+If <code>j</code> is greater than the string length,
+it is corrected to that length.
+If, after these corrections,
+<code>i</code> is greater than <code>j</code>,
+the function returns the empty string.
+
+
<p>
@@ -6933,7 +8149,7 @@ The definition of what a lowercase letter is depends on the current locale.
-<h3>5.4.1 - <a name="5.4.1">Patterns</a></h3>
+<h3>6.4.1 &ndash; <a name="6.4.1">Patterns</a></h3>
<h4>Character Class:</h4><p>
@@ -6942,35 +8158,35 @@ The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class:
<ul>
-<li><b><em>x</em>:</b>
+<li><b><em>x</em>: </b>
(where <em>x</em> is not one of the <em>magic characters</em>
<code>^$()%.[]*+-?</code>)
represents the character <em>x</em> itself.
</li>
-<li><b><code>.</code>:</b> (a dot) represents all characters.</li>
+<li><b><code>.</code>: </b> (a dot) represents all characters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%a</code>:</b> represents all letters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%a</code>: </b> represents all letters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%c</code>:</b> represents all control characters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%c</code>: </b> represents all control characters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%d</code>:</b> represents all digits.</li>
+<li><b><code>%d</code>: </b> represents all digits.</li>
-<li><b><code>%l</code>:</b> represents all lowercase letters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%g</code>: </b> represents all printable characters except space.</li>
-<li><b><code>%p</code>:</b> represents all punctuation characters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%l</code>: </b> represents all lowercase letters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%s</code>:</b> represents all space characters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%p</code>: </b> represents all punctuation characters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%u</code>:</b> represents all uppercase letters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%s</code>: </b> represents all space characters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%w</code>:</b> represents all alphanumeric characters.</li>
+<li><b><code>%u</code>: </b> represents all uppercase letters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%x</code>:</b> represents all hexadecimal digits.</li>
+<li><b><code>%w</code>: </b> represents all alphanumeric characters.</li>
-<li><b><code>%z</code>:</b> represents the character with representation 0.</li>
+<li><b><code>%x</code>: </b> represents all hexadecimal digits.</li>
-<li><b><code>%<em>x</em></code>:</b> (where <em>x</em> is any non-alphanumeric character)
+<li><b><code>%<em>x</em></code>: </b> (where <em>x</em> is any non-alphanumeric character)
represents the character <em>x</em>.
This is the standard way to escape the magic characters.
Any punctuation character (even the non magic)
@@ -6978,11 +8194,12 @@ can be preceded by a '<code>%</code>'
when used to represent itself in a pattern.
</li>
-<li><b><code>[<em>set</em>]</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>[<em>set</em>]</code>: </b>
represents the class which is the union of all
characters in <em>set</em>.
A range of characters can be specified by
-separating the end characters of the range with a '<code>-</code>'.
+separating the end characters of the range,
+in ascending order, with a '<code>-</code>',
All classes <code>%</code><em>x</em> described above can also be used as
components in <em>set</em>.
All other characters in <em>set</em> represent themselves.
@@ -6999,7 +8216,7 @@ Therefore, patterns like <code>[%a-z]</code> or <code>[a-%%]</code>
have no meaning.
</li>
-<li><b><code>[^<em>set</em>]</code>:</b>
+<li><b><code>[^<em>set</em>]</code>: </b>
represents the complement of <em>set</em>,
where <em>set</em> is interpreted as above.
</li>
@@ -7045,7 +8262,7 @@ These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence;
a single character class followed by '<code>-</code>',
which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class.
Unlike '<code>*</code>',
-these repetition items will always match the <em>shortest</em> possible sequence;
+these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence;
</li>
<li>
@@ -7070,6 +8287,16 @@ For instance, the item <code>%b()</code> matches expressions with
balanced parentheses.
</li>
+<li>
+<code>%f[<em>set</em>]</code>, a <em>frontier pattern</em>;
+such item matches an empty string at any position such that
+the next character belongs to <em>set</em>
+and the previous character does not belong to <em>set</em>.
+The set <em>set</em> is interpreted as previously described.
+The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if
+they were the character '<code>\0</code>'.
+</li>
+
</ul>
@@ -7077,7 +8304,7 @@ balanced parentheses.
<h4>Pattern:</h4><p>
A <em>pattern</em> is a sequence of pattern items.
-A '<code>^</code>' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the
+A caret '<code>^</code>' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the
beginning of the subject string.
A '<code>$</code>' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the
end of the subject string.
@@ -7108,9 +8335,6 @@ For instance, if we apply the pattern <code>"()aa()"</code> on the
string <code>"flaaap"</code>, there will be two captures: 3&nbsp;and&nbsp;5.
-<p>
-A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use <code>%z</code> instead.
-
@@ -7120,85 +8344,104 @@ A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use <code>%z</code> instead.
+<h2>6.5 &ndash; <a name="6.5">Table Manipulation</a></h2>
-<h2>5.5 - <a name="5.5">Table Manipulation</a></h2><p>
+<p>
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.
It provides all its functions inside the table <a name="pdf-table"><code>table</code></a>.
<p>
-Most functions in the table library assume that the table
-represents an array or a list.
-For these functions, when we talk about the "length" of a table
-we mean the result of the length operator.
+Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table,
+the table should be a proper sequence
+or have a <code>__len</code> metamethod (see <a href="#3.4.6">&sect;3.4.6</a>).
+All functions ignore non-numeric keys
+in tables given as arguments.
+
+
+<p>
+For performance reasons,
+all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw.
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.concat"><code>table.concat (list [, sep [, i [, j]]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.concat"><code>table.concat (table [, sep [, i [, j]]])</code></a></h3>
-Given an array where all elements are strings or numbers,
-returns <code>table[i]..sep..table[i+1] &middot;&middot;&middot; sep..table[j]</code>.
+Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers,
+returns the string <code>list[i]..sep..list[i+1] &middot;&middot;&middot; sep..list[j]</code>.
The default value for <code>sep</code> is the empty string,
the default for <code>i</code> is 1,
-and the default for <code>j</code> is the length of the table.
+and the default for <code>j</code> is <code>#list</code>.
If <code>i</code> is greater than <code>j</code>, returns the empty string.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.insert"><code>table.insert (table, [pos,] value)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.insert"><code>table.insert (list, [pos,] value)</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Inserts element <code>value</code> at position <code>pos</code> in <code>table</code>,
-shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.
-The default value for <code>pos</code> is <code>n+1</code>,
-where <code>n</code> is the length of the table (see <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a>),
+Inserts element <code>value</code> at position <code>pos</code> in <code>list</code>,
+shifting up the elements
+<code>list[pos], list[pos+1], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[#list]</code>.
+The default value for <code>pos</code> is <code>#list+1</code>,
so that a call <code>table.insert(t,x)</code> inserts <code>x</code> at the end
-of table <code>t</code>.
+of list <code>t</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.maxn"><code>table.maxn (table)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.pack"><code>table.pack (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table,
-or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices.
-(To do its job this function does a linear traversal of
-the whole table.)
+Returns a new table with all parameters stored into keys 1, 2, etc.
+and with a field "<code>n</code>" with the total number of parameters.
+Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence.
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.remove"><code>table.remove (list [, pos])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.remove"><code>table.remove (table [, pos])</code></a></h3>
+Removes from <code>list</code> the element at position <code>pos</code>,
+returning the value of the removed element.
+When <code>pos</code> is an integer between 1 and <code>#list</code>,
+it shifts down the elements
+<code>list[pos+1], list[pos+2], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[#list]</code>
+and erases element <code>list[#list]</code>;
+The index <code>pos</code> can also be 0 when <code>#list</code> is 0,
+or <code>#list + 1</code>;
+in those cases, the function erases the element <code>list[pos]</code>.
<p>
-Removes from <code>table</code> the element at position <code>pos</code>,
-shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary.
-Returns the value of the removed element.
-The default value for <code>pos</code> is <code>n</code>,
-where <code>n</code> is the length of the table,
+The default value for <code>pos</code> is <code>#list</code>,
so that a call <code>table.remove(t)</code> removes the last element
-of table <code>t</code>.
+of list <code>t</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.sort"><code>table.sort (table [, comp])</code></a></h3>
-Sorts table elements in a given order, <em>in-place</em>,
-from <code>table[1]</code> to <code>table[n]</code>,
-where <code>n</code> is the length of the table.
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.sort"><code>table.sort (list [, comp])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Sorts list elements in a given order, <em>in-place</em>,
+from <code>list[1]</code> to <code>list[#list]</code>.
If <code>comp</code> is given,
-then it must be a function that receives two table elements,
-and returns true
-when the first is less than the second
-(so that <code>not comp(a[i+1],a[i])</code> will be true after the sort).
+then it must be a function that receives two list elements
+and returns true when the first element must come
+before the second in the final order
+(so that <code>not comp(list[i+1],list[i])</code> will be true after the sort).
If <code>comp</code> is not given,
then the standard Lua operator <code>&lt;</code> is used instead.
@@ -7211,10 +8454,26 @@ may have their relative positions changed by the sort.
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-table.unpack"><code>table.unpack (list [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the elements from the given table.
+This function is equivalent to
+
+<pre>
+ return list[i], list[i+1], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[j]
+</pre><p>
+By default, <code>i</code> is&nbsp;1 and <code>j</code> is <code>#list</code>.
+
+
+
-<h2>5.6 - <a name="5.6">Mathematical Functions</a></h2>
+
+<h2>6.6 &ndash; <a name="6.6">Mathematical Functions</a></h2>
<p>
This library is an interface to the standard C&nbsp;math library.
@@ -7380,21 +8639,13 @@ Returns <em>m2<sup>e</sup></em> (<code>e</code> should be an integer).
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-math.log"><code>math.log (x)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns the natural logarithm of <code>x</code>.
-
-
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-math.log"><code>math.log (x [, base])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-math.log10"><code>math.log10 (x)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns the base-10 logarithm of <code>x</code>.
+Returns the logarithm of <code>x</code> in the given base.
+The default for <code>base</code> is <em>e</em>
+(so that the function returns the natural logarithm of <code>x</code>).
@@ -7435,7 +8686,7 @@ the integral part of <code>x</code> and the fractional part of <code>x</code>.
<p>
-The value of <em>pi</em>.
+The value of <em>&pi;</em>.
@@ -7467,7 +8718,7 @@ Returns the angle <code>x</code> (given in degrees) in radians.
<p>
This function is an interface to the simple
-pseudo-random generator function <code>rand</code> provided by ANSI&nbsp;C.
+pseudo-random generator function <code>rand</code> provided by Standard&nbsp;C.
(No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.)
@@ -7551,7 +8802,234 @@ Returns the hyperbolic tangent of <code>x</code>.
-<h2>5.7 - <a name="5.7">Input and Output Facilities</a></h2>
+<h2>6.7 &ndash; <a name="6.7">Bitwise Operations</a></h2>
+
+<p>
+This library provides bitwise operations.
+It provides all its functions inside the table <a name="pdf-bit32"><code>bit32</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
+Unless otherwise stated,
+all functions accept numeric arguments in the range
+<em>(-2<sup>51</sup>,+2<sup>51</sup>)</em>;
+each argument is normalized to
+the remainder of its division by <em>2<sup>32</sup></em>
+and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way),
+so that its final value falls in the range <em>[0,2<sup>32</sup> - 1]</em>.
+Similarly, all results are in the range <em>[0,2<sup>32</sup> - 1]</em>.
+Note that <code>bit32.bnot(0)</code> is <code>0xFFFFFFFF</code>,
+which is different from <code>-1</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.arshift"><code>bit32.arshift (x, disp)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the number <code>x</code> shifted <code>disp</code> bits to the right.
+The number <code>disp</code> may be any representable integer.
+Negative displacements shift to the left.
+
+
+<p>
+This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift.
+Vacant bits on the left are filled
+with copies of the higher bit of <code>x</code>;
+vacant bits on the right are filled with zeros.
+In particular,
+displacements with absolute values higher than 31
+result in zero or <code>0xFFFFFFFF</code> (all original bits are shifted out).
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.band"><code>bit32.band (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the bitwise <em>and</em> of its operands.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.bnot"><code>bit32.bnot (x)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the bitwise negation of <code>x</code>.
+For any integer <code>x</code>,
+the following identity holds:
+
+<pre>
+ assert(bit32.bnot(x) == (-1 - x) % 2^32)
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.bor"><code>bit32.bor (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the bitwise <em>or</em> of its operands.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.btest"><code>bit32.btest (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns a boolean signaling
+whether the bitwise <em>and</em> of its operands is different from zero.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.bxor"><code>bit32.bxor (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the bitwise <em>exclusive or</em> of its operands.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.extract"><code>bit32.extract (n, field [, width])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the unsigned number formed by the bits
+<code>field</code> to <code>field + width - 1</code> from <code>n</code>.
+Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to 31 (most significant).
+All accessed bits must be in the range <em>[0, 31]</em>.
+
+
+<p>
+The default for <code>width</code> is 1.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.replace"><code>bit32.replace (n, v, field [, width])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns a copy of <code>n</code> with
+the bits <code>field</code> to <code>field + width - 1</code>
+replaced by the value <code>v</code>.
+See <a href="#pdf-bit32.extract"><code>bit32.extract</code></a> for details about <code>field</code> and <code>width</code>.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.lrotate"><code>bit32.lrotate (x, disp)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the number <code>x</code> rotated <code>disp</code> bits to the left.
+The number <code>disp</code> may be any representable integer.
+
+
+<p>
+For any valid displacement,
+the following identity holds:
+
+<pre>
+ assert(bit32.lrotate(x, disp) == bit32.lrotate(x, disp % 32))
+</pre><p>
+In particular,
+negative displacements rotate to the right.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.lshift"><code>bit32.lshift (x, disp)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the number <code>x</code> shifted <code>disp</code> bits to the left.
+The number <code>disp</code> may be any representable integer.
+Negative displacements shift to the right.
+In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros.
+In particular,
+displacements with absolute values higher than 31
+result in zero (all bits are shifted out).
+
+
+<p>
+For positive displacements,
+the following equality holds:
+
+<pre>
+ assert(bit32.lshift(b, disp) == (b * 2^disp) % 2^32)
+</pre>
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.rrotate"><code>bit32.rrotate (x, disp)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the number <code>x</code> rotated <code>disp</code> bits to the right.
+The number <code>disp</code> may be any representable integer.
+
+
+<p>
+For any valid displacement,
+the following identity holds:
+
+<pre>
+ assert(bit32.rrotate(x, disp) == bit32.rrotate(x, disp % 32))
+</pre><p>
+In particular,
+negative displacements rotate to the left.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-bit32.rshift"><code>bit32.rshift (x, disp)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the number <code>x</code> shifted <code>disp</code> bits to the right.
+The number <code>disp</code> may be any representable integer.
+Negative displacements shift to the left.
+In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros.
+In particular,
+displacements with absolute values higher than 31
+result in zero (all bits are shifted out).
+
+
+<p>
+For positive displacements,
+the following equality holds:
+
+<pre>
+ assert(bit32.rshift(b, disp) == math.floor(b % 2^32 / 2^disp))
+</pre>
+
+<p>
+This shift operation is what is called logical shift.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>6.8 &ndash; <a name="6.8">Input and Output Facilities</a></h2>
<p>
The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation.
@@ -7583,6 +9061,11 @@ all I/O functions return <b>nil</b> on failure
(plus an error message as a second result and
a system-dependent error code as a third result)
and some value different from <b>nil</b> on success.
+On non-Posix systems,
+the computation of the error message and error code
+in case of errors
+may be not thread safe,
+because they rely on the global C variable <code>errno</code>.
<p>
@@ -7601,7 +9084,7 @@ Without a <code>file</code>, closes the default output file.
<p>
-Equivalent to <code>file:flush</code> over the default output file.
+Equivalent to <code>io.output():flush()</code>.
@@ -7627,20 +9110,13 @@ instead of returning an error code.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-io.lines"><code>io.lines ([filename])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-io.lines"><code>io.lines ([filename &middot;&middot;&middot;])</code></a></h3>
<p>
Opens the given file name in read mode
-and returns an iterator function that,
-each time it is called,
-returns a new line from the file.
-Therefore, the construction
-
-<pre>
- for line in io.lines(filename) do <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-will iterate over all lines of the file.
+and returns an iterator function that
+works like <code>file:lines(&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code> over the opened file.
When the iterator function detects the end of file,
it returns <b>nil</b> (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.
@@ -7652,6 +9128,11 @@ that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.
In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends.
+<p>
+In case of errors this function raises the error,
+instead of returning an error code.
+
+
<p>
@@ -7669,18 +9150,16 @@ or, in case of errors, <b>nil</b> plus an error message.
The <code>mode</code> string can be any of the following:
<ul>
-<li><b>"r":</b> read mode (the default);</li>
-<li><b>"w":</b> write mode;</li>
-<li><b>"a":</b> append mode;</li>
-<li><b>"r+":</b> update mode, all previous data is preserved;</li>
-<li><b>"w+":</b> update mode, all previous data is erased;</li>
-<li><b>"a+":</b> append update mode, previous data is preserved,
+<li><b>"<code>r</code>": </b> read mode (the default);</li>
+<li><b>"<code>w</code>": </b> write mode;</li>
+<li><b>"<code>a</code>": </b> append mode;</li>
+<li><b>"<code>r+</code>": </b> update mode, all previous data is preserved;</li>
+<li><b>"<code>w+</code>": </b> update mode, all previous data is erased;</li>
+<li><b>"<code>a+</code>": </b> append update mode, previous data is preserved,
writing is only allowed at the end of file.</li>
</ul><p>
The <code>mode</code> string can also have a '<code>b</code>' at the end,
which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode.
-This string is exactly what is used in the
-standard&nbsp;C function <code>fopen</code>.
@@ -7700,6 +9179,11 @@ Similar to <a href="#pdf-io.input"><code>io.input</code></a>, but operates over
<p>
+This function is system dependent and is not available
+on all platforms.
+
+
+<p>
Starts program <code>prog</code> in a separated process and returns
a file handle that you can use to read data from this program
(if <code>mode</code> is <code>"r"</code>, the default)
@@ -7707,11 +9191,6 @@ or to write data to this program
(if <code>mode</code> is <code>"w"</code>).
-<p>
-This function is system dependent and is not available
-on all platforms.
-
-
<p>
@@ -7719,7 +9198,7 @@ on all platforms.
<p>
-Equivalent to <code>io.input():read</code>.
+Equivalent to <code>io.input():read(&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code>.
@@ -7754,7 +9233,7 @@ or <b>nil</b> if <code>obj</code> is not a file handle.
<p>
-Equivalent to <code>io.output():write</code>.
+Equivalent to <code>io.output():write(&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code>.
@@ -7770,6 +9249,12 @@ their handles are garbage collected,
but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen.
+<p>
+When closing a file handle created with <a href="#pdf-io.popen"><code>io.popen</code></a>,
+<a href="#pdf-file:close"><code>file:close</code></a> returns the same values
+returned by <a href="#pdf-os.execute"><code>os.execute</code></a>.
+
+
<p>
@@ -7783,21 +9268,29 @@ Saves any written data to <code>file</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-file:lines"><code>file:lines ()</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-file:lines"><code>file:lines (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
<p>
Returns an iterator function that,
each time it is called,
-returns a new line from the file.
-Therefore, the construction
+reads the file according to the given formats.
+When no format is given,
+uses "*l" as a default.
+As an example, the construction
<pre>
- for line in file:lines() do <em>body</em> end
+ for c in file:lines(1) do <em>body</em> end
</pre><p>
-will iterate over all lines of the file.
-(Unlike <a href="#pdf-io.lines"><code>io.lines</code></a>, this function does not close the file
-when the loop ends.)
+will iterate over all characters of the file,
+starting at the current position.
+Unlike <a href="#pdf-io.lines"><code>io.lines</code></a>, this function does not close the file
+when the loop ends.
+
+
+<p>
+In case of errors this function raises the error,
+instead of returning an error code.
@@ -7813,7 +9306,7 @@ For each format,
the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read,
or <b>nil</b> if it cannot read data with the specified format.
When called without formats,
-it uses a default format that reads the entire next line
+it uses a default format that reads the next line
(see below).
@@ -7822,24 +9315,29 @@ The available formats are
<ul>
-<li><b>"*n":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>*n</code>": </b>
reads a number;
this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string.
</li>
-<li><b>"*a":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>*a</code>": </b>
reads the whole file, starting at the current position.
On end of file, it returns the empty string.
</li>
-<li><b>"*l":</b>
-reads the next line (skipping the end of line),
+<li><b>"<code>*l</code>": </b>
+reads the next line skipping the end of line,
returning <b>nil</b> on end of file.
This is the default format.
</li>
-<li><b><em>number</em>:</b>
-reads a string with up to this number of characters,
+<li><b>"<code>*L</code>": </b>
+reads the next line keeping the end of line (if present),
+returning <b>nil</b> on end of file.
+</li>
+
+<li><b><em>number</em>: </b>
+reads a string with up to this number of bytes,
returning <b>nil</b> on end of file.
If number is zero,
it reads nothing and returns an empty string,
@@ -7851,7 +9349,7 @@ or <b>nil</b> on end of file.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-file:seek"><code>file:seek ([whence] [, offset])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-file:seek"><code>file:seek ([whence [, offset]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
@@ -7861,13 +9359,13 @@ to the position given by <code>offset</code> plus a base
specified by the string <code>whence</code>, as follows:
<ul>
-<li><b>"set":</b> base is position 0 (beginning of the file);</li>
-<li><b>"cur":</b> base is current position;</li>
-<li><b>"end":</b> base is end of file;</li>
+<li><b>"<code>set</code>": </b> base is position 0 (beginning of the file);</li>
+<li><b>"<code>cur</code>": </b> base is current position;</li>
+<li><b>"<code>end</code>": </b> base is end of file;</li>
</ul><p>
-In case of success, function <code>seek</code> returns the final file position,
+In case of success, <code>seek</code> returns the final file position,
measured in bytes from the beginning of the file.
-If this function fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
+If <code>seek</code> fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
plus a string describing the error.
@@ -7894,17 +9392,17 @@ There are three available modes:
<ul>
-<li><b>"no":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>no</code>": </b>
no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately.
</li>
-<li><b>"full":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>full</code>": </b>
full buffering; output operation is performed only
-when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly <code>flush</code> the file
-(see <a href="#pdf-io.flush"><code>io.flush</code></a>)).
+when the buffer is full or when
+you explicitly <code>flush</code> the file (see <a href="#pdf-io.flush"><code>io.flush</code></a>).
</li>
-<li><b>"line":</b>
+<li><b>"<code>line</code>": </b>
line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output
or there is any input from some special files
(such as a terminal device).
@@ -7923,19 +9421,21 @@ The default is an appropriate size.
<p>
-Writes the value of each of its arguments to
-the <code>file</code>.
+Writes the value of each of its arguments to <code>file</code>.
The arguments must be strings or numbers.
-To write other values,
-use <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a> or <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a> before <code>write</code>.
+<p>
+In case of success, this function returns <code>file</code>.
+Otherwise it returns <b>nil</b> plus a string describing the error.
+
-<h2>5.8 - <a name="5.8">Operating System Facilities</a></h2>
+
+<h2>6.9 &ndash; <a name="6.9">Operating System Facilities</a></h2>
<p>
This library is implemented through table <a name="pdf-os"><code>os</code></a>.
@@ -7974,17 +9474,19 @@ then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time.
After this optional character,
if <code>format</code> is the string "<code>*t</code>",
then <code>date</code> returns a table with the following fields:
-<code>year</code> (four digits), <code>month</code> (1--12), <code>day</code> (1--31),
-<code>hour</code> (0--23), <code>min</code> (0--59), <code>sec</code> (0--61),
+<code>year</code> (four digits), <code>month</code> (1&ndash;12), <code>day</code> (1&ndash;31),
+<code>hour</code> (0&ndash;23), <code>min</code> (0&ndash;59), <code>sec</code> (0&ndash;61),
<code>wday</code> (weekday, Sunday is&nbsp;1),
<code>yday</code> (day of the year),
and <code>isdst</code> (daylight saving flag, a boolean).
+This last field may be absent
+if the information is not available.
<p>
If <code>format</code> is not "<code>*t</code>",
then <code>date</code> returns the date as a string,
-formatted according to the same rules as the C&nbsp;function <code>strftime</code>.
+formatted according to the same rules as the ANSI&nbsp;C function <code>strftime</code>.
<p>
@@ -7994,6 +9496,12 @@ the host system and on the current locale
(that is, <code>os.date()</code> is equivalent to <code>os.date("%c")</code>).
+<p>
+On non-Posix systems,
+this function may be not thread safe
+because of its reliance on C&nbsp;function <code>gmtime</code> and C&nbsp;function <code>localtime</code>.
+
+
<p>
@@ -8013,24 +9521,54 @@ this value is exactly <code>t2</code><em>-</em><code>t1</code>.
<p>
-This function is equivalent to the C&nbsp;function <code>system</code>.
+This function is equivalent to the ANSI&nbsp;C function <code>system</code>.
It passes <code>command</code> to be executed by an operating system shell.
-It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.
-If <code>command</code> is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available
-and zero otherwise.
+Its first result is <b>true</b>
+if the command terminated successfully,
+or <b>nil</b> otherwise.
+After this first result
+the function returns a string and a number,
+as follows:
+
+<ul>
+
+<li><b>"<code>exit</code>": </b>
+the command terminated normally;
+the following number is the exit status of the command.
+</li>
+
+<li><b>"<code>signal</code>": </b>
+the command was terminated by a signal;
+the following number is the signal that terminated the command.
+</li>
+
+</ul>
+
+<p>
+When called without a <code>command</code>,
+<code>os.execute</code> returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available.
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-os.exit"><code>os.exit ([code [, close])</code></a></h3>
+
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-os.exit"><code>os.exit ([code])</code></a></h3>
+Calls the ANSI&nbsp;C function <code>exit</code> to terminate the host program.
+If <code>code</code> is <b>true</b>,
+the returned status is <code>EXIT_SUCCESS</code>;
+if <code>code</code> is <b>false</b>,
+the returned status is <code>EXIT_FAILURE</code>;
+if <code>code</code> is a number,
+the returned status is this number.
+The default value for <code>code</code> is <b>true</b>.
<p>
-Calls the C&nbsp;function <code>exit</code>,
-with an optional <code>code</code>,
-to terminate the host program.
-The default value for <code>code</code> is the success code.
+If the optional second argument <code>close</code> is true,
+closes the Lua state before exiting.
@@ -8051,10 +9589,10 @@ or <b>nil</b> if the variable is not defined.
<p>
-Deletes the file or directory with the given name.
-Directories must be empty to be removed.
+Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems)
+with the given name.
If this function fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
-plus a string describing the error.
+plus a string describing the error and the error code.
@@ -8066,7 +9604,7 @@ plus a string describing the error.
<p>
Renames file or directory named <code>oldname</code> to <code>newname</code>.
If this function fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
-plus a string describing the error.
+plus a string describing the error and the error code.
@@ -8077,7 +9615,7 @@ plus a string describing the error.
<p>
Sets the current locale of the program.
-<code>locale</code> is a string specifying a locale;
+<code>locale</code> is a system-dependent string specifying a locale;
<code>category</code> is an optional string describing which category to change:
<code>"all"</code>, <code>"collate"</code>, <code>"ctype"</code>,
<code>"monetary"</code>, <code>"numeric"</code>, or <code>"time"</code>;
@@ -8099,6 +9637,11 @@ this function only returns the name of the current locale
for the given category.
+<p>
+This function may be not thread safe
+because of its reliance on C&nbsp;function <code>setlocale</code>.
+
+
<p>
@@ -8109,17 +9652,22 @@ for the given category.
Returns the current time when called without arguments,
or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table.
This table must have fields <code>year</code>, <code>month</code>, and <code>day</code>,
-and may have fields <code>hour</code>, <code>min</code>, <code>sec</code>, and <code>isdst</code>
-(for a description of these fields, see the <a href="#pdf-os.date"><code>os.date</code></a> function).
+and may have fields
+<code>hour</code> (default is 12),
+<code>min</code> (default is 0),
+<code>sec</code> (default is 0),
+and <code>isdst</code> (default is <b>nil</b>).
+For a description of these fields, see the <a href="#pdf-os.date"><code>os.date</code></a> function.
<p>
The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system.
-In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number
+In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems,
+this number counts the number
of seconds since some given start time (the "epoch").
In other systems, the meaning is not specified,
and the number returned by <code>time</code> can be used only as an argument to
-<code>date</code> and <code>difftime</code>.
+<a href="#pdf-os.date"><code>os.date</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-os.difftime"><code>os.difftime</code></a>.
@@ -8136,7 +9684,7 @@ and explicitly removed when no longer needed.
<p>
-On some systems (POSIX),
+On POSIX systems,
this function also creates a file with that name,
to avoid security risks.
(Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions
@@ -8156,23 +9704,20 @@ which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
-<h2>5.9 - <a name="5.9">The Debug Library</a></h2>
+<h2>6.10 &ndash; <a name="6.10">The Debug Library</a></h2>
<p>
This library provides
-the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs.
+the functionality of the debug interface (<a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>) to Lua programs.
You should exert care when using this library.
-The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging
-and similar tasks, such as profiling.
-Please resist the temptation to use them as a
-usual programming tool:
-they can be very slow.
-Moreover, several of these functions
-violate some assumptions about Lua code
+Several of its functions
+violate basic assumptions about Lua code
(e.g., that variables local to a function
-cannot be accessed from outside or
-that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code)
+cannot be accessed from outside;
+that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code;
+that Lua programs do not crash)
and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code.
+Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow.
<p>
@@ -8200,14 +9745,7 @@ so that the caller continues its execution.
<p>
Note that commands for <code>debug.debug</code> are not lexically nested
-within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getfenv"><code>debug.getfenv (o)</code></a></h3>
-Returns the environment of object <code>o</code>.
+within any function and so have no direct access to local variables.
@@ -8226,19 +9764,20 @@ and the current hook count
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getinfo"><code>debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getinfo"><code>debug.getinfo ([thread,] f [, what])</code></a></h3>
<p>
Returns a table with information about a function.
-You can give the function directly,
-or you can give a number as the value of <code>function</code>,
-which means the function running at level <code>function</code> of the call stack
+You can give the function directly
+or you can give a number as the value of <code>f</code>,
+which means the function running at level <code>f</code> of the call stack
of the given thread:
level&nbsp;0 is the current function (<code>getinfo</code> itself);
-level&nbsp;1 is the function that called <code>getinfo</code>;
+level&nbsp;1 is the function that called <code>getinfo</code>
+(except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack);
and so on.
-If <code>function</code> is a number larger than the number of active functions,
+If <code>f</code> is a number larger than the number of active functions,
then <code>getinfo</code> returns <b>nil</b>.
@@ -8268,34 +9807,45 @@ about the <a href="#pdf-print"><code>print</code></a> function.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getlocal"><code>debug.getlocal ([thread,] level, local)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getlocal"><code>debug.getlocal ([thread,] f, local)</code></a></h3>
<p>
This function returns the name and the value of the local variable
-with index <code>local</code> of the function at level <code>level</code> of the stack.
-(The first parameter or local variable has index&nbsp;1, and so on,
-until the last active local variable.)
-The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no local
-variable with the given index,
-and raises an error when called with a <code>level</code> out of range.
+with index <code>local</code> of the function at level <code>f</code> of the stack.
+This function accesses not only explicit local variables,
+but also parameters, temporaries, etc.
+
+
+<p>
+The first parameter or local variable has index&nbsp;1, and so on,
+until the last active variable.
+Negative indices refer to vararg parameters;
+-1 is the first vararg parameter.
+The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no variable with the given index,
+and raises an error when called with a level out of range.
(You can call <a href="#pdf-debug.getinfo"><code>debug.getinfo</code></a> to check whether the level is valid.)
<p>
-Variable names starting with '<code>(</code>' (open parentheses)
+Variable names starting with '<code>(</code>' (open parenthesis)
represent internal variables
-(loop control variables, temporaries, and C&nbsp;function locals).
+(loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C&nbsp;function locals).
+
+
+<p>
+The parameter <code>f</code> may also be a function.
+In that case, <code>getlocal</code> returns only the name of function parameters.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getmetatable"><code>debug.getmetatable (object)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getmetatable"><code>debug.getmetatable (value)</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Returns the metatable of the given <code>object</code>
+Returns the metatable of the given <code>value</code>
or <b>nil</b> if it does not have a metatable.
@@ -8306,30 +9856,31 @@ or <b>nil</b> if it does not have a metatable.
<p>
-Returns the registry table (see <a href="#3.5">&sect;3.5</a>).
+Returns the registry table (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getupvalue"><code>debug.getupvalue (func, up)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getupvalue"><code>debug.getupvalue (f, up)</code></a></h3>
<p>
This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue
-with index <code>up</code> of the function <code>func</code>.
+with index <code>up</code> of the function <code>f</code>.
The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no upvalue with the given index.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setfenv"><code>debug.setfenv (object, table)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getuservalue"><code>debug.getuservalue (u)</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Sets the environment of the given <code>object</code> to the given <code>table</code>.
-Returns <code>object</code>.
+Returns the Lua value associated to <code>u</code>.
+If <code>u</code> is not a userdata,
+returns <b>nil</b>.
@@ -8346,9 +9897,9 @@ The string mask may have the following characters,
with the given meaning:
<ul>
-<li><b><code>"c"</code>:</b> the hook is called every time Lua calls a function;</li>
-<li><b><code>"r"</code>:</b> the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function;</li>
-<li><b><code>"l"</code>:</b> the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code.</li>
+<li><b>'<code>c</code>': </b> the hook is called every time Lua calls a function;</li>
+<li><b>'<code>r</code>': </b> the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function;</li>
+<li><b>'<code>l</code>': </b> the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code.</li>
</ul><p>
With a <code>count</code> different from zero,
the hook is called after every <code>count</code> instructions.
@@ -8362,8 +9913,8 @@ When called without arguments,
<p>
When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string
describing the event that has triggered its call:
-<code>"call"</code>, <code>"return"</code> (or <code>"tail return"</code>,
-when simulating a return from a tail call),
+<code>"call"</code> (or <code>"tail call"</code>),
+<code>"return"</code>,
<code>"line"</code>, and <code>"count"</code>.
For line events,
the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.
@@ -8371,10 +9922,7 @@ Inside a hook,
you can call <code>getinfo</code> with level&nbsp;2 to get more information about
the running function
(level&nbsp;0 is the <code>getinfo</code> function,
-and level&nbsp;1 is the hook function),
-unless the event is <code>"tail return"</code>.
-In this case, Lua is only simulating the return,
-and a call to <code>getinfo</code> will return invalid data.
+and level&nbsp;1 is the hook function).
@@ -8393,26 +9941,32 @@ and raises an error when called with a <code>level</code> out of range.
Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
+<p>
+See <a href="#pdf-debug.getlocal"><code>debug.getlocal</code></a> for more information about
+variable indices and names.
+
+
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setmetatable"><code>debug.setmetatable (object, table)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setmetatable"><code>debug.setmetatable (value, table)</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Sets the metatable for the given <code>object</code> to the given <code>table</code>
+Sets the metatable for the given <code>value</code> to the given <code>table</code>
(which can be <b>nil</b>).
+Returns <code>value</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setupvalue"><code>debug.setupvalue (func, up, value)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setupvalue"><code>debug.setupvalue (f, up, value)</code></a></h3>
<p>
This function assigns the value <code>value</code> to the upvalue
-with index <code>up</code> of the function <code>func</code>.
+with index <code>up</code> of the function <code>f</code>.
The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no upvalue
with the given index.
Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue.
@@ -8421,11 +9975,31 @@ Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.traceback"><code>debug.traceback ([thread,] [message] [, level])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setuservalue"><code>debug.setuservalue (udata, value)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Sets the given <code>value</code> as
+the Lua value associated to the given <code>udata</code>.
+<code>value</code> must be a table or <b>nil</b>;
+<code>udata</code> must be a full userdata.
+
+
+<p>
+Returns <code>udata</code>.
+
+
<p>
-Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack.
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.traceback"><code>debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+If <code>message</code> is present but is neither a string nor <b>nil</b>,
+this function returns <code>message</code> without further processing.
+Otherwise,
+it returns a string with a traceback of the call stack.
An optional <code>message</code> string is appended
at the beginning of the traceback.
An optional <code>level</code> number tells at which level
@@ -8435,19 +10009,50 @@ to start the traceback
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.upvalueid"><code>debug.upvalueid (f, n)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata)
+for the upvalue numbered <code>n</code>
+from the given function.
+
+
+<p>
+These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different
+closures share upvalues.
+Lua closures that share an upvalue
+(that is, that access a same external local variable)
+will return identical ids for those upvalue indices.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.upvaluejoin"><code>debug.upvaluejoin (f1, n1, f2, n2)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Make the <code>n1</code>-th upvalue of the Lua closure <code>f1</code>
+refer to the <code>n2</code>-th upvalue of the Lua closure <code>f2</code>.
+
+
+
+
-<h1>6 - <a name="6">Lua Stand-alone</a></h1>
+<h1>7 &ndash; <a name="7">Lua Standalone</a></h1>
<p>
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language,
to be embedded in a host C&nbsp;program,
-it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language.
-An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language,
+it is also frequently used as a standalone language.
+An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language,
called simply <code>lua</code>,
is provided with the standard distribution.
-The stand-alone interpreter includes
+The standalone interpreter includes
all standard libraries, including the debug library.
Its usage is:
@@ -8457,12 +10062,13 @@ Its usage is:
The options are:
<ul>
-<li><b><code>-e <em>stat</em></code>:</b> executes string <em>stat</em>;</li>
-<li><b><code>-l <em>mod</em></code>:</b> "requires" <em>mod</em>;</li>
-<li><b><code>-i</code>:</b> enters interactive mode after running <em>script</em>;</li>
-<li><b><code>-v</code>:</b> prints version information;</li>
-<li><b><code>--</code>:</b> stops handling options;</li>
-<li><b><code>-</code>:</b> executes <code>stdin</code> as a file and stops handling options.</li>
+<li><b><code>-e <em>stat</em></code>: </b> executes string <em>stat</em>;</li>
+<li><b><code>-l <em>mod</em></code>: </b> "requires" <em>mod</em>;</li>
+<li><b><code>-i</code>: </b> enters interactive mode after running <em>script</em>;</li>
+<li><b><code>-v</code>: </b> prints version information;</li>
+<li><b><code>-E</code>: </b> ignores environment variables;</li>
+<li><b><code>--</code>: </b> stops handling options;</li>
+<li><b><code>-</code>: </b> executes <code>stdin</code> as a file and stops handling options.</li>
</ul><p>
After handling its options, <code>lua</code> runs the given <em>script</em>,
passing to it the given <em>args</em> as string arguments.
@@ -8473,21 +10079,33 @@ and as <code>lua -</code> otherwise.
<p>
-Before running any argument,
-the interpreter checks for an environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_INIT"><code>LUA_INIT</code></a>.
-If its format is <code>@<em>filename</em></code>,
+When called without option <code>-E</code>,
+the interpreter checks for an environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_INIT_5_2"><code>LUA_INIT_5_2</code></a>
+(or <a name="pdf-LUA_INIT"><code>LUA_INIT</code></a> if it is not defined)
+before running any argument.
+If the variable content has the format <code>@<em>filename</em></code>,
then <code>lua</code> executes the file.
Otherwise, <code>lua</code> executes the string itself.
<p>
-All options are handled in order, except <code>-i</code>.
+When called with option <code>-E</code>,
+besides ignoring <code>LUA_INIT</code>,
+Lua also ignores
+the values of <code>LUA_PATH</code> and <code>LUA_CPATH</code>,
+setting the values of
+<a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>
+with the default paths defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
+
+
+<p>
+All options are handled in order, except <code>-i</code> and <code>-E</code>.
For instance, an invocation like
<pre>
$ lua -e'a=1' -e 'print(a)' script.lua
</pre><p>
-will first set <code>a</code> to 1, then print the value of <code>a</code> (which is '<code>1</code>'),
+will first set <code>a</code> to 1, then print the value of <code>a</code>,
and finally run the file <code>script.lua</code> with no arguments.
(Here <code>$</code> is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)
@@ -8516,7 +10134,7 @@ then creates a table
[1] = "t1", [2] = "t2" }
</pre><p>
and finally runs the file <code>b.lua</code>.
-The script is called with <code>arg[1]</code>, <code>arg[2]</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot;
+The script is called with <code>arg[1]</code>, <code>arg[2]</code>, ...
as arguments;
it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression '<code>...</code>'.
@@ -8529,30 +10147,28 @@ by issuing a different prompt.
<p>
-If the global variable <a name="pdf-_PROMPT"><code>_PROMPT</code></a> contains a string,
-then its value is used as the prompt.
-Similarly, if the global variable <a name="pdf-_PROMPT2"><code>_PROMPT2</code></a> contains a string,
-its value is used as the secondary prompt
-(issued during incomplete statements).
-Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line
-or in any Lua programs by assigning to <code>_PROMPT</code>.
-See the next example:
+In case of unprotected errors in the script,
+the interpreter reports the error to the standard error stream.
+If the error object is a string,
+the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it.
+Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod <code>__tostring</code>,
+the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message.
+Finally, if the error object is <b>nil</b>,
+the interpreter does not report the error.
-<pre>
- $ lua -e"_PROMPT='myprompt&gt; '" -i
-</pre><p>
-(The outer pair of quotes is for the shell,
-the inner pair is for Lua.)
-Note the use of <code>-i</code> to enter interactive mode;
-otherwise,
-the program would just end silently
-right after the assignment to <code>_PROMPT</code>.
+
+<p>
+When finishing normally,
+the interpreter closes its main Lua state
+(see <a href="#lua_close"><code>lua_close</code></a>).
+The script can avoid this step by
+calling <a href="#pdf-os.exit"><code>os.exit</code></a> to terminate.
<p>
To allow the use of Lua as a
script interpreter in Unix systems,
-the stand-alone interpreter skips
+the standalone interpreter skips
the first line of a chunk if it starts with <code>#</code>.
Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs
by using <code>chmod +x</code> and the&nbsp;<code>#!</code> form,
@@ -8564,46 +10180,80 @@ as in
(Of course,
the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If <code>lua</code> is in your <code>PATH</code>,
-then
+then
<pre>
#!/usr/bin/env lua
</pre><p>
-is a more portable solution.)
+is a more portable solution.)
-<h1>7 - <a name="7">Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</a></h1>
+<h1>8 &ndash; <a name="8">Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</a></h1>
<p>
Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program
-from Lua&nbsp;5.0 to Lua&nbsp;5.1.
-You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with
+from Lua&nbsp;5.1 to Lua&nbsp;5.2.
+You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with
appropriate options (see file <code>luaconf.h</code>).
However,
all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.
+Similarly,
+all features marked as deprecated in Lua&nbsp;5.1
+have been removed in Lua&nbsp;5.2.
-<h2>7.1 - <a name="7.1">Changes in the Language</a></h2>
+<h2>8.1 &ndash; <a name="8.1">Changes in the Language</a></h2>
<ul>
<li>
-The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument <code>arg</code> with a
-table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression.
-(See compile-time option <code>LUA_COMPAT_VARARG</code> in <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+The concept of <em>environment</em> changed.
+Only Lua functions have environments.
+To set the environment of a Lua function,
+use the variable <code>_ENV</code> or the function <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
+C functions no longer have environments.
+Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep
+shared state among several C functions.
+(You may use <a href="#luaL_setfuncs"><code>luaL_setfuncs</code></a> to open a C library
+with all functions sharing a common upvalue.)
+
+
+<p>
+To manipulate the "environment" of a userdata
+(which is now called user value),
+use the new functions
+<a href="#lua_getuservalue"><code>lua_getuservalue</code></a> and <a href="#lua_setuservalue"><code>lua_setuservalue</code></a>.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector
+does not restart the collector if it has been stopped.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Weak tables with weak keys now perform like <em>ephemeron tables</em>.
</li>
<li>
-There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit
-variables of the <b>for</b> statement and for the <b>repeat</b> statement.
+The event <em>tail return</em> in debug hooks was removed.
+Instead, tail calls generate a special new event,
+<em>tail call</em>, so that the debugger can know that
+there will not be a corresponding return event.
</li>
<li>
-The long string/long comment syntax (<code>[[<em>string</em>]]</code>)
-does not allow nesting.
-You can use the new syntax (<code>[=[<em>string</em>]=]</code>) in these cases.
-(See compile-time option <code>LUA_COMPAT_LSTR</code> in <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+Equality between function values has changed.
+Now, a function definition may not create a new value;
+it may reuse some previous value if there is no
+observable difference to the new function.
</li>
</ul>
@@ -8611,57 +10261,71 @@ You can use the new syntax (<code>[=[<em>string</em>]=]</code>) in these cases.
-<h2>7.2 - <a name="7.2">Changes in the Libraries</a></h2>
+<h2>8.2 &ndash; <a name="8.2">Changes in the Libraries</a></h2>
<ul>
<li>
-Function <code>string.gfind</code> was renamed <a href="#pdf-string.gmatch"><code>string.gmatch</code></a>.
-(See compile-time option <code>LUA_COMPAT_GFIND</code> in <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+Function <code>module</code> is deprecated.
+It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code.
+Modules are not expected to set global variables.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Functions <code>setfenv</code> and <code>getfenv</code> were removed,
+because of the changes in environments.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Function <code>math.log10</code> is deprecated.
+Use <a href="#pdf-math.log"><code>math.log</code></a> with 10 as its second argument, instead.
</li>
<li>
-When <a href="#pdf-string.gsub"><code>string.gsub</code></a> is called with a function as its
-third argument,
-whenever this function returns <b>nil</b> or <b>false</b> the
-replacement string is the whole match,
-instead of the empty string.
+Function <code>loadstring</code> is deprecated.
+Use <code>load</code> instead; it now accepts string arguments
+and are exactly equivalent to <code>loadstring</code>.
</li>
<li>
-Function <code>table.setn</code> was deprecated.
-Function <code>table.getn</code> corresponds
-to the new length operator (<code>#</code>);
-use the operator instead of the function.
-(See compile-time option <code>LUA_COMPAT_GETN</code> in <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+Function <code>table.maxn</code> is deprecated.
+Write it in Lua if you really need it.
</li>
<li>
-Function <code>loadlib</code> was renamed <a href="#pdf-package.loadlib"><code>package.loadlib</code></a>.
-(See compile-time option <code>LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB</code> in <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+Function <code>os.execute</code> now returns <b>true</b> when command
+terminates successfully and <b>nil</b> plus error information
+otherwise.
</li>
<li>
-Function <code>math.mod</code> was renamed <a href="#pdf-math.fmod"><code>math.fmod</code></a>.
-(See compile-time option <code>LUA_COMPAT_MOD</code> in <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
+Function <code>unpack</code> was moved into the table library
+and therefore must be called as <a href="#pdf-table.unpack"><code>table.unpack</code></a>.
</li>
<li>
-Functions <code>table.foreach</code> and <code>table.foreachi</code> are deprecated.
-You can use a for loop with <code>pairs</code> or <code>ipairs</code> instead.
+Character class <code>%z</code> in patterns is deprecated,
+as now patterns may contain '<code>\0</code>' as a regular character.
</li>
<li>
-There were substantial changes in function <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> due to
-the new module system.
-However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old,
-but <code>require</code> gets the path from <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a> instead
-of from <code>LUA_PATH</code>.
+The table <code>package.loaders</code> was renamed <code>package.searchers</code>.
</li>
<li>
-Function <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> has different arguments.
-Function <code>gcinfo</code> is deprecated;
-use <code>collectgarbage("count")</code> instead.
+Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore.
+So, all functions that load code
+(<a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile</code></a>)
+are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data.
+(Actually, those functions were already insecure because
+of flaws in the verification algorithm.)
+When in doubt,
+use the <code>mode</code> argument of those functions
+to restrict them to loading textual chunks.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+The standard paths in the official distribution may
+change between versions.
</li>
</ul>
@@ -8669,40 +10333,76 @@ use <code>collectgarbage("count")</code> instead.
-<h2>7.3 - <a name="7.3">Changes in the API</a></h2>
+<h2>8.3 &ndash; <a name="8.3">Changes in the API</a></h2>
<ul>
<li>
-The <code>luaopen_*</code> functions (to open libraries)
-cannot be called directly,
-like a regular C function.
-They must be called through Lua,
-like a Lua function.
+Pseudoindex <code>LUA_GLOBALSINDEX</code> was removed.
+You must get the global environment from the registry
+(see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Pseudoindex <code>LUA_ENVIRONINDEX</code>
+and functions <code>lua_getfenv</code>/<code>lua_setfenv</code>
+were removed,
+as C&nbsp;functions no longer have environments.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Function <code>luaL_register</code> is deprecated.
+Use <a href="#luaL_setfuncs"><code>luaL_setfuncs</code></a> so that your module does not create globals.
+(Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.)
+</li>
+
+<li>
+The <code>osize</code> argument to the allocation function
+may not be zero when creating a new block,
+that is, when <code>ptr</code> is <code>NULL</code>
+(see <a href="#lua_Alloc"><code>lua_Alloc</code></a>).
+Use only the test <code>ptr == NULL</code> to check whether
+the block is new.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Finalizers (<code>__gc</code> metamethods) for userdata are called in the
+reverse order that they were marked for finalization,
+not that they were created (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>).
+(Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.)
+Moreover,
+if the metatable does not have a <code>__gc</code> field when set,
+the finalizer will not be called,
+even if it is set later.
</li>
<li>
-Function <code>lua_open</code> was replaced by <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a> to
-allow the user to set a memory-allocation function.
-You can use <a href="#luaL_newstate"><code>luaL_newstate</code></a> from the standard library to
-create a state with a standard allocation function
-(based on <code>realloc</code>).
+<code>luaL_typerror</code> was removed.
+Write your own version if you need it.
</li>
<li>
-Functions <code>luaL_getn</code> and <code>luaL_setn</code>
-(from the auxiliary library) are deprecated.
-Use <a href="#lua_objlen"><code>lua_objlen</code></a> instead of <code>luaL_getn</code>
-and nothing instead of <code>luaL_setn</code>.
+Function <code>lua_cpcall</code> is deprecated.
+You can simply push the function with <a href="#lua_pushcfunction"><code>lua_pushcfunction</code></a>
+and call it with <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>.
</li>
<li>
-Function <code>luaL_openlib</code> was replaced by <a href="#luaL_register"><code>luaL_register</code></a>.
+Functions <code>lua_equal</code> and <code>lua_lessthan</code> are deprecated.
+Use the new <a href="#lua_compare"><code>lua_compare</code></a> with appropriate options instead.
</li>
<li>
-Function <code>luaL_checkudata</code> now throws an error when the given value
-is not a userdata of the expected type.
-(In Lua&nbsp;5.0 it returned <code>NULL</code>.)
+Function <code>lua_objlen</code> was renamed <a href="#lua_rawlen"><code>lua_rawlen</code></a>.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> has an extra parameter, <code>mode</code>.
+Pass <code>NULL</code> to simulate the old behavior.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+Function <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> has an extra parameter, <code>from</code>.
+Pass <code>NULL</code> or the thread doing the call.
</li>
</ul>
@@ -8710,7 +10410,7 @@ is not a userdata of the expected type.
-<h1>8 - <a name="8">The Complete Syntax of Lua</a></h1>
+<h1>9 &ndash; <a name="9">The Complete Syntax of Lua</a></h1>
<p>
Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF.
@@ -8721,62 +10421,68 @@ Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF.
<pre>
- chunk ::= {stat [`<b>;</b>&acute;]} [laststat [`<b>;</b>&acute;]]
+ chunk ::= block
- block ::= chunk
+ block ::= {stat} [retstat]
- stat ::= varlist `<b>=</b>&acute; explist |
+ stat ::= &lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo; |
+ varlist &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist |
functioncall |
+ label |
+ <b>break</b> |
+ <b>goto</b> Name |
<b>do</b> block <b>end</b> |
<b>while</b> exp <b>do</b> block <b>end</b> |
<b>repeat</b> block <b>until</b> exp |
<b>if</b> exp <b>then</b> block {<b>elseif</b> exp <b>then</b> block} [<b>else</b> block] <b>end</b> |
- <b>for</b> Name `<b>=</b>&acute; exp `<b>,</b>&acute; exp [`<b>,</b>&acute; exp] <b>do</b> block <b>end</b> |
+ <b>for</b> Name &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp [&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp] <b>do</b> block <b>end</b> |
<b>for</b> namelist <b>in</b> explist <b>do</b> block <b>end</b> |
<b>function</b> funcname funcbody |
<b>local</b> <b>function</b> Name funcbody |
- <b>local</b> namelist [`<b>=</b>&acute; explist]
+ <b>local</b> namelist [&lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist]
+
+ retstat ::= <b>return</b> [explist] [&lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo;]
- laststat ::= <b>return</b> [explist] | <b>break</b>
+ label ::= &lsquo;<b>::</b>&rsquo; Name &lsquo;<b>::</b>&rsquo;
- funcname ::= Name {`<b>.</b>&acute; Name} [`<b>:</b>&acute; Name]
+ funcname ::= Name {&lsquo;<b>.</b>&rsquo; Name} [&lsquo;<b>:</b>&rsquo; Name]
- varlist ::= var {`<b>,</b>&acute; var}
+ varlist ::= var {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; var}
- var ::= Name | prefixexp `<b>[</b>&acute; exp `<b>]</b>&acute; | prefixexp `<b>.</b>&acute; Name
+ var ::= Name | prefixexp &lsquo;<b>[</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>]</b>&rsquo; | prefixexp &lsquo;<b>.</b>&rsquo; Name
- namelist ::= Name {`<b>,</b>&acute; Name}
+ namelist ::= Name {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; Name}
- explist ::= {exp `<b>,</b>&acute;} exp
+ explist ::= exp {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp}
- exp ::= <b>nil</b> | <b>false</b> | <b>true</b> | Number | String | `<b>...</b>&acute; | function |
+ exp ::= <b>nil</b> | <b>false</b> | <b>true</b> | Number | String | &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo; | functiondef |
prefixexp | tableconstructor | exp binop exp | unop exp
- prefixexp ::= var | functioncall | `<b>(</b>&acute; exp `<b>)</b>&acute;
+ prefixexp ::= var | functioncall | &lsquo;<b>(</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>)</b>&rsquo;
- functioncall ::= prefixexp args | prefixexp `<b>:</b>&acute; Name args
+ functioncall ::= prefixexp args | prefixexp &lsquo;<b>:</b>&rsquo; Name args
- args ::= `<b>(</b>&acute; [explist] `<b>)</b>&acute; | tableconstructor | String
+ args ::= &lsquo;<b>(</b>&rsquo; [explist] &lsquo;<b>)</b>&rsquo; | tableconstructor | String
- function ::= <b>function</b> funcbody
+ functiondef ::= <b>function</b> funcbody
- funcbody ::= `<b>(</b>&acute; [parlist] `<b>)</b>&acute; block <b>end</b>
+ funcbody ::= &lsquo;<b>(</b>&rsquo; [parlist] &lsquo;<b>)</b>&rsquo; block <b>end</b>
- parlist ::= namelist [`<b>,</b>&acute; `<b>...</b>&acute;] | `<b>...</b>&acute;
+ parlist ::= namelist [&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;] | &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;
- tableconstructor ::= `<b>{</b>&acute; [fieldlist] `<b>}</b>&acute;
+ tableconstructor ::= &lsquo;<b>{</b>&rsquo; [fieldlist] &lsquo;<b>}</b>&rsquo;
fieldlist ::= field {fieldsep field} [fieldsep]
- field ::= `<b>[</b>&acute; exp `<b>]</b>&acute; `<b>=</b>&acute; exp | Name `<b>=</b>&acute; exp | exp
+ field ::= &lsquo;<b>[</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>]</b>&rsquo; &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp | Name &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp | exp
- fieldsep ::= `<b>,</b>&acute; | `<b>;</b>&acute;
+ fieldsep ::= &lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo;
- binop ::= `<b>+</b>&acute; | `<b>-</b>&acute; | `<b>*</b>&acute; | `<b>/</b>&acute; | `<b>^</b>&acute; | `<b>%</b>&acute; | `<b>..</b>&acute; |
- `<b>&lt;</b>&acute; | `<b>&lt;=</b>&acute; | `<b>&gt;</b>&acute; | `<b>&gt;=</b>&acute; | `<b>==</b>&acute; | `<b>~=</b>&acute; |
+ binop ::= &lsquo;<b>+</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>-</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>*</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>/</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>^</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>%</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>..</b>&rsquo; |
+ &lsquo;<b>&lt;</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>&lt;=</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>&gt;</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>&gt;=</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>==</b>&rsquo; | &lsquo;<b>~=</b>&rsquo; |
<b>and</b> | <b>or</b>
- unop ::= `<b>-</b>&acute; | <b>not</b> | `<b>#</b>&acute;
+ unop ::= &lsquo;<b>-</b>&rsquo; | <b>not</b> | &lsquo;<b>#</b>&rsquo;
</pre>
@@ -8789,12 +10495,12 @@ Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF.
<HR>
-<SMALL>
+<SMALL CLASS="footer">
Last update:
-Mon Aug 18 13:25:46 BRT 2008
+Thu Mar 21 12:58:59 BRT 2013
</SMALL>
<!--
-Last change: revised for Lua 5.1.4
+Last change: revised for Lua 5.2.2
-->
</body></html>
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/osi-certified-72x60.png b/com32/lua/doc/osi-certified-72x60.png
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..07df5f6e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/osi-certified-72x60.png
Binary files differ
diff --git a/com32/lua/doc/readme.html b/com32/lua/doc/readme.html
index 38be6dbb..5b9e47ec 100644
--- a/com32/lua/doc/readme.html
+++ b/com32/lua/doc/readme.html
@@ -1,7 +1,28 @@
+<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
-<TITLE>Lua documentation</TITLE>
+<TITLE>Lua 5.2 readme</TITLE>
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
+<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
+<STYLE TYPE="text/css">
+blockquote, .display {
+ border: solid #a0a0a0 2px ;
+ padding: 1em ;
+ margin: 0px ;
+}
+
+.display {
+ word-spacing: 0.25em ;
+}
+
+dl.display dd {
+ padding-bottom: 0.2em ;
+}
+
+tt, kbd, code {
+ font-size: 12pt ;
+}
+</STYLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
@@ -9,32 +30,383 @@
<HR>
<H1>
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/"><IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="Lua" BORDER=0></A>
-Documentation
+Welcome to Lua 5.2
</H1>
-This is the documentation included in the source distribution of Lua 5.1.4.
+<P>
+<A HREF="#about">about</A>
+&middot;
+<A HREF="#install">installation</A>
+&middot;
+<A HREF="#changes">changes</A>
+&middot;
+<A HREF="#license">license</A>
+&middot;
+<A HREF="contents.html">reference manual</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="contents.html">Reference manual</A>
-<LI><A HREF="lua.html">lua man page</A>
-<LI><A HREF="luac.html">luac man page</A>
-<LI><A HREF="../README">lua/README</A>
-<LI><A HREF="../etc/README">lua/etc/README</A>
-<LI><A HREF="../test/README">lua/test/README</A>
-</UL>
+<H2><A NAME="about">About Lua</A></H2>
+<P>
+Lua is a powerful, fast, lightweight, embeddable scripting language
+developed by a
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/authors.html">team</A>
+at
+<A HREF="http://www.puc-rio.br/">PUC-Rio</A>,
+the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.
+Lua is
+<A HREF="#license">free software</A>
+used in many products and projects around the world.
+
+<P>
Lua's
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/">official web site</A>
-contains updated documentation,
+provides complete information
+about Lua,
+including
+an
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/about.html">executive summary</A>
+and
+updated
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/docs.html">documentation</A>,
especially the
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/">reference manual</A>.
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.2/">reference manual</A>,
+which may differ slightly from the
+<A HREF="contents.html">local copy</A>
+distributed in this package.
+
+<H2><A NAME="install">Installing Lua</A></H2>
+
+<P>
+Lua is distributed in
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/ftp/">source</A>
+form.
+You need to build it before using it.
+Building Lua should be straightforward
+because
+Lua is implemented in pure ANSI C and compiles unmodified in all known
+platforms that have an ANSI C compiler.
+Lua also compiles unmodified as C++.
+The instructions given below for building Lua are for Unix-like platforms.
+See also
+<A HREF="#other">instructions for other systems</A>
+and
+<A HREF="#customization">customization options</A>.
+
+<P>
+If you don't have the time or the inclination to compile Lua yourself,
+get a binary from
+<A HREF="http://lua-users.org/wiki/LuaBinaries">LuaBinaries</A>.
+Try also
+<A HREF="http://luaforwindows.luaforge.net/">Lua for Windows</A>,
+an easy-to-use distribution of Lua that includes many useful libraries.
+
+<H3>Building Lua</H3>
+
+<P>
+In most Unix-like platforms, simply do "<KBD>make</KBD>" with a suitable target.
+Here are the details.
+
+<OL>
+<LI>
+Open a terminal window and move to
+the top-level directory, which is named <TT>lua-5.2.2</TT>.
+The Makefile there controls both the build process and the installation process.
+<P>
+<LI>
+ Do "<KBD>make</KBD>" and see if your platform is listed.
+ The platforms currently supported are:
+<P>
+<P CLASS="display">
+ aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
+</P>
+<P>
+ If your platform is listed, just do "<KBD>make xxx</KBD>", where xxx
+ is your platform name.
+<P>
+ If your platform is not listed, try the closest one or posix, generic,
+ ansi, in this order.
+<P>
+<LI>
+The compilation takes only a few moments
+and produces three files in the <TT>src</TT> directory:
+lua (the interpreter),
+luac (the compiler),
+and liblua.a (the library).
+<P>
+<LI>
+ To check that Lua has been built correctly, do "<KBD>make test</KBD>"
+ after building Lua. This will run the interpreter and print its version string.
+</OL>
+<P>
+If you're running Linux and get compilation errors,
+make sure you have installed the <TT>readline</TT> development package.
+If you get link errors after that,
+then try "<KBD>make linux MYLIBS=-ltermcap</KBD>".
+
+<H3>Installing Lua</H3>
+<P>
+ Once you have built Lua, you may want to install it in an official
+ place in your system. In this case, do "<KBD>make install</KBD>". The official
+ place and the way to install files are defined in the Makefile. You'll
+ probably need the right permissions to install files.
+
+<P>
+ To build and install Lua in one step, do "<KBD>make xxx install</KBD>",
+ where xxx is your platform name.
+
+<P>
+ To install Lua locally, do "<KBD>make local</KBD>".
+ This will create a directory <TT>install</TT> with subdirectories
+ <TT>bin</TT>, <TT>include</TT>, <TT>lib</TT>, <TT>man</TT>,
+ and install Lua as listed below.
+
+ To install Lua locally, but in some other directory, do
+ "<KBD>make install INSTALL_TOP=xxx</KBD>", where xxx is your chosen directory.
+
+<DL CLASS="display">
+<DT>
+ bin:
+<DD>
+ lua luac
+<DT>
+ include:
+<DD>
+ lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h lua.hpp
+<DT>
+ lib:
+<DD>
+ liblua.a
+<DT>
+ man/man1:
+<DD>
+ lua.1 luac.1
+</DL>
+
+<P>
+ These are the only directories you need for development.
+ If you only want to run Lua programs,
+ you only need the files in bin and man.
+ The files in include and lib are needed for
+ embedding Lua in C or C++ programs.
+
+<H3><A NAME="customization">Customization</A></H3>
+<P>
+ Three kinds of things can be customized by editing a file:
+<UL>
+ <LI> Where and how to install Lua &mdash; edit <TT>Makefile</TT>.
+ <LI> How to build Lua &mdash; edit <TT>src/Makefile</TT>.
+ <LI> Lua features &mdash; edit <TT>src/luaconf.h</TT>.
+</UL>
+
+<P>
+ You don't actually need to edit the Makefiles because you may set the
+ relevant variables in the command line when invoking make.
+ Nevertheless, it's probably best to edit and save the Makefiles to
+ record the changes you need.
+
+<P>
+ On the other hand, if you need to customize some Lua features, you'll need
+ to edit <TT>src/luaconf.h</TT> before building and installing Lua.
+ The edited file will be the one installed, and
+ it will be used by any Lua clients that you build, to ensure consistency.
+ Further customization is available to experts by editing the Lua sources.
+
+<P>
+ We strongly recommend that you enable dynamic loading in <TT>src/luaconf.h</TT>.
+ This is done automatically for all platforms listed above that have
+ this feature and also for Windows.
+
+<H3><A NAME="other">Building Lua on other systems</A></H3>
+
+<P>
+ If you're not using the usual Unix tools, then the instructions for
+ building Lua depend on the compiler you use. You'll need to create
+ projects (or whatever your compiler uses) for building the library,
+ the interpreter, and the compiler, as follows:
+
+<DL CLASS="display">
+<DT>
+library:
+<DD>
+lapi.c lcode.c lctype.c ldebug.c ldo.c ldump.c lfunc.c lgc.c llex.c
+lmem.c lobject.c lopcodes.c lparser.c lstate.c lstring.c ltable.c
+ltm.c lundump.c lvm.c lzio.c
+lauxlib.c lbaselib.c lbitlib.c lcorolib.c ldblib.c liolib.c
+lmathlib.c loslib.c lstrlib.c ltablib.c loadlib.c linit.c
+<DT>
+interpreter:
+<DD>
+ library, lua.c
+<DT>
+compiler:
+<DD>
+ library, luac.c
+</DL>
+
+<P>
+ To use Lua as a library in your own programs you'll need to know how to
+ create and use libraries with your compiler. Moreover, to dynamically load
+ C libraries for Lua you'll need to know how to create dynamic libraries
+ and you'll need to make sure that the Lua API functions are accessible to
+ those dynamic libraries &mdash; but <EM>don't</EM> link the Lua library
+ into each dynamic library. For Unix, we recommend that the Lua library
+ be linked statically into the host program and its symbols exported for
+ dynamic linking; <TT>src/Makefile</TT> does this for the Lua interpreter.
+ For Windows, we recommend that the Lua library be a DLL.
+
+<P>
+ As mentioned above, you may edit <TT>src/luaconf.h</TT> to customize
+ some features before building Lua.
+
+<H2><A NAME="changes">Changes since Lua 5.1</A></H2>
+
+<P>
+Here are the main changes introduced in Lua 5.2.
+The
+<A HREF="contents.html">reference manual</A>
+lists the
+<A HREF="manual.html#8">incompatibilities</A> that had to be introduced.
+
+<H3>Main changes</H3>
+<UL>
+<LI> yieldable pcall and metamethods
+<LI> new lexical scheme for globals
+<LI> ephemeron tables
+<LI> new library for bitwise operations
+<LI> light C functions
+<LI> emergency garbage collector
+<LI> <CODE>goto</CODE> statement
+<LI> finalizers for tables
+</UL>
+
+Here are the other changes introduced in Lua 5.2:
+<H3>Language</H3>
+<UL>
+<LI> no more fenv for threads or functions
+<LI> tables honor the <CODE>__len</CODE> metamethod
+<LI> hex and <CODE>\z</CODE> escapes in strings
+<LI> support for hexadecimal floats
+<LI> order metamethods work for different types
+<LI> no more verification of opcode consistency
+<LI> hook event "tail return" replaced by "tail call"
+<LI> empty statement
+<LI> <CODE>break</CODE> statement may appear in the middle of a block
+</UL>
+
+<H3>Libraries</H3>
+<UL>
+<LI> arguments for function called through <CODE>xpcall</CODE>
+<LI> optional 'mode' argument to load and loadfile (to control binary x text)
+<LI> optional 'env' argument to load and loadfile (environment for loaded chunk)
+<LI> <CODE>loadlib</CODE> may load libraries with global names (RTLD_GLOBAL)
+<LI> new function <CODE>package.searchpath</CODE>
+<LI> modules receive their paths when loaded
+<LI> optional base in <CODE>math.log</CODE>
+<LI> optional separator in <CODE>string.rep</CODE>
+<LI> <CODE>file:write</CODE> returns <CODE>file</CODE>
+<LI> closing a pipe returns exit status
+<LI> <CODE>os.exit</CODE> may close state
+<LI> new metamethods <CODE>__pairs</CODE> and <CODE>__ipairs</CODE>
+<LI> new option 'isrunning' for <CODE>collectgarbage</CODE> and <CODE>lua_gc</CODE>
+<LI> frontier patterns
+<LI> <CODE>\0</CODE> in patterns
+<LI> new option <CODE>*L</CODE> for <CODE>io.read</CODE>
+<LI> options for <CODE>io.lines</CODE>
+<LI> <CODE>debug.getlocal</CODE> can access function varargs
+</UL>
+
+<H3>C API</H3>
+<UL>
+<LI> main thread predefined in the registry
+<LI> new functions
+<CODE>lua_absindex</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_arith</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_compare</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_copy</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_len</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_rawgetp</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_rawsetp</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_upvalueid</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_upvaluejoin</CODE>,
+<CODE>lua_version</CODE>.
+<LI> new functions
+<CODE>luaL_checkversion</CODE>,
+<CODE>luaL_setmetatable</CODE>,
+<CODE>luaL_testudata</CODE>,
+<CODE>luaL_tolstring</CODE>.
+<LI> <CODE>lua_pushstring</CODE> and <CODE>pushlstring</CODE> return string
+<LI> <CODE>nparams</CODE> and <CODE>isvararg</CODE> available in debug API
+<LI> new <CODE>lua_Unsigned</CODE>
+</UL>
+
+<H3>Implementation</H3>
+<UL>
+<LI> max constants per function raised to 2<SUP>26</SUP>
+<LI> generational mode for garbage collection (experimental)
+<LI> NaN trick (experimental)
+<LI> internal (immutable) version of ctypes
+<LI> simpler implementation for string buffers
+<LI> parser uses much less C-stack space (no more auto arrays)
+</UL>
+
+<H3>Lua standalone interpreter</H3>
+<UL>
+<LI> new <CODE>-E</CODE> option to avoid environment variables
+<LI> handling of non-string error messages
+</UL>
+
+<H2><A NAME="license">License</A></H2>
+<A HREF="http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.php">
+<IMG SRC="osi-certified-72x60.png" ALIGN="right" BORDER="0" ALT="[osi certified]" STYLE="padding-left: 30px ;">
+</A>
+
+<P>
+Lua is free software distributed under the terms of the
+<A HREF="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.html">MIT license</A>
+reproduced below;
+it may be used for any purpose, including commercial purposes,
+at absolutely no cost without having to ask us.
+
+The only requirement is that if you do use Lua,
+then you should give us credit by including the appropriate copyright notice somewhere in your product or its documentation.
+
+For details, see
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/license.html">this</A>.
+
+<BLOCKQUOTE STYLE="padding-bottom: 0em">
+Copyright &copy; 1994&ndash;2013 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
+
+<P>
+Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
+of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
+in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
+to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
+copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
+furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
+
+<P>
+The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
+all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
+
+<P>
+THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
+IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
+FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
+AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
+LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
+OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
+THE SOFTWARE.
+</BLOCKQUOTE>
<P>
<HR>
-<SMALL>
+<SMALL CLASS="footer">
Last update:
-Tue Aug 12 14:46:07 BRT 2008
+Fri Feb 22 09:24:20 BRT 2013
</SMALL>
+<!--
+Last change: revised for Lua 5.2.2
+-->
</BODY>
</HTML>
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/Makefile b/com32/lua/etc/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 6d00008d..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,44 +0,0 @@
-# makefile for Lua etc
-
-TOP= ..
-LIB= $(TOP)/src
-INC= $(TOP)/src
-BIN= $(TOP)/src
-SRC= $(TOP)/src
-TST= $(TOP)/test
-
-CC= gcc
-CFLAGS= -O2 -Wall -I$(INC) $(MYCFLAGS)
-MYCFLAGS=
-MYLDFLAGS= -Wl,-E
-MYLIBS= -lm
-#MYLIBS= -lm -Wl,-E -ldl -lreadline -lhistory -lncurses
-RM= rm -f
-
-default:
- @echo 'Please choose a target: min noparser one strict clean'
-
-min: min.c
- $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $@.c -L$(LIB) -llua $(MYLIBS)
- echo 'print"Hello there!"' | ./a.out
-
-noparser: noparser.o
- $(CC) noparser.o $(SRC)/lua.o -L$(LIB) -llua $(MYLIBS)
- $(BIN)/luac $(TST)/hello.lua
- -./a.out luac.out
- -./a.out -e'a=1'
-
-one:
- $(CC) $(CFLAGS) all.c $(MYLIBS)
- ./a.out $(TST)/hello.lua
-
-strict:
- -$(BIN)/lua -e 'print(a);b=2'
- -$(BIN)/lua -lstrict -e 'print(a)'
- -$(BIN)/lua -e 'function f() b=2 end f()'
- -$(BIN)/lua -lstrict -e 'function f() b=2 end f()'
-
-clean:
- $(RM) a.out core core.* *.o luac.out
-
-.PHONY: default min noparser one strict clean
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/README b/com32/lua/etc/README
deleted file mode 100644
index 5149fc91..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/README
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,37 +0,0 @@
-This directory contains some useful files and code.
-Unlike the code in ../src, everything here is in the public domain.
-
-If any of the makes fail, you're probably not using the same libraries
-used to build Lua. Set MYLIBS in Makefile accordingly.
-
-all.c
- Full Lua interpreter in a single file.
- Do "make one" for a demo.
-
-lua.hpp
- Lua header files for C++ using 'extern "C"'.
-
-lua.ico
- A Lua icon for Windows (and web sites: save as favicon.ico).
- Drawn by hand by Markus Gritsch <gritsch@iue.tuwien.ac.at>.
-
-lua.pc
- pkg-config data for Lua
-
-luavs.bat
- Script to build Lua under "Visual Studio .NET Command Prompt".
- Run it from the toplevel as etc\luavs.bat.
-
-min.c
- A minimal Lua interpreter.
- Good for learning and for starting your own.
- Do "make min" for a demo.
-
-noparser.c
- Linking with noparser.o avoids loading the parsing modules in lualib.a.
- Do "make noparser" for a demo.
-
-strict.lua
- Traps uses of undeclared global variables.
- Do "make strict" for a demo.
-
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/all.c b/com32/lua/etc/all.c
deleted file mode 100644
index dab68fac..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/all.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,38 +0,0 @@
-/*
-* all.c -- Lua core, libraries and interpreter in a single file
-*/
-
-#define luaall_c
-
-#include "lapi.c"
-#include "lcode.c"
-#include "ldebug.c"
-#include "ldo.c"
-#include "ldump.c"
-#include "lfunc.c"
-#include "lgc.c"
-#include "llex.c"
-#include "lmem.c"
-#include "lobject.c"
-#include "lopcodes.c"
-#include "lparser.c"
-#include "lstate.c"
-#include "lstring.c"
-#include "ltable.c"
-#include "ltm.c"
-#include "lundump.c"
-#include "lvm.c"
-#include "lzio.c"
-
-#include "lauxlib.c"
-#include "lbaselib.c"
-#include "ldblib.c"
-#include "liolib.c"
-#include "linit.c"
-#include "lmathlib.c"
-#include "loadlib.c"
-#include "loslib.c"
-#include "lstrlib.c"
-#include "ltablib.c"
-
-#include "lua.c"
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/lua.ico b/com32/lua/etc/lua.ico
deleted file mode 100644
index ccbabc4e..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/lua.ico
+++ /dev/null
Binary files differ
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/lua.pc b/com32/lua/etc/lua.pc
deleted file mode 100644
index f52f55b0..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/lua.pc
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,31 +0,0 @@
-# lua.pc -- pkg-config data for Lua
-
-# vars from install Makefile
-
-# grep '^V=' ../Makefile
-V= 5.1
-# grep '^R=' ../Makefile
-R= 5.1.4
-
-# grep '^INSTALL_.*=' ../Makefile | sed 's/INSTALL_TOP/prefix/'
-prefix= /usr/local
-INSTALL_BIN= ${prefix}/bin
-INSTALL_INC= ${prefix}/include
-INSTALL_LIB= ${prefix}/lib
-INSTALL_MAN= ${prefix}/man/man1
-INSTALL_LMOD= ${prefix}/share/lua/${V}
-INSTALL_CMOD= ${prefix}/lib/lua/${V}
-
-# canonical vars
-exec_prefix=${prefix}
-libdir=${exec_prefix}/lib
-includedir=${prefix}/include
-
-Name: Lua
-Description: An Extensible Extension Language
-Version: ${R}
-Requires:
-Libs: -L${libdir} -llua -lm
-Cflags: -I${includedir}
-
-# (end of lua.pc)
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/luavs.bat b/com32/lua/etc/luavs.bat
deleted file mode 100644
index 054b4625..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/luavs.bat
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,28 +0,0 @@
-@rem Script to build Lua under "Visual Studio .NET Command Prompt".
-@rem Do not run from this directory; run it from the toplevel: etc\luavs.bat .
-@rem It creates lua51.dll, lua51.lib, lua.exe, and luac.exe in src.
-@rem (contributed by David Manura and Mike Pall)
-
-@setlocal
-@set MYCOMPILE=cl /nologo /MD /O2 /W3 /c /D_CRT_SECURE_NO_DEPRECATE
-@set MYLINK=link /nologo
-@set MYMT=mt /nologo
-
-cd src
-%MYCOMPILE% /DLUA_BUILD_AS_DLL l*.c
-del lua.obj luac.obj
-%MYLINK% /DLL /out:lua51.dll l*.obj
-if exist lua51.dll.manifest^
- %MYMT% -manifest lua51.dll.manifest -outputresource:lua51.dll;2
-%MYCOMPILE% /DLUA_BUILD_AS_DLL lua.c
-%MYLINK% /out:lua.exe lua.obj lua51.lib
-if exist lua.exe.manifest^
- %MYMT% -manifest lua.exe.manifest -outputresource:lua.exe
-%MYCOMPILE% l*.c print.c
-del lua.obj linit.obj lbaselib.obj ldblib.obj liolib.obj lmathlib.obj^
- loslib.obj ltablib.obj lstrlib.obj loadlib.obj
-%MYLINK% /out:luac.exe *.obj
-if exist luac.exe.manifest^
- %MYMT% -manifest luac.exe.manifest -outputresource:luac.exe
-del *.obj *.manifest
-cd ..
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/min.c b/com32/lua/etc/min.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 6a85a4d1..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/min.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,39 +0,0 @@
-/*
-* min.c -- a minimal Lua interpreter
-* loads stdin only with minimal error handling.
-* no interaction, and no standard library, only a "print" function.
-*/
-
-#include <stdio.h>
-
-#include "lua.h"
-#include "lauxlib.h"
-
-static int print(lua_State *L)
-{
- int n=lua_gettop(L);
- int i;
- for (i=1; i<=n; i++)
- {
- if (i>1) printf("\t");
- if (lua_isstring(L,i))
- printf("%s",lua_tostring(L,i));
- else if (lua_isnil(L,i))
- printf("%s","nil");
- else if (lua_isboolean(L,i))
- printf("%s",lua_toboolean(L,i) ? "true" : "false");
- else
- printf("%s:%p",luaL_typename(L,i),lua_topointer(L,i));
- }
- printf("\n");
- return 0;
-}
-
-int main(void)
-{
- lua_State *L=lua_open();
- lua_register(L,"print",print);
- if (luaL_dofile(L,NULL)!=0) fprintf(stderr,"%s\n",lua_tostring(L,-1));
- lua_close(L);
- return 0;
-}
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/noparser.c b/com32/lua/etc/noparser.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 13ba5462..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/noparser.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,50 +0,0 @@
-/*
-* The code below can be used to make a Lua core that does not contain the
-* parsing modules (lcode, llex, lparser), which represent 35% of the total core.
-* You'll only be able to load binary files and strings, precompiled with luac.
-* (Of course, you'll have to build luac with the original parsing modules!)
-*
-* To use this module, simply compile it ("make noparser" does that) and list
-* its object file before the Lua libraries. The linker should then not load
-* the parsing modules. To try it, do "make luab".
-*
-* If you also want to avoid the dump module (ldump.o), define NODUMP.
-* #define NODUMP
-*/
-
-#define LUA_CORE
-
-#include "llex.h"
-#include "lparser.h"
-#include "lzio.h"
-
-LUAI_FUNC void luaX_init (lua_State *L) {
- UNUSED(L);
-}
-
-LUAI_FUNC Proto *luaY_parser (lua_State *L, ZIO *z, Mbuffer *buff, const char *name) {
- UNUSED(z);
- UNUSED(buff);
- UNUSED(name);
- lua_pushliteral(L,"parser not loaded");
- lua_error(L);
- return NULL;
-}
-
-#ifdef NODUMP
-#include "lundump.h"
-
-LUAI_FUNC int luaU_dump (lua_State* L, const Proto* f, lua_Writer w, void* data, int strip) {
- UNUSED(f);
- UNUSED(w);
- UNUSED(data);
- UNUSED(strip);
-#if 1
- UNUSED(L);
- return 0;
-#else
- lua_pushliteral(L,"dumper not loaded");
- lua_error(L);
-#endif
-}
-#endif
diff --git a/com32/lua/etc/strict.lua b/com32/lua/etc/strict.lua
deleted file mode 100644
index 604619dd..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/etc/strict.lua
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,41 +0,0 @@
---
--- strict.lua
--- checks uses of undeclared global variables
--- All global variables must be 'declared' through a regular assignment
--- (even assigning nil will do) in a main chunk before being used
--- anywhere or assigned to inside a function.
---
-
-local getinfo, error, rawset, rawget = debug.getinfo, error, rawset, rawget
-
-local mt = getmetatable(_G)
-if mt == nil then
- mt = {}
- setmetatable(_G, mt)
-end
-
-mt.__declared = {}
-
-local function what ()
- local d = getinfo(3, "S")
- return d and d.what or "C"
-end
-
-mt.__newindex = function (t, n, v)
- if not mt.__declared[n] then
- local w = what()
- if w ~= "main" and w ~= "C" then
- error("assign to undeclared variable '"..n.."'", 2)
- end
- mt.__declared[n] = true
- end
- rawset(t, n, v)
-end
-
-mt.__index = function (t, n)
- if not mt.__declared[n] and what() ~= "C" then
- error("variable '"..n.."' is not declared", 2)
- end
- return rawget(t, n)
-end
-
diff --git a/com32/lua/src/Makefile b/com32/lua/src/Makefile
index f3625e1a..fea895bc 100644
--- a/com32/lua/src/Makefile
+++ b/com32/lua/src/Makefile
@@ -1,71 +1,187 @@
-## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
-##
-## Copyright 2001-2009 H. Peter Anvin - All Rights Reserved
-## Copyright 2009-2010 Intel Corporation; author: H. Peter Anvin
-##
-## This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
-## it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
-## the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor,
-## Boston MA 02110-1301, USA; either version 2 of the License, or
-## (at your option) any later version; incorporated herein by reference.
-##
-## -----------------------------------------------------------------------
+# Makefile for building Lua
+# See ../doc/readme.html for installation and customization instructions.
-##
-## Lua Makefile
-##
+# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
-VPATH = $(SRC)
-include $(MAKEDIR)/elf.mk
+# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
+PLAT= none
-LNXLIBS =
+CC= gcc
+CFLAGS= -O2 -Wall -DLUA_COMPAT_ALL $(SYSCFLAGS) $(MYCFLAGS)
+LDFLAGS= $(SYSLDFLAGS) $(MYLDFLAGS)
+LIBS= -lm $(SYSLIBS) $(MYLIBS)
-# Temporarily allow warnings not being treated as errors
-#GCCWARN += -Wno-error
+AR= ar rcu
+RANLIB= ranlib
+RM= rm -f
-CFLAGS += -DSYSLINUX
-MODULES = lua.c32
-TESTFILES =
+SYSCFLAGS=
+SYSLDFLAGS=
+SYSLIBS=
-OBJS = lua.o
+MYCFLAGS=
+MYLDFLAGS=
+MYLIBS=
+MYOBJS=
-LIBLUA = liblua.c32
+# == END OF USER SETTINGS -- NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =======
-LIBLUA_OBJS := lapi.o lcode.o ldebug.o ldo.o ldump.o lfunc.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += lgc.o llex.o lmem.o lobject.o lopcodes.o lparser.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += lstate.o lstring.o ltable.o ltm.o lvm.o lzio.o lundump.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += syslinux.o
+PLATS= aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
-LIBLUA_OBJS += lauxlib.o lbaselib.o ldblib.o ltablib.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += lstrlib.o loadlib.o linit.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += liolib.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += dmi.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += cpu.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += pci.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += vesa.o
-LIBLUA_OBJS += dhcp.o
+LUA_A= liblua.a
+CORE_O= lapi.o lcode.o lctype.o ldebug.o ldo.o ldump.o lfunc.o lgc.o llex.o \
+ lmem.o lobject.o lopcodes.o lparser.o lstate.o lstring.o ltable.o \
+ ltm.o lundump.o lvm.o lzio.o
+LIB_O= lauxlib.o lbaselib.o lbitlib.o lcorolib.o ldblib.o liolib.o \
+ lmathlib.o loslib.o lstrlib.o ltablib.o loadlib.o linit.o
+BASE_O= $(CORE_O) $(LIB_O) $(MYOBJS)
-CFLAGS += -DLUA_ANSI
+LUA_T= lua
+LUA_O= lua.o
-all: $(MODULES) $(TESTFILES)
+LUAC_T= luac
+LUAC_O= luac.o
-liblua.elf : $(LIBLUA_OBJS)
- $(LD) $(LDFLAGS) -shared -soname $(patsubst %.elf,%.c32,$(@F)) \
- -o $@ $^
+ALL_O= $(BASE_O) $(LUA_O) $(LUAC_O)
+ALL_T= $(LUA_A) $(LUA_T) $(LUAC_T)
+ALL_A= $(LUA_A)
-lua.elf : $(OBJS) $(LIBLUA) $(C_LIBS)
- $(LD) $(LDFLAGS) -o $@ $^
+# Targets start here.
+default: $(PLAT)
-tidy dist:
- rm -f *.o *.lo *.lst *.elf .*.d *.tmp
+all: $(ALL_T)
+
+o: $(ALL_O)
+
+a: $(ALL_A)
+
+$(LUA_A): $(BASE_O)
+ $(AR) $@ $(BASE_O)
+ $(RANLIB) $@
+
+$(LUA_T): $(LUA_O) $(LUA_A)
+ $(CC) -o $@ $(LDFLAGS) $(LUA_O) $(LUA_A) $(LIBS)
+
+$(LUAC_T): $(LUAC_O) $(LUA_A)
+ $(CC) -o $@ $(LDFLAGS) $(LUAC_O) $(LUA_A) $(LIBS)
+
+clean:
+ $(RM) $(ALL_T) $(ALL_O)
+
+depend:
+ @$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -MM l*.c
+
+echo:
+ @echo "PLAT= $(PLAT)"
+ @echo "CC= $(CC)"
+ @echo "CFLAGS= $(CFLAGS)"
+ @echo "LDFLAGS= $(SYSLDFLAGS)"
+ @echo "LIBS= $(LIBS)"
+ @echo "AR= $(AR)"
+ @echo "RANLIB= $(RANLIB)"
+ @echo "RM= $(RM)"
+
+# Convenience targets for popular platforms
+ALL= all
+
+none:
+ @echo "Please do 'make PLATFORM' where PLATFORM is one of these:"
+ @echo " $(PLATS)"
+
+aix:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) CC="xlc" CFLAGS="-O2 -DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" SYSLIBS="-ldl" SYSLDFLAGS="-brtl -bexpall"
+
+ansi:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_ANSI"
+
+bsd:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E"
+
+freebsd:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -lreadline"
+
+generic: $(ALL)
+
+linux:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ldl -lreadline"
+
+macosx:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_MACOSX" SYSLIBS="-lreadline"
+
+mingw:
+ $(MAKE) "LUA_A=lua52.dll" "LUA_T=lua.exe" \
+ "AR=$(CC) -shared -o" "RANLIB=strip --strip-unneeded" \
+ "SYSCFLAGS=-DLUA_BUILD_AS_DLL" "SYSLIBS=" "SYSLDFLAGS=-s" lua.exe
+ $(MAKE) "LUAC_T=luac.exe" luac.exe
+
+posix:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX"
+
+solaris:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" SYSLIBS="-ldl"
+
+# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
+.PHONY: all $(PLATS) default o a clean depend echo none
+
+# DO NOT DELETE
+
+lapi.o: lapi.c lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h llimits.h lstate.h lobject.h ltm.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h ldebug.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h lundump.h \
+ lvm.h
+lauxlib.o: lauxlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h
+lbaselib.o: lbaselib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+lbitlib.o: lbitlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+lcode.o: lcode.c lua.h luaconf.h lcode.h llex.h lobject.h llimits.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h lstate.h ltm.h ldo.h lgc.h \
+ lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
+lcorolib.o: lcorolib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+lctype.o: lctype.c lctype.h lua.h luaconf.h llimits.h
+ldblib.o: ldblib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+ldebug.o: ldebug.c lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h llimits.h lstate.h lobject.h \
+ ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lcode.h llex.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h ldo.h \
+ lfunc.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h lvm.h
+ldo.o: ldo.c lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h llimits.h lstate.h lobject.h ltm.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h ldebug.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lopcodes.h lparser.h \
+ lstring.h ltable.h lundump.h lvm.h
+ldump.o: ldump.c lua.h luaconf.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h ltm.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h lundump.h
+lfunc.o: lfunc.c lua.h luaconf.h lfunc.h lobject.h llimits.h lgc.h \
+ lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h
+lgc.o: lgc.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h
+linit.o: linit.c lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h
+liolib.o: liolib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+llex.o: llex.c lua.h luaconf.h lctype.h llimits.h ldo.h lobject.h \
+ lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h llex.h lparser.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h
+lmathlib.o: lmathlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+lmem.o: lmem.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h \
+ ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lgc.h
+loadlib.o: loadlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+lobject.o: lobject.c lua.h luaconf.h lctype.h llimits.h ldebug.h lstate.h \
+ lobject.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lstring.h lgc.h lvm.h
+lopcodes.o: lopcodes.c lopcodes.h llimits.h lua.h luaconf.h
+loslib.o: loslib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+lparser.o: lparser.c lua.h luaconf.h lcode.h llex.h lobject.h llimits.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h lstate.h ltm.h ldo.h lfunc.h \
+ lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h
+lstate.o: lstate.c lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h llimits.h lstate.h lobject.h \
+ ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldebug.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h llex.h lstring.h \
+ ltable.h
+lstring.o: lstring.c lua.h luaconf.h lmem.h llimits.h lobject.h lstate.h \
+ ltm.h lzio.h lstring.h lgc.h
+lstrlib.o: lstrlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+ltable.o: ltable.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h \
+ ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
+ltablib.o: ltablib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+ltm.o: ltm.c lua.h luaconf.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h \
+ lmem.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h
+lua.o: lua.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
+luac.o: luac.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h \
+ ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lundump.h ldebug.h lopcodes.h
+lundump.o: lundump.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
+ llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lstring.h lgc.h lundump.h
+lvm.o: lvm.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h \
+ lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lopcodes.h lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
+lzio.o: lzio.c lua.h luaconf.h llimits.h lmem.h lstate.h lobject.h ltm.h \
+ lzio.h
-clean: tidy
- rm -f *.lnx
-
-spotless: clean
- rm -f *.lss *.c32 *.com
- rm -f *~ \#*
-
-install:
-
--include .*.d
diff --git a/com32/lua/src/Makefile-orig b/com32/lua/src/Makefile-orig
deleted file mode 100644
index e4a3cd61..00000000
--- a/com32/lua/src/Makefile-orig
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,182 +0,0 @@
-# makefile for building Lua
-# see ../INSTALL for installation instructions
-# see ../Makefile and luaconf.h for further customization
-
-# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
-
-# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
-PLAT= none
-
-CC= gcc
-CFLAGS= -O2 -Wall $(MYCFLAGS)
-AR= ar rcu
-RANLIB= ranlib
-RM= rm -f
-LIBS= -lm $(MYLIBS)
-
-MYCFLAGS=
-MYLDFLAGS=
-MYLIBS=
-
-# == END OF USER SETTINGS. NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =========
-
-PLATS= aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
-
-LUA_A= liblua.a
-CORE_O= lapi.o lcode.o ldebug.o ldo.o ldump.o lfunc.o lgc.o llex.o lmem.o \
- lobject.o lopcodes.o lparser.o lstate.o lstring.o ltable.o ltm.o \
- lundump.o lvm.o lzio.o
-LIB_O= lauxlib.o lbaselib.o ldblib.o liolib.o lmathlib.o loslib.o ltablib.o \
- lstrlib.o loadlib.o linit.o
-
-LUA_T= lua
-LUA_O= lua.o
-
-LUAC_T= luac
-LUAC_O= luac.o print.o
-
-ALL_O= $(CORE_O) $(LIB_O) $(LUA_O) $(LUAC_O)
-ALL_T= $(LUA_A) $(LUA_T) $(LUAC_T)
-ALL_A= $(LUA_A)
-
-default: $(PLAT)
-
-all: $(ALL_T)
-
-o: $(ALL_O)
-
-a: $(ALL_A)
-
-$(LUA_A): $(CORE_O) $(LIB_O)
- $(AR) $@ $?
- $(RANLIB) $@
-
-$(LUA_T): $(LUA_O) $(LUA_A)
- $(CC) -o $@ $(MYLDFLAGS) $(LUA_O) $(LUA_A) $(LIBS)
-
-$(LUAC_T): $(LUAC_O) $(LUA_A)
- $(CC) -o $@ $(MYLDFLAGS) $(LUAC_O) $(LUA_A) $(LIBS)
-
-clean:
- $(RM) $(ALL_T) $(ALL_O)
-
-depend:
- @$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -MM l*.c print.c
-
-echo:
- @echo "PLAT = $(PLAT)"
- @echo "CC = $(CC)"
- @echo "CFLAGS = $(CFLAGS)"
- @echo "AR = $(AR)"
- @echo "RANLIB = $(RANLIB)"
- @echo "RM = $(RM)"
- @echo "MYCFLAGS = $(MYCFLAGS)"
- @echo "MYLDFLAGS = $(MYLDFLAGS)"
- @echo "MYLIBS = $(MYLIBS)"
-
-# convenience targets for popular platforms
-
-none:
- @echo "Please choose a platform:"
- @echo " $(PLATS)"
-
-aix:
- $(MAKE) all CC="xlc" CFLAGS="-O2 -DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" MYLIBS="-ldl" MYLDFLAGS="-brtl -bexpall"
-
-ansi:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS=-DLUA_ANSI
-
-bsd:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" MYLIBS="-Wl,-E"
-
-freebsd:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX" MYLIBS="-Wl,-E -lreadline"
-
-generic:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS=
-
-linux:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS=-DLUA_USE_LINUX MYLIBS="-Wl,-E -ldl -lreadline -lhistory -lncurses"
-
-macosx:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS=-DLUA_USE_LINUX MYLIBS="-lreadline"
-# use this on Mac OS X 10.3-
-# $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS=-DLUA_USE_MACOSX
-
-mingw:
- $(MAKE) "LUA_A=lua51.dll" "LUA_T=lua.exe" \
- "AR=$(CC) -shared -o" "RANLIB=strip --strip-unneeded" \
- "MYCFLAGS=-DLUA_BUILD_AS_DLL" "MYLIBS=" "MYLDFLAGS=-s" lua.exe
- $(MAKE) "LUAC_T=luac.exe" luac.exe
-
-posix:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS=-DLUA_USE_POSIX
-
-solaris:
- $(MAKE) all MYCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" MYLIBS="-ldl"
-
-# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
-.PHONY: all $(PLATS) default o a clean depend echo none
-
-# DO NOT DELETE
-
-lapi.o: lapi.c lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h lobject.h llimits.h ldebug.h \
- lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h \
- lundump.h lvm.h
-lauxlib.o: lauxlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h
-lbaselib.o: lbaselib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-lcode.o: lcode.c lua.h luaconf.h lcode.h llex.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h lstate.h ltm.h ldo.h lgc.h \
- ltable.h
-ldblib.o: ldblib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-ldebug.o: ldebug.c lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h lobject.h llimits.h lcode.h \
- llex.h lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h lstate.h ltm.h ldo.h \
- lfunc.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h lvm.h
-ldo.o: ldo.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lopcodes.h lparser.h lstring.h \
- ltable.h lundump.h lvm.h
-ldump.o: ldump.c lua.h luaconf.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h ltm.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h lundump.h
-lfunc.o: lfunc.c lua.h luaconf.h lfunc.h lobject.h llimits.h lgc.h lmem.h \
- lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h
-lgc.o: lgc.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h
-linit.o: linit.c lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h
-liolib.o: liolib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-llex.o: llex.c lua.h luaconf.h ldo.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h ltm.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h llex.h lparser.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h
-lmathlib.o: lmathlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-lmem.o: lmem.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h
-loadlib.o: loadlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-lobject.o: lobject.c lua.h luaconf.h ldo.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h \
- ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lstring.h lgc.h lvm.h
-lopcodes.o: lopcodes.c lopcodes.h llimits.h lua.h luaconf.h
-loslib.o: loslib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-lparser.o: lparser.c lua.h luaconf.h lcode.h llex.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h lstate.h ltm.h ldo.h \
- lfunc.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h
-lstate.o: lstate.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h llex.h lstring.h ltable.h
-lstring.o: lstring.c lua.h luaconf.h lmem.h llimits.h lobject.h lstate.h \
- ltm.h lzio.h lstring.h lgc.h
-lstrlib.o: lstrlib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-ltable.o: ltable.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lgc.h ltable.h
-ltablib.o: ltablib.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-ltm.o: ltm.c lua.h luaconf.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h \
- lmem.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h
-lua.o: lua.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-luac.o: luac.c lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h ldo.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lfunc.h lopcodes.h lstring.h lgc.h \
- lundump.h
-lundump.o: lundump.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
- llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lstring.h lgc.h lundump.h
-lvm.o: lvm.c lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h \
- lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lopcodes.h lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
-lzio.o: lzio.c lua.h luaconf.h llimits.h lmem.h lstate.h lobject.h ltm.h \
- lzio.h
-print.o: print.c ldebug.h lstate.h lua.h luaconf.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lundump.h
-
-# (end of Makefile)
diff --git a/com32/lua/src/lapi.c b/com32/lua/src/lapi.c
index 5d5145d2..791d8545 100644
--- a/com32/lua/src/lapi.c
+++ b/com32/lua/src/lapi.c
@@ -1,12 +1,10 @@
/*
-** $Id: lapi.c,v 2.55.1.5 2008/07/04 18:41:18 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lapi.c,v 2.171 2013/03/16 21:10:18 roberto Exp $
** Lua API
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
-#include <assert.h>
-#include <math.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <string.h>
@@ -32,76 +30,80 @@
const char lua_ident[] =
- "$Lua: " LUA_RELEASE " " LUA_COPYRIGHT " $\n"
- "$Authors: " LUA_AUTHORS " $\n"
- "$URL: www.lua.org $\n";
+ "$LuaVersion: " LUA_COPYRIGHT " $"
+ "$LuaAuthors: " LUA_AUTHORS " $";
+/* value at a non-valid index */
+#define NONVALIDVALUE cast(TValue *, luaO_nilobject)
-#define api_checknelems(L, n) api_check(L, (n) <= (L->top - L->base))
+/* corresponding test */
+#define isvalid(o) ((o) != luaO_nilobject)
-#define api_checkvalidindex(L, i) api_check(L, (i) != luaO_nilobject)
+/* test for pseudo index */
+#define ispseudo(i) ((i) <= LUA_REGISTRYINDEX)
-#define api_incr_top(L) {api_check(L, L->top < L->ci->top); L->top++;}
+/* test for valid but not pseudo index */
+#define isstackindex(i, o) (isvalid(o) && !ispseudo(i))
+#define api_checkvalidindex(L, o) api_check(L, isvalid(o), "invalid index")
+#define api_checkstackindex(L, i, o) \
+ api_check(L, isstackindex(i, o), "index not in the stack")
-static TValue *index2adr (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+
+static TValue *index2addr (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
if (idx > 0) {
- TValue *o = L->base + (idx - 1);
- api_check(L, idx <= L->ci->top - L->base);
- if (o >= L->top) return cast(TValue *, luaO_nilobject);
+ TValue *o = ci->func + idx;
+ api_check(L, idx <= ci->top - (ci->func + 1), "unacceptable index");
+ if (o >= L->top) return NONVALIDVALUE;
else return o;
}
- else if (idx > LUA_REGISTRYINDEX) {
- api_check(L, idx != 0 && -idx <= L->top - L->base);
+ else if (!ispseudo(idx)) { /* negative index */
+ api_check(L, idx != 0 && -idx <= L->top - (ci->func + 1), "invalid index");
return L->top + idx;
}
- else switch (idx) { /* pseudo-indices */
- case LUA_REGISTRYINDEX: return registry(L);
- case LUA_ENVIRONINDEX: {
- Closure *func = curr_func(L);
- sethvalue(L, &L->env, func->c.env);
- return &L->env;
- }
- case LUA_GLOBALSINDEX: return gt(L);
- default: {
- Closure *func = curr_func(L);
- idx = LUA_GLOBALSINDEX - idx;
- return (idx <= func->c.nupvalues)
- ? &func->c.upvalue[idx-1]
- : cast(TValue *, luaO_nilobject);
+ else if (idx == LUA_REGISTRYINDEX)
+ return &G(L)->l_registry;
+ else { /* upvalues */
+ idx = LUA_REGISTRYINDEX - idx;
+ api_check(L, idx <= MAXUPVAL + 1, "upvalue index too large");
+ if (ttislcf(ci->func)) /* light C function? */
+ return NONVALIDVALUE; /* it has no upvalues */
+ else {
+ CClosure *func = clCvalue(ci->func);
+ return (idx <= func->nupvalues) ? &func->upvalue[idx-1] : NONVALIDVALUE;
}
}
}
-static Table *getcurrenv (lua_State *L) {
- if (L->ci == L->base_ci) /* no enclosing function? */
- return hvalue(gt(L)); /* use global table as environment */
- else {
- Closure *func = curr_func(L);
- return func->c.env;
- }
-}
-
-
-void luaA_pushobject (lua_State *L, const TValue *o) {
- setobj2s(L, L->top, o);
- api_incr_top(L);
+/*
+** to be called by 'lua_checkstack' in protected mode, to grow stack
+** capturing memory errors
+*/
+static void growstack (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
+ int size = *(int *)ud;
+ luaD_growstack(L, size);
}
LUA_API int lua_checkstack (lua_State *L, int size) {
- int res = 1;
+ int res;
+ CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
lua_lock(L);
- if (size > LUAI_MAXCSTACK || (L->top - L->base + size) > LUAI_MAXCSTACK)
- res = 0; /* stack overflow */
- else if (size > 0) {
- luaD_checkstack(L, size);
- if (L->ci->top < L->top + size)
- L->ci->top = L->top + size;
+ if (L->stack_last - L->top > size) /* stack large enough? */
+ res = 1; /* yes; check is OK */
+ else { /* no; need to grow stack */
+ int inuse = cast_int(L->top - L->stack) + EXTRA_STACK;
+ if (inuse > LUAI_MAXSTACK - size) /* can grow without overflow? */
+ res = 0; /* no */
+ else /* try to grow stack */
+ res = (luaD_rawrunprotected(L, &growstack, &size) == LUA_OK);
}
+ if (res && ci->top < L->top + size)
+ ci->top = L->top + size; /* adjust frame top */
lua_unlock(L);
return res;
}
@@ -112,8 +114,8 @@ LUA_API void lua_xmove (lua_State *from, lua_State *to, int n) {
if (from == to) return;
lua_lock(to);
api_checknelems(from, n);
- api_check(from, G(from) == G(to));
- api_check(from, to->ci->top - to->top >= n);
+ api_check(from, G(from) == G(to), "moving among independent states");
+ api_check(from, to->ci->top - to->top >= n, "not enough elements to move");
from->top -= n;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
setobj2s(to, to->top++, from->top + i);
@@ -122,11 +124,6 @@ LUA_API void lua_xmove (lua_State *from, lua_State *to, int n) {
}
-LUA_API void lua_setlevel (lua_State *from, lua_State *to) {
- to->nCcalls = from->nCcalls;
-}
-
-
LUA_API lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf) {
lua_CFunction old;
lua_lock(L);
@@ -137,16 +134,10 @@ LUA_API lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf) {
}
-LUA_API lua_State *lua_newthread (lua_State *L) {
- lua_State *L1;
- lua_lock(L);
- luaC_checkGC(L);
- L1 = luaE_newthread(L);
- setthvalue(L, L->top, L1);
- api_incr_top(L);
- lua_unlock(L);
- luai_userstatethread(L, L1);
- return L1;
+LUA_API const lua_Number *lua_version (lua_State *L) {
+ static const lua_Number version = LUA_VERSION_NUM;
+ if (L == NULL) return &version;
+ else return G(L)->version;
}
@@ -156,21 +147,32 @@ LUA_API lua_State *lua_newthread (lua_State *L) {
*/
+/*
+** convert an acceptable stack index into an absolute index
+*/
+LUA_API int lua_absindex (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ return (idx > 0 || ispseudo(idx))
+ ? idx
+ : cast_int(L->top - L->ci->func + idx);
+}
+
+
LUA_API int lua_gettop (lua_State *L) {
- return cast_int(L->top - L->base);
+ return cast_int(L->top - (L->ci->func + 1));
}
LUA_API void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ StkId func = L->ci->func;
lua_lock(L);
if (idx >= 0) {
- api_check(L, idx <= L->stack_last - L->base);
- while (L->top < L->base + idx)
+ api_check(L, idx <= L->stack_last - (func + 1), "new top too large");
+ while (L->top < (func + 1) + idx)
setnilvalue(L->top++);
- L->top = L->base + idx;
+ L->top = (func + 1) + idx;
}
else {
- api_check(L, -(idx+1) <= (L->top - L->base));
+ api_check(L, -(idx+1) <= (L->top - (func + 1)), "invalid new top");
L->top += idx+1; /* `subtract' index (index is negative) */
}
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -180,8 +182,8 @@ LUA_API void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API void lua_remove (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId p;
lua_lock(L);
- p = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, p);
+ p = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_checkstackindex(L, idx, p);
while (++p < L->top) setobjs2s(L, p-1, p);
L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -192,42 +194,47 @@ LUA_API void lua_insert (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId p;
StkId q;
lua_lock(L);
- p = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, p);
- for (q = L->top; q>p; q--) setobjs2s(L, q, q-1);
+ p = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_checkstackindex(L, idx, p);
+ for (q = L->top; q > p; q--) /* use L->top as a temporary */
+ setobjs2s(L, q, q - 1);
setobjs2s(L, p, L->top);
lua_unlock(L);
}
+static void moveto (lua_State *L, TValue *fr, int idx) {
+ TValue *to = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_checkvalidindex(L, to);
+ setobj(L, to, fr);
+ if (idx < LUA_REGISTRYINDEX) /* function upvalue? */
+ luaC_barrier(L, clCvalue(L->ci->func), fr);
+ /* LUA_REGISTRYINDEX does not need gc barrier
+ (collector revisits it before finishing collection) */
+}
+
+
LUA_API void lua_replace (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o;
lua_lock(L);
- /* explicit test for incompatible code */
- if (idx == LUA_ENVIRONINDEX && L->ci == L->base_ci)
- luaG_runerror(L, "no calling environment");
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, o);
- if (idx == LUA_ENVIRONINDEX) {
- Closure *func = curr_func(L);
- api_check(L, ttistable(L->top - 1));
- func->c.env = hvalue(L->top - 1);
- luaC_barrier(L, func, L->top - 1);
- }
- else {
- setobj(L, o, L->top - 1);
- if (idx < LUA_GLOBALSINDEX) /* function upvalue? */
- luaC_barrier(L, curr_func(L), L->top - 1);
- }
+ moveto(L, L->top - 1, idx);
L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
}
+LUA_API void lua_copy (lua_State *L, int fromidx, int toidx) {
+ TValue *fr;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ fr = index2addr(L, fromidx);
+ moveto(L, fr, toidx);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
LUA_API void lua_pushvalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
lua_lock(L);
- setobj2s(L, L->top, index2adr(L, idx));
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, index2addr(L, idx));
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -240,26 +247,26 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushvalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API int lua_type (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
- return (o == luaO_nilobject) ? LUA_TNONE : ttype(o);
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ return (isvalid(o) ? ttypenv(o) : LUA_TNONE);
}
LUA_API const char *lua_typename (lua_State *L, int t) {
UNUSED(L);
- return (t == LUA_TNONE) ? "no value" : luaT_typenames[t];
+ return ttypename(t);
}
LUA_API int lua_iscfunction (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
- return iscfunction(o);
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ return (ttislcf(o) || (ttisCclosure(o)));
}
LUA_API int lua_isnumber (lua_State *L, int idx) {
TValue n;
- const TValue *o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
return tonumber(o, &n);
}
@@ -271,77 +278,116 @@ LUA_API int lua_isstring (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API int lua_isuserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- const TValue *o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
return (ttisuserdata(o) || ttislightuserdata(o));
}
LUA_API int lua_rawequal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2) {
- StkId o1 = index2adr(L, index1);
- StkId o2 = index2adr(L, index2);
- return (o1 == luaO_nilobject || o2 == luaO_nilobject) ? 0
- : luaO_rawequalObj(o1, o2);
+ StkId o1 = index2addr(L, index1);
+ StkId o2 = index2addr(L, index2);
+ return (isvalid(o1) && isvalid(o2)) ? luaV_rawequalobj(o1, o2) : 0;
}
-LUA_API int lua_equal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2) {
- StkId o1, o2;
- int i;
- lua_lock(L); /* may call tag method */
- o1 = index2adr(L, index1);
- o2 = index2adr(L, index2);
- i = (o1 == luaO_nilobject || o2 == luaO_nilobject) ? 0 : equalobj(L, o1, o2);
+LUA_API void lua_arith (lua_State *L, int op) {
+ StkId o1; /* 1st operand */
+ StkId o2; /* 2nd operand */
+ lua_lock(L);
+ if (op != LUA_OPUNM) /* all other operations expect two operands */
+ api_checknelems(L, 2);
+ else { /* for unary minus, add fake 2nd operand */
+ api_checknelems(L, 1);
+ setobjs2s(L, L->top, L->top - 1);
+ L->top++;
+ }
+ o1 = L->top - 2;
+ o2 = L->top - 1;
+ if (ttisnumber(o1) && ttisnumber(o2)) {
+ setnvalue(o1, luaO_arith(op, nvalue(o1), nvalue(o2)));
+ }
+ else
+ luaV_arith(L, o1, o1, o2, cast(TMS, op - LUA_OPADD + TM_ADD));
+ L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
- return i;
}
-LUA_API int lua_lessthan (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2) {
+LUA_API int lua_compare (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2, int op) {
StkId o1, o2;
- int i;
+ int i = 0;
lua_lock(L); /* may call tag method */
- o1 = index2adr(L, index1);
- o2 = index2adr(L, index2);
- i = (o1 == luaO_nilobject || o2 == luaO_nilobject) ? 0
- : luaV_lessthan(L, o1, o2);
+ o1 = index2addr(L, index1);
+ o2 = index2addr(L, index2);
+ if (isvalid(o1) && isvalid(o2)) {
+ switch (op) {
+ case LUA_OPEQ: i = equalobj(L, o1, o2); break;
+ case LUA_OPLT: i = luaV_lessthan(L, o1, o2); break;
+ case LUA_OPLE: i = luaV_lessequal(L, o1, o2); break;
+ default: api_check(L, 0, "invalid option");
+ }
+ }
lua_unlock(L);
return i;
}
-
-LUA_API lua_Number lua_tonumber (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+LUA_API lua_Number lua_tonumberx (lua_State *L, int idx, int *isnum) {
TValue n;
- const TValue *o = index2adr(L, idx);
- if (tonumber(o, &n))
+ const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ if (tonumber(o, &n)) {
+ if (isnum) *isnum = 1;
return nvalue(o);
- else
+ }
+ else {
+ if (isnum) *isnum = 0;
return 0;
+ }
}
-LUA_API lua_Integer lua_tointeger (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+LUA_API lua_Integer lua_tointegerx (lua_State *L, int idx, int *isnum) {
TValue n;
- const TValue *o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
if (tonumber(o, &n)) {
lua_Integer res;
lua_Number num = nvalue(o);
lua_number2integer(res, num);
+ if (isnum) *isnum = 1;
return res;
}
- else
+ else {
+ if (isnum) *isnum = 0;
+ return 0;
+ }
+}
+
+
+LUA_API lua_Unsigned lua_tounsignedx (lua_State *L, int idx, int *isnum) {
+ TValue n;
+ const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ if (tonumber(o, &n)) {
+ lua_Unsigned res;
+ lua_Number num = nvalue(o);
+ lua_number2unsigned(res, num);
+ if (isnum) *isnum = 1;
+ return res;
+ }
+ else {
+ if (isnum) *isnum = 0;
return 0;
+ }
}
LUA_API int lua_toboolean (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- const TValue *o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
return !l_isfalse(o);
}
LUA_API const char *lua_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
if (!ttisstring(o)) {
lua_lock(L); /* `luaV_tostring' may create a new string */
if (!luaV_tostring(L, o)) { /* conversion failed? */
@@ -350,7 +396,7 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len) {
return NULL;
}
luaC_checkGC(L);
- o = index2adr(L, idx); /* previous call may reallocate the stack */
+ o = index2addr(L, idx); /* previous call may reallocate the stack */
lua_unlock(L);
}
if (len != NULL) *len = tsvalue(o)->len;
@@ -358,33 +404,29 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len) {
}
-LUA_API size_t lua_objlen (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
- switch (ttype(o)) {
+LUA_API size_t lua_rawlen (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ switch (ttypenv(o)) {
case LUA_TSTRING: return tsvalue(o)->len;
case LUA_TUSERDATA: return uvalue(o)->len;
case LUA_TTABLE: return luaH_getn(hvalue(o));
- case LUA_TNUMBER: {
- size_t l;
- lua_lock(L); /* `luaV_tostring' may create a new string */
- l = (luaV_tostring(L, o) ? tsvalue(o)->len : 0);
- lua_unlock(L);
- return l;
- }
default: return 0;
}
}
LUA_API lua_CFunction lua_tocfunction (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
- return (!iscfunction(o)) ? NULL : clvalue(o)->c.f;
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ if (ttislcf(o)) return fvalue(o);
+ else if (ttisCclosure(o))
+ return clCvalue(o)->f;
+ else return NULL; /* not a C function */
}
LUA_API void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
- switch (ttype(o)) {
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ switch (ttypenv(o)) {
case LUA_TUSERDATA: return (rawuvalue(o) + 1);
case LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA: return pvalue(o);
default: return NULL;
@@ -393,16 +435,18 @@ LUA_API void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API lua_State *lua_tothread (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
return (!ttisthread(o)) ? NULL : thvalue(o);
}
LUA_API const void *lua_topointer (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, idx);
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
switch (ttype(o)) {
case LUA_TTABLE: return hvalue(o);
- case LUA_TFUNCTION: return clvalue(o);
+ case LUA_TLCL: return clLvalue(o);
+ case LUA_TCCL: return clCvalue(o);
+ case LUA_TLCF: return cast(void *, cast(size_t, fvalue(o)));
case LUA_TTHREAD: return thvalue(o);
case LUA_TUSERDATA:
case LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA:
@@ -429,6 +473,8 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushnil (lua_State *L) {
LUA_API void lua_pushnumber (lua_State *L, lua_Number n) {
lua_lock(L);
setnvalue(L->top, n);
+ luai_checknum(L, L->top,
+ luaG_runerror(L, "C API - attempt to push a signaling NaN"));
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -442,20 +488,43 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushinteger (lua_State *L, lua_Integer n) {
}
-LUA_API void lua_pushlstring (lua_State *L, const char *s, size_t len) {
+LUA_API void lua_pushunsigned (lua_State *L, lua_Unsigned u) {
+ lua_Number n;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ n = lua_unsigned2number(u);
+ setnvalue(L->top, n);
+ api_incr_top(L);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
+LUA_API const char *lua_pushlstring (lua_State *L, const char *s, size_t len) {
+ TString *ts;
lua_lock(L);
luaC_checkGC(L);
- setsvalue2s(L, L->top, luaS_newlstr(L, s, len));
+ ts = luaS_newlstr(L, s, len);
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top, ts);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
+ return getstr(ts);
}
-LUA_API void lua_pushstring (lua_State *L, const char *s) {
- if (s == NULL)
+LUA_API const char *lua_pushstring (lua_State *L, const char *s) {
+ if (s == NULL) {
lua_pushnil(L);
- else
- lua_pushlstring(L, s, strlen(s));
+ return NULL;
+ }
+ else {
+ TString *ts;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ luaC_checkGC(L);
+ ts = luaS_new(L, s);
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top, ts);
+ api_incr_top(L);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+ return getstr(ts);
+ }
}
@@ -484,17 +553,22 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_pushfstring (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...) {
LUA_API void lua_pushcclosure (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction fn, int n) {
- Closure *cl;
lua_lock(L);
- luaC_checkGC(L);
- api_checknelems(L, n);
- cl = luaF_newCclosure(L, n, getcurrenv(L));
- cl->c.f = fn;
- L->top -= n;
- while (n--)
- setobj2n(L, &cl->c.upvalue[n], L->top+n);
- setclvalue(L, L->top, cl);
- lua_assert(iswhite(obj2gco(cl)));
+ if (n == 0) {
+ setfvalue(L->top, fn);
+ }
+ else {
+ Closure *cl;
+ api_checknelems(L, n);
+ api_check(L, n <= MAXUPVAL, "upvalue index too large");
+ luaC_checkGC(L);
+ cl = luaF_newCclosure(L, n);
+ cl->c.f = fn;
+ L->top -= n;
+ while (n--)
+ setobj2n(L, &cl->c.upvalue[n], L->top + n);
+ setclCvalue(L, L->top, cl);
+ }
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -531,11 +605,21 @@ LUA_API int lua_pushthread (lua_State *L) {
*/
+LUA_API void lua_getglobal (lua_State *L, const char *var) {
+ Table *reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
+ const TValue *gt; /* global table */
+ lua_lock(L);
+ gt = luaH_getint(reg, LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS);
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top++, luaS_new(L, var));
+ luaV_gettable(L, gt, L->top - 1, L->top - 1);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
LUA_API void lua_gettable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId t;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, t);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
luaV_gettable(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 1);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -543,13 +627,11 @@ LUA_API void lua_gettable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API void lua_getfield (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *k) {
StkId t;
- TValue key;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, t);
- setsvalue(L, &key, luaS_new(L, k));
- luaV_gettable(L, t, &key, L->top);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top, luaS_new(L, k));
api_incr_top(L);
+ luaV_gettable(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 1);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -557,29 +639,46 @@ LUA_API void lua_getfield (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *k) {
LUA_API void lua_rawget (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId t;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t));
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
setobj2s(L, L->top - 1, luaH_get(hvalue(t), L->top - 1));
lua_unlock(L);
}
LUA_API void lua_rawgeti (lua_State *L, int idx, int n) {
- StkId o;
+ StkId t;
lua_lock(L);
- o = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(o));
- setobj2s(L, L->top, luaH_getnum(hvalue(o), n));
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, luaH_getint(hvalue(t), n));
+ api_incr_top(L);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
+LUA_API void lua_rawgetp (lua_State *L, int idx, const void *p) {
+ StkId t;
+ TValue k;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
+ setpvalue(&k, cast(void *, p));
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, luaH_get(hvalue(t), &k));
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
LUA_API void lua_createtable (lua_State *L, int narray, int nrec) {
+ Table *t;
lua_lock(L);
luaC_checkGC(L);
- sethvalue(L, L->top, luaH_new(L, narray, nrec));
+ t = luaH_new(L);
+ sethvalue(L, L->top, t);
api_incr_top(L);
+ if (narray > 0 || nrec > 0)
+ luaH_resize(L, t, narray, nrec);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -589,8 +688,8 @@ LUA_API int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
Table *mt = NULL;
int res;
lua_lock(L);
- obj = index2adr(L, objindex);
- switch (ttype(obj)) {
+ obj = index2addr(L, objindex);
+ switch (ttypenv(obj)) {
case LUA_TTABLE:
mt = hvalue(obj)->metatable;
break;
@@ -598,7 +697,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
mt = uvalue(obj)->metatable;
break;
default:
- mt = G(L)->mt[ttype(obj)];
+ mt = G(L)->mt[ttypenv(obj)];
break;
}
if (mt == NULL)
@@ -613,25 +712,15 @@ LUA_API int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
}
-LUA_API void lua_getfenv (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+LUA_API void lua_getuservalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId o;
lua_lock(L);
- o = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, o);
- switch (ttype(o)) {
- case LUA_TFUNCTION:
- sethvalue(L, L->top, clvalue(o)->c.env);
- break;
- case LUA_TUSERDATA:
- sethvalue(L, L->top, uvalue(o)->env);
- break;
- case LUA_TTHREAD:
- setobj2s(L, L->top, gt(thvalue(o)));
- break;
- default:
- setnilvalue(L->top);
- break;
- }
+ o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttisuserdata(o), "userdata expected");
+ if (uvalue(o)->env) {
+ sethvalue(L, L->top, uvalue(o)->env);
+ } else
+ setnilvalue(L->top);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -642,12 +731,24 @@ LUA_API void lua_getfenv (lua_State *L, int idx) {
*/
+LUA_API void lua_setglobal (lua_State *L, const char *var) {
+ Table *reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
+ const TValue *gt; /* global table */
+ lua_lock(L);
+ api_checknelems(L, 1);
+ gt = luaH_getint(reg, LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS);
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top++, luaS_new(L, var));
+ luaV_settable(L, gt, L->top - 1, L->top - 2);
+ L->top -= 2; /* pop value and key */
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
LUA_API void lua_settable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId t;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 2);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, t);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
luaV_settable(L, t, L->top - 2, L->top - 1);
L->top -= 2; /* pop index and value */
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -656,14 +757,12 @@ LUA_API void lua_settable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API void lua_setfield (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *k) {
StkId t;
- TValue key;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, t);
- setsvalue(L, &key, luaS_new(L, k));
- luaV_settable(L, t, &key, L->top - 1);
- L->top--; /* pop value */
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top++, luaS_new(L, k));
+ luaV_settable(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 2);
+ L->top -= 2; /* pop value and key */
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -672,23 +771,39 @@ LUA_API void lua_rawset (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId t;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 2);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t));
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
setobj2t(L, luaH_set(L, hvalue(t), L->top-2), L->top-1);
- luaC_barriert(L, hvalue(t), L->top-1);
+ invalidateTMcache(hvalue(t));
+ luaC_barrierback(L, gcvalue(t), L->top-1);
L->top -= 2;
lua_unlock(L);
}
LUA_API void lua_rawseti (lua_State *L, int idx, int n) {
- StkId o;
+ StkId t;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ api_checknelems(L, 1);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
+ luaH_setint(L, hvalue(t), n, L->top - 1);
+ luaC_barrierback(L, gcvalue(t), L->top-1);
+ L->top--;
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
+LUA_API void lua_rawsetp (lua_State *L, int idx, const void *p) {
+ StkId t;
+ TValue k;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(o));
- setobj2t(L, luaH_setnum(L, hvalue(o), n), L->top-1);
- luaC_barriert(L, hvalue(o), L->top-1);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
+ setpvalue(&k, cast(void *, p));
+ setobj2t(L, luaH_set(L, hvalue(t), &k), L->top - 1);
+ luaC_barrierback(L, gcvalue(t), L->top - 1);
L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -699,29 +814,32 @@ LUA_API int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
Table *mt;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- obj = index2adr(L, objindex);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, obj);
+ obj = index2addr(L, objindex);
if (ttisnil(L->top - 1))
mt = NULL;
else {
- api_check(L, ttistable(L->top - 1));
+ api_check(L, ttistable(L->top - 1), "table expected");
mt = hvalue(L->top - 1);
}
- switch (ttype(obj)) {
+ switch (ttypenv(obj)) {
case LUA_TTABLE: {
hvalue(obj)->metatable = mt;
- if (mt)
- luaC_objbarriert(L, hvalue(obj), mt);
+ if (mt) {
+ luaC_objbarrierback(L, gcvalue(obj), mt);
+ luaC_checkfinalizer(L, gcvalue(obj), mt);
+ }
break;
}
case LUA_TUSERDATA: {
uvalue(obj)->metatable = mt;
- if (mt)
+ if (mt) {
luaC_objbarrier(L, rawuvalue(obj), mt);
+ luaC_checkfinalizer(L, gcvalue(obj), mt);
+ }
break;
}
default: {
- G(L)->mt[ttype(obj)] = mt;
+ G(L)->mt[ttypenv(obj)] = mt;
break;
}
}
@@ -731,32 +849,21 @@ LUA_API int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
}
-LUA_API int lua_setfenv (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+LUA_API void lua_setuservalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId o;
- int res = 1;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, o);
- api_check(L, ttistable(L->top - 1));
- switch (ttype(o)) {
- case LUA_TFUNCTION:
- clvalue(o)->c.env = hvalue(L->top - 1);
- break;
- case LUA_TUSERDATA:
- uvalue(o)->env = hvalue(L->top - 1);
- break;
- case LUA_TTHREAD:
- sethvalue(L, gt(thvalue(o)), hvalue(L->top - 1));
- break;
- default:
- res = 0;
- break;
+ o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttisuserdata(o), "userdata expected");
+ if (ttisnil(L->top - 1))
+ uvalue(o)->env = NULL;
+ else {
+ api_check(L, ttistable(L->top - 1), "table expected");
+ uvalue(o)->env = hvalue(L->top - 1);
+ luaC_objbarrier(L, gcvalue(o), hvalue(L->top - 1));
}
- if (res) luaC_objbarrier(L, gcvalue(o), hvalue(L->top - 1));
L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
- return res;
}
@@ -765,21 +872,37 @@ LUA_API int lua_setfenv (lua_State *L, int idx) {
*/
-#define adjustresults(L,nres) \
- { if (nres == LUA_MULTRET && L->top >= L->ci->top) L->ci->top = L->top; }
+#define checkresults(L,na,nr) \
+ api_check(L, (nr) == LUA_MULTRET || (L->ci->top - L->top >= (nr) - (na)), \
+ "results from function overflow current stack size")
-#define checkresults(L,na,nr) \
- api_check(L, (nr) == LUA_MULTRET || (L->ci->top - L->top >= (nr) - (na)))
-
+LUA_API int lua_getctx (lua_State *L, int *ctx) {
+ if (L->ci->callstatus & CIST_YIELDED) {
+ if (ctx) *ctx = L->ci->u.c.ctx;
+ return L->ci->u.c.status;
+ }
+ else return LUA_OK;
+}
-LUA_API void lua_call (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults) {
+
+LUA_API void lua_callk (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int ctx,
+ lua_CFunction k) {
StkId func;
lua_lock(L);
+ api_check(L, k == NULL || !isLua(L->ci),
+ "cannot use continuations inside hooks");
api_checknelems(L, nargs+1);
+ api_check(L, L->status == LUA_OK, "cannot do calls on non-normal thread");
checkresults(L, nargs, nresults);
func = L->top - (nargs+1);
- luaD_call(L, func, nresults);
+ if (k != NULL && L->nny == 0) { /* need to prepare continuation? */
+ L->ci->u.c.k = k; /* save continuation */
+ L->ci->u.c.ctx = ctx; /* save context */
+ luaD_call(L, func, nresults, 1); /* do the call */
+ }
+ else /* no continuation or no yieldable */
+ luaD_call(L, func, nresults, 0); /* just do the call */
adjustresults(L, nresults);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -797,76 +920,75 @@ struct CallS { /* data to `f_call' */
static void f_call (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
struct CallS *c = cast(struct CallS *, ud);
- luaD_call(L, c->func, c->nresults);
+ luaD_call(L, c->func, c->nresults, 0);
}
-LUA_API int lua_pcall (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int errfunc) {
+LUA_API int lua_pcallk (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int errfunc,
+ int ctx, lua_CFunction k) {
struct CallS c;
int status;
ptrdiff_t func;
lua_lock(L);
+ api_check(L, k == NULL || !isLua(L->ci),
+ "cannot use continuations inside hooks");
api_checknelems(L, nargs+1);
+ api_check(L, L->status == LUA_OK, "cannot do calls on non-normal thread");
checkresults(L, nargs, nresults);
if (errfunc == 0)
func = 0;
else {
- StkId o = index2adr(L, errfunc);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, o);
+ StkId o = index2addr(L, errfunc);
+ api_checkstackindex(L, errfunc, o);
func = savestack(L, o);
}
c.func = L->top - (nargs+1); /* function to be called */
- c.nresults = nresults;
- status = luaD_pcall(L, f_call, &c, savestack(L, c.func), func);
+ if (k == NULL || L->nny > 0) { /* no continuation or no yieldable? */
+ c.nresults = nresults; /* do a 'conventional' protected call */
+ status = luaD_pcall(L, f_call, &c, savestack(L, c.func), func);
+ }
+ else { /* prepare continuation (call is already protected by 'resume') */
+ CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
+ ci->u.c.k = k; /* save continuation */
+ ci->u.c.ctx = ctx; /* save context */
+ /* save information for error recovery */
+ ci->extra = savestack(L, c.func);
+ ci->u.c.old_allowhook = L->allowhook;
+ ci->u.c.old_errfunc = L->errfunc;
+ L->errfunc = func;
+ /* mark that function may do error recovery */
+ ci->callstatus |= CIST_YPCALL;
+ luaD_call(L, c.func, nresults, 1); /* do the call */
+ ci->callstatus &= ~CIST_YPCALL;
+ L->errfunc = ci->u.c.old_errfunc;
+ status = LUA_OK; /* if it is here, there were no errors */
+ }
adjustresults(L, nresults);
lua_unlock(L);
return status;
}
-/*
-** Execute a protected C call.
-*/
-struct CCallS { /* data to `f_Ccall' */
- lua_CFunction func;
- void *ud;
-};
-
-
-static void f_Ccall (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
- struct CCallS *c = cast(struct CCallS *, ud);
- Closure *cl;
- cl = luaF_newCclosure(L, 0, getcurrenv(L));
- cl->c.f = c->func;
- setclvalue(L, L->top, cl); /* push function */
- api_incr_top(L);
- setpvalue(L->top, c->ud); /* push only argument */
- api_incr_top(L);
- luaD_call(L, L->top - 2, 0);
-}
-
-
-LUA_API int lua_cpcall (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction func, void *ud) {
- struct CCallS c;
- int status;
- lua_lock(L);
- c.func = func;
- c.ud = ud;
- status = luaD_pcall(L, f_Ccall, &c, savestack(L, L->top), 0);
- lua_unlock(L);
- return status;
-}
-
-
LUA_API int lua_load (lua_State *L, lua_Reader reader, void *data,
- const char *chunkname) {
+ const char *chunkname, const char *mode) {
ZIO z;
int status;
lua_lock(L);
if (!chunkname) chunkname = "?";
luaZ_init(L, &z, reader, data);
- status = luaD_protectedparser(L, &z, chunkname);
+ status = luaD_protectedparser(L, &z, chunkname, mode);
+ if (status == LUA_OK) { /* no errors? */
+ LClosure *f = clLvalue(L->top - 1); /* get newly created function */
+ if (f->nupvalues == 1) { /* does it have one upvalue? */
+ /* get global table from registry */
+ Table *reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
+ const TValue *gt = luaH_getint(reg, LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS);
+ /* set global table as 1st upvalue of 'f' (may be LUA_ENV) */
+ setobj(L, f->upvals[0]->v, gt);
+ luaC_barrier(L, f->upvals[0], gt);
+ }
+ }
lua_unlock(L);
return status;
}
@@ -879,7 +1001,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_dump (lua_State *L, lua_Writer writer, void *data) {
api_checknelems(L, 1);
o = L->top - 1;
if (isLfunction(o))
- status = luaU_dump(L, clvalue(o)->l.p, writer, data, 0);
+ status = luaU_dump(L, getproto(o), writer, data, 0);
else
status = 1;
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -887,7 +1009,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_dump (lua_State *L, lua_Writer writer, void *data) {
}
-LUA_API int lua_status (lua_State *L) {
+LUA_API int lua_status (lua_State *L) {
return L->status;
}
@@ -903,38 +1025,40 @@ LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data) {
g = G(L);
switch (what) {
case LUA_GCSTOP: {
- g->GCthreshold = MAX_LUMEM;
+ g->gcrunning = 0;
break;
}
case LUA_GCRESTART: {
- g->GCthreshold = g->totalbytes;
+ luaE_setdebt(g, 0);
+ g->gcrunning = 1;
break;
}
case LUA_GCCOLLECT: {
- luaC_fullgc(L);
+ luaC_fullgc(L, 0);
break;
}
case LUA_GCCOUNT: {
/* GC values are expressed in Kbytes: #bytes/2^10 */
- res = cast_int(g->totalbytes >> 10);
+ res = cast_int(gettotalbytes(g) >> 10);
break;
}
case LUA_GCCOUNTB: {
- res = cast_int(g->totalbytes & 0x3ff);
+ res = cast_int(gettotalbytes(g) & 0x3ff);
break;
}
case LUA_GCSTEP: {
- lu_mem a = (cast(lu_mem, data) << 10);
- if (a <= g->totalbytes)
- g->GCthreshold = g->totalbytes - a;
- else
- g->GCthreshold = 0;
- while (g->GCthreshold <= g->totalbytes) {
- luaC_step(L);
- if (g->gcstate == GCSpause) { /* end of cycle? */
- res = 1; /* signal it */
- break;
- }
+ if (g->gckind == KGC_GEN) { /* generational mode? */
+ res = (g->GCestimate == 0); /* true if it will do major collection */
+ luaC_forcestep(L); /* do a single step */
+ }
+ else {
+ lu_mem debt = cast(lu_mem, data) * 1024 - GCSTEPSIZE;
+ if (g->gcrunning)
+ debt += g->GCdebt; /* include current debt */
+ luaE_setdebt(g, debt);
+ luaC_forcestep(L);
+ if (g->gcstate == GCSpause) /* end of cycle? */
+ res = 1; /* signal it */
}
break;
}
@@ -943,11 +1067,28 @@ LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data) {
g->gcpause = data;
break;
}
+ case LUA_GCSETMAJORINC: {
+ res = g->gcmajorinc;
+ g->gcmajorinc = data;
+ break;
+ }
case LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL: {
res = g->gcstepmul;
g->gcstepmul = data;
break;
}
+ case LUA_GCISRUNNING: {
+ res = g->gcrunning;
+ break;
+ }
+ case LUA_GCGEN: { /* change collector to generational mode */
+ luaC_changemode(L, KGC_GEN);
+ break;
+ }
+ case LUA_GCINC: { /* change collector to incremental mode */
+ luaC_changemode(L, KGC_NORMAL);
+ break;
+ }
default: res = -1; /* invalid option */
}
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -965,7 +1106,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_error (lua_State *L) {
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
luaG_errormsg(L);
- lua_unlock(L);
+ /* code unreachable; will unlock when control actually leaves the kernel */
return 0; /* to avoid warnings */
}
@@ -974,8 +1115,8 @@ LUA_API int lua_next (lua_State *L, int idx) {
StkId t;
int more;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2adr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t));
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
more = luaH_next(L, hvalue(t), L->top - 1);
if (more) {
api_incr_top(L);
@@ -992,8 +1133,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_concat (lua_State *L, int n) {
api_checknelems(L, n);
if (n >= 2) {
luaC_checkGC(L);
- luaV_concat(L, n, cast_int(L->top - L->base) - 1);
- L->top -= (n-1);
+ luaV_concat(L, n);
}
else if (n == 0) { /* push empty string */
setsvalue2s(L, L->top, luaS_newlstr(L, "", 0));
@@ -1004,6 +1144,16 @@ LUA_API void lua_concat (lua_State *L, int n) {
}
+LUA_API void lua_len (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ StkId t;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ luaV_objlen(L, L->top, t);
+ api_incr_top(L);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
LUA_API lua_Alloc lua_getallocf (lua_State *L, void **ud) {
lua_Alloc f;
lua_lock(L);
@@ -1026,7 +1176,7 @@ LUA_API void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size) {
Udata *u;
lua_lock(L);
luaC_checkGC(L);
- u = luaS_newudata(L, size, getcurrenv(L));
+ u = luaS_newudata(L, size, NULL);
setuvalue(L, L->top, u);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -1035,30 +1185,36 @@ LUA_API void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size) {
-
-static const char *aux_upvalue (StkId fi, int n, TValue **val) {
- Closure *f;
- if (!ttisfunction(fi)) return NULL;
- f = clvalue(fi);
- if (f->c.isC) {
- if (!(1 <= n && n <= f->c.nupvalues)) return NULL;
- *val = &f->c.upvalue[n-1];
- return "";
- }
- else {
- Proto *p = f->l.p;
- if (!(1 <= n && n <= p->sizeupvalues)) return NULL;
- *val = f->l.upvals[n-1]->v;
- return getstr(p->upvalues[n-1]);
+static const char *aux_upvalue (StkId fi, int n, TValue **val,
+ GCObject **owner) {
+ switch (ttype(fi)) {
+ case LUA_TCCL: { /* C closure */
+ CClosure *f = clCvalue(fi);
+ if (!(1 <= n && n <= f->nupvalues)) return NULL;
+ *val = &f->upvalue[n-1];
+ if (owner) *owner = obj2gco(f);
+ return "";
+ }
+ case LUA_TLCL: { /* Lua closure */
+ LClosure *f = clLvalue(fi);
+ TString *name;
+ Proto *p = f->p;
+ if (!(1 <= n && n <= p->sizeupvalues)) return NULL;
+ *val = f->upvals[n-1]->v;
+ if (owner) *owner = obj2gco(f->upvals[n - 1]);
+ name = p->upvalues[n-1].name;
+ return (name == NULL) ? "" : getstr(name);
+ }
+ default: return NULL; /* not a closure */
}
}
LUA_API const char *lua_getupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n) {
const char *name;
- TValue *val;
+ TValue *val = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
lua_lock(L);
- name = aux_upvalue(index2adr(L, funcindex), n, &val);
+ name = aux_upvalue(index2addr(L, funcindex), n, &val, NULL);
if (name) {
setobj2s(L, L->top, val);
api_incr_top(L);
@@ -1070,18 +1226,59 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_getupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n) {
LUA_API const char *lua_setupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n) {
const char *name;
- TValue *val;
+ TValue *val = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
+ GCObject *owner = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
StkId fi;
lua_lock(L);
- fi = index2adr(L, funcindex);
+ fi = index2addr(L, funcindex);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- name = aux_upvalue(fi, n, &val);
+ name = aux_upvalue(fi, n, &val, &owner);
if (name) {
L->top--;
setobj(L, val, L->top);
- luaC_barrier(L, clvalue(fi), L->top);
+ luaC_barrier(L, owner, L->top);
}
lua_unlock(L);
return name;
}
+
+static UpVal **getupvalref (lua_State *L, int fidx, int n, LClosure **pf) {
+ LClosure *f;
+ StkId fi = index2addr(L, fidx);
+ api_check(L, ttisLclosure(fi), "Lua function expected");
+ f = clLvalue(fi);
+ api_check(L, (1 <= n && n <= f->p->sizeupvalues), "invalid upvalue index");
+ if (pf) *pf = f;
+ return &f->upvals[n - 1]; /* get its upvalue pointer */
+}
+
+
+LUA_API void *lua_upvalueid (lua_State *L, int fidx, int n) {
+ StkId fi = index2addr(L, fidx);
+ switch (ttype(fi)) {
+ case LUA_TLCL: { /* lua closure */
+ return *getupvalref(L, fidx, n, NULL);
+ }
+ case LUA_TCCL: { /* C closure */
+ CClosure *f = clCvalue(fi);
+ api_check(L, 1 <= n && n <= f->nupvalues, "invalid upvalue index");
+ return &f->upvalue[n - 1];
+ }
+ default: {
+ api_check(L, 0, "closure expected");
+ return NULL;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+
+LUA_API void lua_upvaluejoin (lua_State *L, int fidx1, int n1,
+ int fidx2, int n2) {
+ LClosure *f1;
+ UpVal **up1 = getupvalref(L, fidx1, n1, &f1);
+ UpVal **up2 = getupvalref(L, fidx2, n2, NULL);
+ *up1 = *up2;
+ luaC_objbarrier(L, f1, *up2);
+}
+
diff --git a/com32/lua/src/lapi.h b/com32/lua/src/lapi.h
index 2c3fab24..0909a391 100644
--- a/com32/lua/src/lapi.h
+++ b/com32/lua/src/lapi.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lapi.h,v 2.2.1.1 2007/12/27 13:02:25 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lapi.h,v 2.7 2009/11/27 15:37:59 roberto Exp $
** Auxiliary functions from Lua API
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -8,9 +8,17 @@
#define lapi_h
-#include "lobject.h"
+#include "llimits.h"
+#include "lstate.h"
+#define api_incr_top(L) {L->top++; api_check(L, L->top <= L->ci->top, \
+ "stack overflow");}
+
+#define adjustresults(L,nres) \
+ { if ((nres) == LUA_MULTRET && L->ci->top < L->top) L->ci->top = L->top; }
+
+#define api_checknelems(L,n) api_check(L, (n) < (L->top - L->ci->func), \
+ "not enough elements in the stack")
-LUAI_FUNC void luaA_pushobject (lua_State *L, const TValue *o);
#endif
diff --git a/com32/lua/src/lauxlib.c b/com32/lua/src/lauxlib.c
index dba49f24..2e989d66 100644
--- a/com32/lua/src/lauxlib.c
+++ b/com32/lua/src/lauxlib.c
@@ -1,11 +1,10 @@
/*
-** $Id: lauxlib.c,v 1.159.1.3 2008/01/21 13:20:51 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lauxlib.c,v 1.248 2013/03/21 13:54:57 roberto Exp $
** Auxiliary functions for building Lua libraries
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
-#include <ctype.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
@@ -25,12 +24,124 @@
#include "lauxlib.h"
-#define FREELIST_REF 0 /* free list of references */
+/*
+** {======================================================
+** Traceback
+** =======================================================
+*/
-/* convert a stack index to positive */
-#define abs_index(L, i) ((i) > 0 || (i) <= LUA_REGISTRYINDEX ? (i) : \
- lua_gettop(L) + (i) + 1)
+#define LEVELS1 12 /* size of the first part of the stack */
+#define LEVELS2 10 /* size of the second part of the stack */
+
+
+
+/*
+** search for 'objidx' in table at index -1.
+** return 1 + string at top if find a good name.
+*/
+static int findfield (lua_State *L, int objidx, int level) {
+ if (level == 0 || !lua_istable(L, -1))
+ return 0; /* not found */
+ lua_pushnil(L); /* start 'next' loop */
+ while (lua_next(L, -2)) { /* for each pair in table */
+ if (lua_type(L, -2) == LUA_TSTRING) { /* ignore non-string keys */
+ if (lua_rawequal(L, objidx, -1)) { /* found object? */
+ lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove value (but keep name) */
+ return 1;
+ }
+ else if (findfield(L, objidx, level - 1)) { /* try recursively */
+ lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove table (but keep name) */
+ lua_pushliteral(L, ".");
+ lua_insert(L, -2); /* place '.' between the two names */
+ lua_concat(L, 3);
+ return 1;
+ }
+ }
+ lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove value */
+ }
+ return 0; /* not found */
+}
+
+
+static int pushglobalfuncname (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar) {
+ int top = lua_gettop(L);
+ lua_getinfo(L, "f", ar); /* push function */
+ lua_pushglobaltable(L);
+ if (findfield(L, top + 1, 2)) {
+ lua_copy(L, -1, top + 1); /* move name to proper place */
+ lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove pushed values */
+ return 1;
+ }
+ else {
+ lua_settop(L, top); /* remove function and global table */
+ return 0;
+ }
+}
+
+
+static void pushfuncname (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar) {
+ if (*ar->namewhat != '\0') /* is there a name? */
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "function " LUA_QS, ar->name);
+ else if (*ar->what == 'm') /* main? */
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "main chunk");
+ else if (*ar->what == 'C') {
+ if (pushglobalfuncname(L, ar)) {
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "function " LUA_QS, lua_tostring(L, -1));
+ lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove name */
+ }
+ else
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "?");
+ }
+ else
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "function <%s:%d>", ar->short_src, ar->linedefined);
+}
+
+
+static int countlevels (lua_State *L) {
+ lua_Debug ar;
+ int li = 1, le = 1;
+ /* find an upper bound */
+ while (lua_getstack(L, le, &ar)) { li = le; le *= 2; }
+ /* do a binary search */
+ while (li < le) {
+ int m = (li + le)/2;
+ if (lua_getstack(L, m, &ar)) li = m + 1;
+ else le = m;
+ }
+ return le - 1;
+}
+
+
+LUALIB_API void luaL_traceback (lua_State *L, lua_State *L1,
+ const char *msg, int level) {
+ lua_Debug ar;
+ int top = lua_gettop(L);
+ int numlevels = countlevels(L1);
+ int mark = (numlevels > LEVELS1 + LEVELS2) ? LEVELS1 : 0;
+ if (msg) lua_pushfstring(L, "%s\n", msg);
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "stack traceback:");
+ while (lua_getstack(L1, level++, &ar)) {
+ if (level == mark) { /* too many levels? */
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "\n\t..."); /* add a '...' */
+ level = numlevels - LEVELS2; /* and skip to last ones */
+ }
+ else {
+ lua_getinfo(L1, "Slnt", &ar);
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "\n\t%s:", ar.short_src);
+ if (ar.currentline > 0)
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "%d:", ar.currentline);
+ lua_pushliteral(L, " in ");
+ pushfuncname(L, &ar);
+ if (ar.istailcall)
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "\n\t(...tail calls...)");
+ lua_concat(L, lua_gettop(L) - top);
+ }
+ }
+ lua_concat(L, lua_gettop(L) - top);
+}
+
+/* }====================================================== */
/*
@@ -39,7 +150,6 @@
** =======================================================
*/
-
LUALIB_API int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *extramsg) {
lua_Debug ar;
if (!lua_getstack(L, 0, &ar)) /* no stack frame? */
@@ -52,13 +162,13 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *extramsg) {
ar.name, extramsg);
}
if (ar.name == NULL)
- ar.name = "?";
+ ar.name = (pushglobalfuncname(L, &ar)) ? lua_tostring(L, -1) : "?";
return luaL_error(L, "bad argument #%d to " LUA_QS " (%s)",
narg, ar.name, extramsg);
}
-LUALIB_API int luaL_typerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname) {
+static int typeerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname) {
const char *msg = lua_pushfstring(L, "%s expected, got %s",
tname, luaL_typename(L, narg));
return luaL_argerror(L, narg, msg);
@@ -66,7 +176,7 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_typerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname) {
static void tag_error (lua_State *L, int narg, int tag) {
- luaL_typerror(L, narg, lua_typename(L, tag));
+ typeerror(L, narg, lua_typename(L, tag));
}
@@ -93,24 +203,74 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_error (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...) {
return lua_error(L);
}
-/* }====================================================== */
+LUALIB_API int luaL_fileresult (lua_State *L, int stat, const char *fname) {
+ int en = errno; /* calls to Lua API may change this value */
+ if (stat) {
+ lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
+ return 1;
+ }
+ else {
+ lua_pushnil(L);
+ if (fname)
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "%s: %s", fname, strerror(en));
+ else
+ lua_pushstring(L, strerror(en));
+ lua_pushinteger(L, en);
+ return 3;
+ }
+}
-LUALIB_API int luaL_checkoption (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *def,
- const char *const lst[]) {
- const char *name = (def) ? luaL_optstring(L, narg, def) :
- luaL_checkstring(L, narg);
- int i;
- for (i=0; lst[i]; i++)
- if (strcmp(lst[i], name) == 0)
- return i;
- return luaL_argerror(L, narg,
- lua_pushfstring(L, "invalid option " LUA_QS, name));
+
+#if !defined(inspectstat) /* { */
+
+#if defined(LUA_USE_POSIX)
+
+#include <sys/wait.h>
+
+/*
+** use appropriate macros to interpret 'pclose' return status
+*/
+#define inspectstat(stat,what) \
+ if (WIFEXITED(stat)) { stat = WEXITSTATUS(stat); } \
+ else if (WIFSIGNALED(stat)) { stat = WTERMSIG(stat); what = "signal"; }
+
+#else
+
+#define inspectstat(stat,what) /* no op */
+
+#endif
+
+#endif /* } */
+
+
+LUALIB_API int luaL_execresult (lua_State *L, int stat) {
+ const char *what = "exit"; /* type of termination */
+ if (stat == -1) /* error? */
+ return luaL_fileresult(L, 0, NULL);
+ else {
+ inspectstat(stat, what); /* interpret result */
+ if (*what == 'e' && stat == 0) /* successful termination? */
+ lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
+ else
+ lua_pushnil(L);
+ lua_pushstring(L, what);
+ lua_pushinteger(L, stat);
+ return 3; /* return true/nil,what,code */
+ }
}
+/* }====================================================== */
+
+
+/*
+** {======================================================
+** Userdata's metatable manipulation
+** =======================================================
+*/
LUALIB_API int luaL_newmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname) {
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, tname); /* get registry.name */
+ luaL_getmetatable(L, tname); /* try to get metatable */
if (!lua_isnil(L, -1)) /* name already in use? */
return 0; /* leave previous value on top, but return 0 */
lua_pop(L, 1);
@@ -121,25 +281,64 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_newmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname) {
}
-LUALIB_API void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
+LUALIB_API void luaL_setmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname) {
+ luaL_getmetatable(L, tname);
+ lua_setmetatable(L, -2);
+}
+
+
+LUALIB_API void *luaL_testudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
void *p = lua_touserdata(L, ud);
if (p != NULL) { /* value is a userdata? */
if (lua_getmetatable(L, ud)) { /* does it have a metatable? */
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, tname); /* get correct metatable */
- if (lua_rawequal(L, -1, -2)) { /* does it have the correct mt? */
- lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove both metatables */
- return p;
- }
+ luaL_getmetatable(L, tname); /* get correct metatable */
+ if (!lua_rawequal(L, -1, -2)) /* not the same? */
+ p = NULL; /* value is a userdata with wrong metatable */
+ lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove both metatables */
+ return p;
}
}
- luaL_typerror(L, ud, tname); /* else error */
- return NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
+ return NULL; /* value is not a userdata with a metatable */
+}
+
+
+LUALIB_API void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
+ void *p = luaL_testudata(L, ud, tname);
+ if (p == NULL) typeerror(L, ud, tname);
+ return p;
+}
+
+/* }====================================================== */
+
+
+/*
+** {======================================================
+** Argument check functions
+** =======================================================
+*/
+
+LUALIB_API int luaL_checkoption (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *def,
+ const char *const lst[]) {
+ const char *name = (def) ? luaL_optstring(L, narg, def) :
+ luaL_checkstring(L, narg);
+ int i;
+ for (i=0; lst[i]; i++)
+ if (strcmp(lst[i], name) == 0)
+ return i;
+ return luaL_argerror(L, narg,
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "invalid option " LUA_QS, name));
}
-LUALIB_API void luaL_checkstack (lua_State *L, int space, const char *mes) {
- if (!lua_checkstack(L, space))
- luaL_error(L, "stack overflow (%s)", mes);
+LUALIB_API void luaL_checkstack (lua_State *L, int space, const char *msg) {
+ /* keep some extra space to run error routines, if needed */
+ const int extra = LUA_MINSTACK;
+ if (!lua_checkstack(L, space + extra)) {
+ if (msg)
+ luaL_error(L, "stack overflow (%s)", msg);
+ else
+ luaL_error(L, "stack overflow");
+ }
}
@@ -174,8 +373,9 @@ LUALIB_API const char *luaL_optlstring (lua_State *L, int narg,
LUALIB_API lua_Number luaL_checknumber (lua_State *L, int narg) {
- lua_Number d = lua_tonumber(L, narg);
- if (d == 0 && !lua_isnumber(L, narg)) /* avoid extra test when d is not 0 */
+ int isnum;
+ lua_Number d = lua_tonumberx(L, narg, &isnum);
+ if (!isnum)
tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TNUMBER);
return d;
}
@@ -187,255 +387,79 @@ LUALIB_API lua_Number luaL_optnumber (lua_State *L, int narg, lua_Number def) {
LUALIB_API lua_Integer luaL_checkinteger (lua_State *L, int narg) {
- lua_Integer d = lua_tointeger(L, narg);
- if (d == 0 && !lua_isnumber(L, narg)) /* avoid extra test when d is not 0 */
+ int isnum;
+ lua_Integer d = lua_tointegerx(L, narg, &isnum);
+ if (!isnum)
tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TNUMBER);
return d;
}
-LUALIB_API lua_Integer luaL_optinteger (lua_State *L, int narg,
- lua_Integer def) {
- return luaL_opt(L, luaL_checkinteger, narg, def);
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API int luaL_getmetafield (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *event) {
- if (!lua_getmetatable(L, obj)) /* no metatable? */
- return 0;
- lua_pushstring(L, event);
- lua_rawget(L, -2);
- if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) {
- lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove metatable and metafield */
- return 0;
- }
- else {
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove only metatable */
- return 1;
- }
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API int luaL_callmeta (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *event) {
- obj = abs_index(L, obj);
- if (!luaL_getmetafield(L, obj, event)) /* no metafield? */
- return 0;
- lua_pushvalue(L, obj);
- lua_call(L, 1, 1);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API void (luaL_register) (lua_State *L, const char *libname,
- const luaL_Reg *l) {
- luaI_openlib(L, libname, l, 0);
-}
-
-
-static int libsize (const luaL_Reg *l) {
- int size = 0;
- for (; l->name; l++) size++;
- return size;
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API void luaI_openlib (lua_State *L, const char *libname,
- const luaL_Reg *l, int nup) {
- if (libname) {
- int size = libsize(l);
- /* check whether lib already exists */
- luaL_findtable(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, "_LOADED", 1);
- lua_getfield(L, -1, libname); /* get _LOADED[libname] */
- if (!lua_istable(L, -1)) { /* not found? */
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove previous result */
- /* try global variable (and create one if it does not exist) */
- if (luaL_findtable(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, libname, size) != NULL)
- luaL_error(L, "name conflict for module " LUA_QS, libname);
- lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
- lua_setfield(L, -3, libname); /* _LOADED[libname] = new table */
- }
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove _LOADED table */
- lua_insert(L, -(nup+1)); /* move library table to below upvalues */
- }
- for (; l->name; l++) {
- int i;
- for (i=0; i<nup; i++) /* copy upvalues to the top */
- lua_pushvalue(L, -nup);
- lua_pushcclosure(L, l->func, nup);
- lua_setfield(L, -(nup+2), l->name);
- }
- lua_pop(L, nup); /* remove upvalues */
-}
-
-
-
-/*
-** {======================================================
-** getn-setn: size for arrays
-** =======================================================
-*/
-
-#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_GETN)
-
-static int checkint (lua_State *L, int topop) {
- int n = (lua_type(L, -1) == LUA_TNUMBER) ? lua_tointeger(L, -1) : -1;
- lua_pop(L, topop);
- return n;
-}
-
-
-static void getsizes (lua_State *L) {
- lua_getfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, "LUA_SIZES");
- if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) { /* no `size' table? */
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove nil */
- lua_newtable(L); /* create it */
- lua_pushvalue(L, -1); /* `size' will be its own metatable */
- lua_setmetatable(L, -2);
- lua_pushliteral(L, "kv");
- lua_setfield(L, -2, "__mode"); /* metatable(N).__mode = "kv" */
- lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
- lua_setfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, "LUA_SIZES"); /* store in register */
- }
+LUALIB_API lua_Unsigned luaL_checkunsigned (lua_State *L, int narg) {
+ int isnum;
+ lua_Unsigned d = lua_tounsignedx(L, narg, &isnum);
+ if (!isnum)
+ tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TNUMBER);
+ return d;
}
-LUALIB_API void luaL_setn (lua_State *L, int t, int n) {
- t = abs_index(L, t);
- lua_pushliteral(L, "n");
- lua_rawget(L, t);
- if (checkint(L, 1) >= 0) { /* is there a numeric field `n'? */
- lua_pushliteral(L, "n"); /* use it */
- lua_pushinteger(L, n);
- lua_rawset(L, t);
- }
- else { /* use `sizes' */
- getsizes(L);
- lua_pushvalue(L, t);
- lua_pushinteger(L, n);
- lua_rawset(L, -3); /* sizes[t] = n */
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove `sizes' */
- }
+LUALIB_API lua_Integer luaL_optinteger (lua_State *L, int narg,
+ lua_Integer def) {
+ return luaL_opt(L, luaL_checkinteger, narg, def);
}
-LUALIB_API int luaL_getn (lua_State *L, int t) {
- int n;
- t = abs_index(L, t);
- lua_pushliteral(L, "n"); /* try t.n */
- lua_rawget(L, t);
- if ((n = checkint(L, 1)) >= 0) return n;
- getsizes(L); /* else try sizes[t] */
- lua_pushvalue(L, t);
- lua_rawget(L, -2);
- if ((n = checkint(L, 2)) >= 0) return n;
- return (int)lua_objlen(L, t);
+LUALIB_API lua_Unsigned luaL_optunsigned (lua_State *L, int narg,
+ lua_Unsigned def) {
+ return luaL_opt(L, luaL_checkunsigned, narg, def);
}
-#endif
-
/* }====================================================== */
-
-LUALIB_API const char *luaL_gsub (lua_State *L, const char *s, const char *p,
- const char *r) {
- const char *wild;
- size_t l = strlen(p);
- luaL_Buffer b;
- luaL_buffinit(L, &b);
- while ((wild = strstr(s, p)) != NULL) {
- luaL_addlstring(&b, s, wild - s); /* push prefix */
- luaL_addstring(&b, r); /* push replacement in place of pattern */
- s = wild + l; /* continue after `p' */
- }
- luaL_addstring(&b, s); /* push last suffix */
- luaL_pushresult(&b);
- return lua_tostring(L, -1);
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API const char *luaL_findtable (lua_State *L, int idx,
- const char *fname, int szhint) {
- const char *e;
- lua_pushvalue(L, idx);
- do {
- e = strchr(fname, '.');
- if (e == NULL) e = fname + strlen(fname);
- lua_pushlstring(L, fname, e - fname);
- lua_rawget(L, -2);
- if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) { /* no such field? */
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove this nil */
- lua_createtable(L, 0, (*e == '.' ? 1 : szhint)); /* new table for field */
- lua_pushlstring(L, fname, e - fname);
- lua_pushvalue(L, -2);
- lua_settable(L, -4); /* set new table into field */
- }
- else if (!lua_istable(L, -1)) { /* field has a non-table value? */
- lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove table and value */
- return fname; /* return problematic part of the name */
- }
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove previous table */
- fname = e + 1;
- } while (*e == '.');
- return NULL;
-}
-
-
-
/*
** {======================================================
** Generic Buffer manipulation
** =======================================================
*/
-
-#define bufflen(B) ((B)->p - (B)->buffer)
-#define bufffree(B) ((size_t)(LUAL_BUFFERSIZE - bufflen(B)))
-
-#define LIMIT (LUA_MINSTACK/2)
-
-
-static int emptybuffer (luaL_Buffer *B) {
- size_t l = bufflen(B);
- if (l == 0) return 0; /* put nothing on stack */
- else {
- lua_pushlstring(B->L, B->buffer, l);
- B->p = B->buffer;
- B->lvl++;
- return 1;
- }
-}
+/*
+** check whether buffer is using a userdata on the stack as a temporary
+** buffer
+*/
+#define buffonstack(B) ((B)->b != (B)->initb)
-static void adjuststack (luaL_Buffer *B) {
- if (B->lvl > 1) {
- lua_State *L = B->L;
- int toget = 1; /* number of levels to concat */
- size_t toplen = lua_strlen(L, -1);
- do {
- size_t l = lua_strlen(L, -(toget+1));
- if (B->lvl - toget + 1 >= LIMIT || toplen > l) {
- toplen += l;
- toget++;
- }
- else break;
- } while (toget < B->lvl);
- lua_concat(L, toget);
- B->lvl = B->lvl - toget + 1;
+/*
+** returns a pointer to a free area with at least 'sz' bytes
+*/
+LUALIB_API char *luaL_prepbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
+ lua_State *L = B->L;
+ if (B->size - B->n < sz) { /* not enough space? */
+ char *newbuff;
+ size_t newsize = B->size * 2; /* double buffer size */
+ if (newsize - B->n < sz) /* not big enough? */
+ newsize = B->n + sz;
+ if (newsize < B->n || newsize - B->n < sz)
+ luaL_error(L, "buffer too large");
+ /* create larger buffer */
+ newbuff = (char *)lua_newuserdata(L, newsize * sizeof(char));
+ /* move content to new buffer */
+ memcpy(newbuff, B->b, B->n * sizeof(char));
+ if (buffonstack(B))
+ lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove old buffer */
+ B->b = newbuff;
+ B->size = newsize;
}
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API char *luaL_prepbuffer (luaL_Buffer *B) {
- if (emptybuffer(B))
- adjuststack(B);
- return B->buffer;
+ return &B->b[B->n];
}
LUALIB_API void luaL_addlstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l) {
- while (l--)
- luaL_addchar(B, *s++);
+ char *b = luaL_prepbuffsize(B, l);
+ memcpy(b, s, l * sizeof(char));
+ luaL_addsize(B, l);
}
@@ -445,57 +469,72 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_addstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s) {
LUALIB_API void luaL_pushresult (luaL_Buffer *B) {
- emptybuffer(B);
- lua_concat(B->L, B->lvl);
- B->lvl = 1;
+ lua_State *L = B->L;
+ lua_pushlstring(L, B->b, B->n);
+ if (buffonstack(B))
+ lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove old buffer */
+}
+
+
+LUALIB_API void luaL_pushresultsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
+ luaL_addsize(B, sz);
+ luaL_pushresult(B);
}
LUALIB_API void luaL_addvalue (luaL_Buffer *B) {
lua_State *L = B->L;
- size_t vl;
- const char *s = lua_tolstring(L, -1, &vl);
- if (vl <= bufffree(B)) { /* fit into buffer? */
- memcpy(B->p, s, vl); /* put it there */
- B->p += vl;
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove from stack */
- }
- else {
- if (emptybuffer(B))
- lua_insert(L, -2); /* put buffer before new value */
- B->lvl++; /* add new value into B stack */
- adjuststack(B);
- }
+ size_t l;
+ const char *s = lua_tolstring(L, -1, &l);
+ if (buffonstack(B))
+ lua_insert(L, -2); /* put value below buffer */
+ luaL_addlstring(B, s, l);
+ lua_remove(L, (buffonstack(B)) ? -2 : -1); /* remove value */
}
LUALIB_API void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B) {
B->L = L;
- B->p = B->buffer;
- B->lvl = 0;
+ B->b = B->initb;
+ B->n = 0;
+ B->size = LUAL_BUFFERSIZE;
+}
+
+
+LUALIB_API char *luaL_buffinitsize (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
+ luaL_buffinit(L, B);
+ return luaL_prepbuffsize(B, sz);
}
/* }====================================================== */
+/*
+** {======================================================
+** Reference system
+** =======================================================
+*/
+
+/* index of free-list header */
+#define freelist 0
+
+
LUALIB_API int luaL_ref (lua_State *L, int t) {
int ref;
- t = abs_index(L, t);
if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) {
lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove from stack */
return LUA_REFNIL; /* `nil' has a unique fixed reference */
}
- lua_rawgeti(L, t, FREELIST_REF); /* get first free element */
- ref = (int)lua_tointeger(L, -1); /* ref = t[FREELIST_REF] */
+ t = lua_absindex(L, t);
+ lua_rawgeti(L, t, freelist); /* get first free element */
+ ref = (int)lua_tointeger(L, -1); /* ref = t[freelist] */
lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove it from stack */
if (ref != 0) { /* any free element? */
lua_rawgeti(L, t, ref); /* remove it from list */
- lua_rawseti(L, t, FREELIST_REF); /* (t[FREELIST_REF] = t[ref]) */
- }
- else { /* no free elements */
- ref = (int)lua_objlen(L, t);
- ref++; /* create new reference */
+ lua_rawseti(L, t, freelist); /* (t[freelist] = t[ref]) */
}
+ else /* no free elements */
+ ref = (int)lua_rawlen(L, t) + 1; /* get a new reference */
lua_rawseti(L, t, ref);
return ref;
}
@@ -503,14 +542,15 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_ref (lua_State *L, int t) {
LUALIB_API void luaL_unref (lua_State *L, int t, int ref) {
if (ref >= 0) {
- t = abs_index(L, t);
- lua_rawgeti(L, t, FREELIST_REF);
- lua_rawseti(L, t, ref); /* t[ref] = t[FREELIST_REF] */
+ t = lua_absindex(L, t);
+ lua_rawgeti(L, t, freelist);
+ lua_rawseti(L, t, ref); /* t[ref] = t[freelist] */
lua_pushinteger(L, ref);
- lua_rawseti(L, t, FREELIST_REF); /* t[FREELIST_REF] = ref */
+ lua_rawseti(L, t, freelist); /* t[freelist] = ref */
}
}
+/* }====================================================== */
/*
@@ -520,23 +560,27 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_unref (lua_State *L, int t, int ref) {
*/
typedef struct LoadF {
- int extraline;
- FILE *f;
- char buff[LUAL_BUFFERSIZE];
+ int n; /* number of pre-read characters */
+ FILE *f; /* file being read */
+ char buff[LUAL_BUFFERSIZE]; /* area for reading file */
} LoadF;
static const char *getF (lua_State *L, void *ud, size_t *size) {
LoadF *lf = (LoadF *)ud;
- (void)L;
- if (lf->extraline) {
- lf->extraline = 0;
- *size = 1;
- return "\n";
+ (void)L; /* not used */
+ if (lf->n > 0) { /* are there pre-read characters to be read? */
+ *size = lf->n; /* return them (chars already in buffer) */
+ lf->n = 0; /* no more pre-read characters */
}
- if (feof(lf->f)) return NULL;
- *size = fread(lf->buff, 1, sizeof(lf->buff), lf->f);
- return (*size > 0) ? lf->buff : NULL;
+ else { /* read a block from file */
+ /* 'fread' can return > 0 *and* set the EOF flag. If next call to
+ 'getF' called 'fread', it might still wait for user input.
+ The next check avoids this problem. */
+ if (feof(lf->f)) return NULL;
+ *size = fread(lf->buff, 1, sizeof(lf->buff), lf->f); /* read block */
+ }
+ return lf->buff;
}
@@ -549,11 +593,46 @@ static int errfile (lua_State *L, const char *what, int fnameindex) {
}