aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/doc/rdsrc.pl
blob: 65c716cfb3243cf5f04a8922d2abef9a6424f478 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
#!/usr/bin/perl
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------
##
##   Copyright 1996-2017 The NASM Authors - All Rights Reserved
##   See the file AUTHORS included with the NASM distribution for
##   the specific copyright holders.
##
##   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
##   modification, are permitted provided that the following
##   conditions are met:
##
##   * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
##     notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
##   * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
##     copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
##     disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
##     with the distribution.
##
##     THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
##     CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
##     INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
##     MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
##     DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
##     CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
##     SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
##     NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
##     LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
##     HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
##     CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
##     OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
##     EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
##
## --------------------------------------------------------------------------


# Read the source-form of the NASM manual and generate the various
# output forms.

# TODO:
#
# Ellipsis support would be nice.

# Source-form features:
# ---------------------
#
# Bullet \b
#   Bullets the paragraph. Rest of paragraph is indented to cope. In
#   HTML, consecutive groups of bulleted paragraphs become unordered
#   lists.
#
# Emphasis \e{foobar}
#   produces `_foobar_' in text and italics in HTML, PS, RTF
#
# Inline code \c{foobar}
#   produces ``foobar'' in text, and fixed-pitch font in HTML, PS, RTF
#
# Display code
# \c  line one
# \c   line two
#   produces fixed-pitch font where appropriate, and doesn't break
#   pages except sufficiently far into the middle of a display.
#
# Chapter, header and subheader
# \C{intro} Introduction
# \H{whatsnasm} What is NASM?
# \S{free} NASM Is Free
#   dealt with as appropriate. Chapters begin on new sides, possibly
#   even new _pages_. (Sub)?headers are good places to begin new
#   pages. Just _after_ a (sub)?header isn't.
#   The keywords can be substituted with \K and \k.
#
# Keyword \K{cintro} \k{cintro}
#   Expands to `Chapter 1', `Section 1.1', `Section 1.1.1'. \K has an
#   initial capital whereas \k doesn't. In HTML, will produce
#   hyperlinks.
#
# Web link \W{http://foobar/}{text} or \W{mailto:me@here}\c{me@here}
#   the \W prefix is ignored except in HTML; in HTML the last part
#   becomes a hyperlink to the first part.
#
# Literals \{ \} \\
#   In case it's necessary, they expand to the real versions.
#
# Nonbreaking hyphen \-
#   Need more be said?
#
# Source comment \#
#   Causes everything after it on the line to be ignored by the
#   source-form processor.
#
# Indexable word \i{foobar} (or \i\e{foobar} or \i\c{foobar}, equally)
#   makes word appear in index, referenced to that point
#   \i\c comes up in code style even in the index; \i\e doesn't come
#   up in emphasised style.
#
# Indexable non-displayed word \I{foobar} or \I\c{foobar}
#   just as \i{foobar} except that nothing is displayed for it
#
# Index rewrite
# \IR{foobar} \c{foobar} operator, uses of
#   tidies up the appearance in the index of something the \i or \I
#   operator was applied to
#
# Index alias
# \IA{foobar}{bazquux}
#   aliases one index tag (as might be supplied to \i or \I) to
#   another, so that \I{foobar} has the effect of \I{bazquux}, and
#   \i{foobar} has the effect of \I{bazquux}foobar
#
# Metadata
# \M{key}{something}
#   defines document metadata, such as authorship, title and copyright;
#   different output formats use this differently.
#
# Include subfile
# \&{filename}
#  Includes filename. Recursion is allowed.
#

use File::Spec;

@include_path = ();
$out_path = File::Spec->curdir();

while ($ARGV[0] =~ /^-/) {
    my $opt = shift @ARGV;
    if ($opt eq '-d') {
	$diag = 1;
    } elsif ($opt =~ /^\-[Ii](.*)$/) {
	push(@include_path, $1);
    } elsif ($opt =~ /^\-[Oo](.*)$/) {
	$out_path = $1;
    }
}

$out_format = shift(@ARGV);
@files = @ARGV;
@files = ('-') unless(scalar(@files));

$| = 1;

$tstruct_previtem = $node = "Top";
$nodes = ($node);
$tstruct_level{$tstruct_previtem} = 0;
$tstruct_last[$tstruct_level{$tstruct_previtem}] = $tstruct_previtem;
$MAXLEVEL = 10;  # really 3, but play safe ;-)

# Read the file; pass a paragraph at a time to the paragraph processor.
print "Reading input...";
$pname = "para000000";
@pnames = @pflags = ();
$para = undef;
foreach $file (@files) {
  &include($file);
}
&got_para($para);
print "done.\n";

# Now we've read in the entire document and we know what all the
# heading keywords refer to. Go through and fix up the \k references.
print "Fixing up cross-references...";
&fixup_xrefs;
print "done.\n";

# Sort the index tags, according to the slightly odd order I've decided on.
print "Sorting index tags...";
&indexsort;
print "done.\n";

# Make output directory if necessary
mkdir($out_path);

if ($diag) {
  print "Writing index-diagnostic file...";
  &indexdiag;
  print "done.\n";
}

# OK. Write out the various output files.
if ($out_format eq 'txt') {
    print "Producing text output: ";
    &write_txt;
    print "done.\n";
} elsif ($out_format eq 'html') {
    print "Producing HTML output: ";
    &write_html;
    print "done.\n";
} elsif ($out_format eq 'texi') {
    print "Producing Texinfo output: ";
    &write_texi;
    print "done.\n";
} elsif ($out_format eq 'hlp') {
    print "Producing WinHelp output: ";
    &write_hlp;
    print "done.\n";
} elsif ($out_format eq 'dip') {
    print "Producing Documentation Intermediate Paragraphs: ";
    &write_dip;
    print "done.\n";
} else {
    die "$0: unknown output format: $out_format\n";
}

sub untabify($) {
  my($s) = @_;
  my $o = '';
  my($c, $i, $p);

  $p = 0;
  for ($i = 0; $i < length($s); $i++) {
    $c = substr($s, $i, 1);
    if ($c eq "\t") {
      do {
	$o .= ' ';
	$p++;
      } while ($p & 7);
    } else {
      $o .= $c;
      $p++;
    }
  }
  return $o;
}
sub read_line {
  local $_ = shift;
  $_ = &untabify($_);
  if (/\\& (\S+)/) {
     &include($1);
  } else {
     &get_para($_);
  }
}
sub get_para($_) {
  chomp;
  if (!/\S/ || /^\\(IA|IR|M)/) { # special case: \IA \IR \M imply new-paragraph
    &got_para($para);
    $para = undef;
  }
  if (/\S/) {
    s/\\#.*$//; # strip comments
    $para .= " " . $_;
  }
}
sub include {
  my $name = shift;
  my $F;

  if ($name eq '-') {
    open($F, '<-');		# stdin
  } else {
    my $found = 0;
    foreach my $idir ( File::Spec->curdir, @include_path ) {
	my $fpath = File::Spec->catfile($idir, $name);
      if (open($F, '<', $fpath)) {
	$found = 1;
	last;
      }
    }
    die "Cannot open $name: $!\n" unless ($found);
  }
  while (defined($_ = <$F>)) {
     &read_line($_);
  }
  close($F);
}
sub got_para {
  local ($_) = @_;
  my $pflags = "", $i, $w, $l, $t;
  return if !/\S/;

  @$pname = ();

  # Strip off _leading_ spaces, then determine type of paragraph.
  s/^\s*//;
  $irewrite = undef;
  if (/^\\c[^{]/) {
    # A code paragraph. The paragraph-array will contain the simple
    # strings which form each line of the paragraph.
    $pflags = "code";
    while (/^\\c (([^\\]|\\[^c])*)(.*)$/) {
      $l = $1;
      $_ = $3;
      $l =~ s/\\\{/\{/g;
      $l =~ s/\\\}/}/g;
      $l =~ s/\\\\/\\/g;
      push @$pname, $l;
    }
    $_ = ''; # suppress word-by-word code
  } elsif (/^\\C/) {
    # A chapter heading. Define the keyword and allocate a chapter
    # number.
    $cnum++;
    $hnum = 0;
    $snum = 0;
    $xref = "chapter-$cnum";
    $pflags = "chap $cnum :$xref";
    die "badly formatted chapter heading: $_\n" if !/^\\C\{([^\}]*)\}\s*(.*)$/;
    $refs{$1} = "chapter $cnum";
    $node = "Chapter $cnum";
    &add_item($node, 1);
    $xrefnodes{$node} = $xref; $nodexrefs{$xref} = $node;
    $xrefs{$1} = $xref;
    $_ = $2;
    # the standard word-by-word code will happen next
  } elsif (/^\\A/) {
    # An appendix heading. Define the keyword and allocate an appendix
    # letter.
    $cnum++;
    $cnum = 'A' if $cnum =~ /[0-9]+/;
    $hnum = 0;
    $snum = 0;
    $xref = "appendix-$cnum";
    $pflags = "appn $cnum :$xref";
    die "badly formatted appendix heading: $_\n" if !/^\\A\{([^\}]*)}\s*(.*)$/;
    $refs{$1} = "appendix $cnum";
    $node = "Appendix $cnum";
    &add_item($node, 1);
    $xrefnodes{$node} = $xref; $nodexrefs{$xref} = $node;
    $xrefs{$1} = $xref;
    $_ = $2;
    # the standard word-by-word code will happen next
  } elsif (/^\\H/) {
    # A major heading. Define the keyword and allocate a section number.
    $hnum++;
    $snum = 0;
    $xref = "section-$cnum.$hnum";
    $pflags = "head $cnum.$hnum :$xref";
    die "badly formatted heading: $_\n" if !/^\\[HP]{([^\}]*)}\s*(.*)$/;
    $refs{$1} = "section $cnum.$hnum";
    $node = "Section $cnum.$hnum";
    &add_item($node, 2);
    $xrefnodes{$node} = $xref; $nodexrefs{$xref} = $node;
    $xrefs{$1} = $xref;
    $_ = $2;
    # the standard word-by-word code will happen next
  } elsif (/^\\S/) {
    # A sub-heading. Define the keyword and allocate a section number.
    $snum++;
    $xref = "section-$cnum.$hnum.$snum";
    $pflags = "subh $cnum.$hnum.$snum :$xref";
    die "badly formatted subheading: $_\n" if !/^\\S\{([^\}]*)\}\s*(.*)$/;
    $refs{$1} = "section $cnum.$hnum.$snum";
    $node = "Section $cnum.$hnum.$snum";
    &add_item($node, 3);
    $xrefnodes{$node} = $xref; $nodexrefs{$xref} = $node;
    $xrefs{$1} = $xref;
    $_ = $2;
    # the standard word-by-word code will happen next
  } elsif (/^\\IR/) {
    # An index-rewrite.
    die "badly formatted index rewrite: $_\n" if !/^\\IR\{([^\}]*)\}\s*(.*)$/;
    $irewrite = $1;
    $_ = $2;
    # the standard word-by-word code will happen next
  } elsif (/^\\IA/) {
    # An index-alias.
    die "badly formatted index alias: $_\n" if !/^\\IA\{([^\}]*)}\{([^\}]*)\}\s*$/;
    $idxalias{$1} = $2;
    return; # avoid word-by-word code
  } elsif (/^\\M/) {
    # Metadata
    die "badly formed metadata: $_\n" if !/^\\M\{([^\}]*)}\{([^\}]*)\}\s*$/;
    $metadata{$1} = $2;
    return; # avoid word-by-word code
  } elsif (/^\\b/) {
    # A bulleted paragraph. Strip off the initial \b and let the
    # word-by-word code take care of the rest.
    $pflags = "bull";
    s/^\\b\s*//;
  } else {
    # A normal paragraph. Just set $pflags: the word-by-word code does
    # the rest.
    $pflags = "norm";
  }

  # The word-by-word code: unless @$pname is already defined (which it
  # will be in the case of a code paragraph), split the paragraph up
  # into words and push each on @$pname.
  #
  # Each thing pushed on @$pname should have a two-character type
  # code followed by the text.
  #
  # Type codes are:
  # "n " for normal
  # "da" for a dash
  # "es" for first emphasised word in emphasised bit
  # "e " for emphasised in mid-emphasised-bit
  # "ee" for last emphasised word in emphasised bit
  # "eo" for single (only) emphasised word
  # "c " for code
  # "k " for cross-ref
  # "kK" for capitalised cross-ref
  # "w " for Web link
  # "wc" for code-type Web link
  # "x " for beginning of resolved cross-ref; generates no visible output,
  #      and the text is the cross-reference code
  # "xe" for end of resolved cross-ref; text is same as for "x ".
  # "i " for point to be indexed: the text is the internal index into the
  #      index-items arrays
  # "sp" for space
  while (/\S/) {
    s/^\s*//, push @$pname, "sp" if /^\s/;
    $indexing = $qindex = 0;
    if (/^(\\[iI])?\\c/) {
      $qindex = 1 if $1 eq "\\I";
      $indexing = 1, s/^\\[iI]// if $1;
      s/^\\c//;
      die "badly formatted \\c: \\c$_\n" if !/\{(([^\\}]|\\.)*)\}(.*)$/;
      $w = $1;
      $_ = $3;
      $w =~ s/\\\{/\{/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\}/\}/g;
      $w =~ s/\\-/-/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\\/\\/g;
      (push @$pname,"i"),$lastp = $#$pname if $indexing;
      push @$pname,"c $w" if !$qindex;
      $$pname[$lastp] = &addidx($node, $w, "c $w") if $indexing;
    } elsif (/^\\[iIe]/) {
      /^(\\[iI])?(\\e)?/;
      $emph = 0;
      $qindex = 1 if $1 eq "\\I";
      $indexing = 1, $type = "\\i" if $1;
      $emph = 1, $type = "\\e" if $2;
      s/^(\\[iI])?(\\e?)//;
      die "badly formatted $type: $type$_\n" if !/\{(([^\\}]|\\.)*)\}(.*)$/;
      $w = $1;
      $_ = $3;
      $w =~ s/\\\{/\{/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\}/\}/g;
      $w =~ s/\\-/-/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\\/\\/g;
      $t = $emph ? "es" : "n ";
      @ientry = ();
      (push @$pname,"i"),$lastp = $#$pname if $indexing;
      foreach $i (split /\s+/,$w) {  # \e and \i can be multiple words
        push @$pname,"$t$i","sp" if !$qindex;
	($ii=$i) =~ tr/A-Z/a-z/, push @ientry,"n $ii","sp" if $indexing;
	$t = $emph ? "e " : "n ";
      }
      $w =~ tr/A-Z/a-z/, pop @ientry if $indexing;
      $$pname[$lastp] = &addidx($node, $w, @ientry) if $indexing;
      pop @$pname if !$qindex; # remove final space
      if (substr($$pname[$#$pname],0,2) eq "es" && !$qindex) {
        substr($$pname[$#$pname],0,2) = "eo";
      } elsif ($emph && !$qindex) {
        substr($$pname[$#$pname],0,2) = "ee";
      }
    } elsif (/^\\[kK]/) {
      $t = "k ";
      $t = "kK" if /^\\K/;
      s/^\\[kK]//;
      die "badly formatted \\k: \\k$_\n" if !/\{([^\}]*)\}(.*)$/;
      $_ = $2;
      push @$pname,"$t$1";
    } elsif (/^\\W/) {
      s/^\\W//;
      die "badly formatted \\W: \\W$_\n"
          if !/\{([^\}]*)\}(\\i)?(\\c)?\{(([^\\}]|\\.)*)\}(.*)$/;
      $l = $1;
      $w = $4;
      $_ = $6;
      $t = "w ";
      $t = "wc" if $3 eq "\\c";
      $indexing = 1 if $2;
      $w =~ s/\\\{/\{/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\}/\}/g;
      $w =~ s/\\-/-/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\\/\\/g;
      (push @$pname,"i"),$lastp = $#$pname if $indexing;
      push @$pname,"$t<$l>$w";
      $$pname[$lastp] = &addidx($node, $w, "c $w") if $indexing;
    } else {
      die "what the hell? $_\n" if !/^(([^\s\\\-]|\\[\\{}\-])*-?)(.*)$/;
      die "painful death! $_\n" if !length $1;
      $w = $1;
      $_ = $3;
      $w =~ s/\\\{/\{/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\}/\}/g;
      $w =~ s/\\-/-/g;
      $w =~ s/\\\\/\\/g;
      if ($w eq "-") {
        push @$pname,"da";
      } else {
        push @$pname,"n $w";
      }
    }
  }
  if ($irewrite ne undef) {
    &addidx(undef, $irewrite, @$pname);
    @$pname = ();
  } else {
    push @pnames, $pname;
    push @pflags, $pflags;
    $pname++;
  }
}

sub addidx {
  my ($node, $text, @ientry) = @_;
  $text = $idxalias{$text} || $text;
  if ($node eq undef || !$idxmap{$text}) {
    @$ientry = @ientry;
    $idxmap{$text} = $ientry;
    $ientry++;
  }
  if ($node) {
    $idxnodes{$node,$text} = 1;
    return "i $text";
  }
}

sub indexsort {
  my $iitem, $ientry, $i, $piitem, $pcval, $cval, $clrcval;

  @itags = map { # get back the original data as the 1st elt of each list
             $_->[0]
	   } sort { # compare auxiliary (non-first) elements of lists
	     $a->[1] cmp $b->[1] ||
	     $a->[2] cmp $b->[2] ||
	     $a->[0] cmp $b->[0]
           } map { # transform array into list of 3-element lists
	     my $ientry = $idxmap{$_};
	     my $a = substr($$ientry[0],2);
	     $a =~ tr/A-Za-z0-9//cd;
	     [$_, uc($a), substr($$ientry[0],0,2)]
	   } keys %idxmap;

  # Having done that, check for comma-hood.
  $cval = 0;
  foreach $iitem (@itags) {
    $ientry = $idxmap{$iitem};
    $clrcval = 1;
    $pcval = $cval;
    FL:for ($i=0; $i <= $#$ientry; $i++) {
      if ($$ientry[$i] =~ /^(n .*,)(.*)/) {
        $$ientry[$i] = $1;
	splice @$ientry,$i+1,0,"n $2" if length $2;
	$commapos{$iitem} = $i+1;
	$cval = join("\002", @$ientry[0..$i]);
	$clrcval = 0;
	last FL;
      }
    }
    $cval = undef if $clrcval;
    $commanext{$iitem} = $commaafter{$piitem} = 1
      if $cval and ($cval eq $pcval);
    $piitem = $iitem;
  }
}

sub indexdiag {
  my $iitem,$ientry,$w,$ww,$foo,$node;
  open INDEXDIAG, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'index.diag');
  foreach $iitem (@itags) {
    $ientry = $idxmap{$iitem};
    print INDEXDIAG "<$iitem> ";
    foreach $w (@$ientry) {
      $ww = &word_txt($w);
      print INDEXDIAG $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
    }
    print INDEXDIAG ":";
    $foo = " ";
    foreach $node (@nodes) {
      (print INDEXDIAG $foo,$node), $foo = ", " if $idxnodes{$node,$iitem};
    }
    print INDEXDIAG "\n";
  }
  close INDEXDIAG;
}

sub fixup_xrefs {
  my $pname, $p, $i, $j, $k, $caps, @repl;

  for ($p=0; $p<=$#pnames; $p++) {
    next if $pflags[$p] eq "code";
    $pname = $pnames[$p];
    for ($i=$#$pname; $i >= 0; $i--) {
      if ($$pname[$i] =~ /^k/) {
        $k = $$pname[$i];
        $caps = ($k =~ /^kK/);
	$k = substr($k,2);
        $repl = $refs{$k};
	die "undefined keyword `$k'\n" unless $repl;
	substr($repl,0,1) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/ if $caps;
	@repl = ();
	push @repl,"x $xrefs{$k}";
	foreach $j (split /\s+/,$repl) {
	  push @repl,"n $j";
	  push @repl,"sp";
	}
	pop @repl; # remove final space
	push @repl,"xe$xrefs{$k}";
	splice @$pname,$i,1,@repl;
      }
    }
  }
}

sub write_txt {
  # This is called from the top level, so I won't bother using
  # my or local.

  # Open file.
  print "writing file...";
  open TEXT, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoc.txt');
  select TEXT;

  # Preamble.
  $title = "The Netwide Assembler: NASM";
  $spaces = ' ' x ((75-(length $title))/2);
  ($underscore = $title) =~ s/./=/g;
  print "$spaces$title\n$spaces$underscore\n";

  for ($para = 0; $para <= $#pnames; $para++) {
    $pname = $pnames[$para];
    $pflags = $pflags[$para];
    $ptype = substr($pflags,0,4);

    print "\n"; # always one of these before a new paragraph

    if ($ptype eq "chap") {
      # Chapter heading. "Chapter N: Title" followed by a line of
      # minus signs.
      $pflags =~ /chap (.*) :(.*)/;
      $title = "Chapter $1: ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_txt($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "$title\n";
      $title =~ s/./-/g;
      print "$title\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "appn") {
      # Appendix heading. "Appendix N: Title" followed by a line of
      # minus signs.
      $pflags =~ /appn (.*) :(.*)/;
      $title = "Appendix $1: ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_txt($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "$title\n";
      $title =~ s/./-/g;
      print "$title\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "head" || $ptype eq "subh") {
      # Heading or subheading. Just a number and some text.
      $pflags =~ /.... (.*) :(.*)/;
      $title = sprintf "%6s ", $1;
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_txt($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "$title\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "code") {
      # Code paragraph. Emit each line with a seven character indent.
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        warn "code line longer than 68 chars: $i\n" if length $i > 68;
        print ' 'x7, $i, "\n";
      }
    } elsif ($ptype eq "bull" || $ptype eq "norm") {
      # Ordinary paragraph, optionally bulleted. We wrap, with ragged
      # 75-char right margin and either 7 or 11 char left margin
      # depending on bullets.
      if ($ptype eq "bull") {
        $line = ' 'x7 . '(*) ';
	$next = ' 'x11;
      } else {
        $line = $next = ' 'x7;
      }
      @a = @$pname;
      $wd = $wprev = '';
      do {
        do { $w = &word_txt(shift @a) } while $w eq "\001"; # nasty hack
	$wd .= $wprev;
	if ($wprev =~ /-$/ || $w eq ' ' || $w eq '' || $w eq undef) {
	  if (length ($line . $wd) > 75) {
	    $line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	    print "$line\n";
	    $line = $next;
	    $wd =~ s/^\s*//; # trim leading spaces
	  }
	  $line .= $wd;
	  $wd = '';
	}
	$wprev = $w;
      } while ($w ne '' && $w ne undef);
      if ($line =~ /\S/) {
	$line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	print "$line\n";
      }
    }
  }

  # Close file.
  select STDOUT;
  close TEXT;
}

sub word_txt {
  my ($w) = @_;
  my $wtype, $wmajt;

  return undef if $w eq '' || $w eq undef;
  $wtype = substr($w,0,2);
  $wmajt = substr($wtype,0,1);
  $w = substr($w,2);
  $w =~ s/<.*>// if $wmajt eq "w"; # remove web links
  if ($wmajt eq "n" || $wtype eq "e " || $wtype eq "w ") {
    return $w;
  } elsif ($wtype eq "sp") {
    return ' ';
  } elsif ($wtype eq "da") {
    return '-';
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "c" || $wtype eq "wc") {
    return "`${w}'";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "es") {
    return "_${w}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "ee") {
    return "${w}_";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "eo") {
    return "_${w}_";
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "x" || $wmajt eq "i") {
    return "\001";
  } else {
    die "panic in word_txt: $wtype$w\n";
  }
}

sub write_html {
  # This is called from the top level, so I won't bother using
  # my or local.

  # Write contents file. Just the preamble, then a menu of links to the
  # separate chapter files and the nodes therein.
  print "writing contents file...";
  open TEXT, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoc0.html');
  select TEXT;
  &html_preamble(0);
  print "<p>This manual documents NASM, the Netwide Assembler: an assembler\n";
  print "targetting the Intel x86 series of processors, with portable source.\n";
  print "<p>";
  for ($node = $tstruct_next{'Top'}; $node; $node = $tstruct_next{$node}) {
    if ($tstruct_level{$node} == 1) {
      # Invent a file name.
      ($number = lc($xrefnodes{$node})) =~ s/.*-//;
      $fname="nasmdocx.html";
      substr($fname,8 - length $number, length $number) = $number;
      $html_fnames{$node} = $fname;
      $link = $fname;
      print "<p>";
    } else {
      # Use the preceding filename plus a marker point.
      $link = $fname . "#$xrefnodes{$node}";
    }
    $title = "$node: ";
    $pname = $tstruct_pname{$node};
    foreach $i (@$pname) {
      $ww = &word_html($i);
      $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
    }
    print "<a href=\"$link\">$title</a><br>\n";
  }
  print "<p><a href=\"nasmdoci.html\">Index</a>\n";
  print "</body></html>\n";
  select STDOUT;
  close TEXT;

  # Open a null file, to ensure output (eg random &html_jumppoints calls)
  # goes _somewhere_.
  print "writing chapter files...";
  open TEXT, '>', File::Spec->devnull();
  select TEXT;
  $html_lastf = '';

  $in_list = 0;

  for ($para = 0; $para <= $#pnames; $para++) {
    $pname = $pnames[$para];
    $pflags = $pflags[$para];
    $ptype = substr($pflags,0,4);

    $in_list = 0, print "</ul>\n" if $in_list && $ptype ne "bull";
    if ($ptype eq "chap") {
      # Chapter heading. Begin a new file.
      $pflags =~ /chap (.*) :(.*)/;
      $title = "Chapter $1: ";
      $xref = $2;
      &html_jumppoints; print "</body></html>\n"; select STDOUT; close TEXT;
      $html_lastf = $html_fnames{$chapternode};
      $chapternode = $nodexrefs{$xref};
      $html_nextf = $html_fnames{$tstruct_mnext{$chapternode}};
      open(TEXT, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, $html_fnames{$chapternode}));
      select TEXT;
      &html_preamble(1);
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_html($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      $h = "<h2><a name=\"$xref\">$title</a></h2>\n";
      print $h; print FULL $h;
    } elsif ($ptype eq "appn") {
      # Appendix heading. Begin a new file.
      $pflags =~ /appn (.*) :(.*)/;
      $title = "Appendix $1: ";
      $xref = $2;
      &html_jumppoints; print "</body></html>\n"; select STDOUT; close TEXT;
      $html_lastf = $html_fnames{$chapternode};
      $chapternode = $nodexrefs{$xref};
      $html_nextf = $html_fnames{$tstruct_mnext{$chapternode}};
      open(TEXT, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, $html_fnames{$chapternode}));
      select TEXT;
      &html_preamble(1);
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_html($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "<h2><a name=\"$xref\">$title</a></h2>\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "head" || $ptype eq "subh") {
      # Heading or subheading.
      $pflags =~ /.... (.*) :(.*)/;
      $hdr = ($ptype eq "subh" ? "h4" : "h3");
      $title = $1 . " ";
      $xref = $2;
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_html($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "<$hdr><a name=\"$xref\">$title</a></$hdr>\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "code") {
      # Code paragraph.
      print "<p><pre>\n";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
	$w = $i;
	$w =~ s/&/&amp;/g;
	$w =~ s/</&lt;/g;
	$w =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
        print $w, "\n";
      }
      print "</pre>\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "bull" || $ptype eq "norm") {
      # Ordinary paragraph, optionally bulleted. We wrap, with ragged
      # 75-char right margin and either 7 or 11 char left margin
      # depending on bullets.
      if ($ptype eq "bull") {
        $in_list = 1, print "<ul>\n" unless $in_list;
        $line = '<li>';
      } else {
        $line = '<p>';
      }
      @a = @$pname;
      $wd = $wprev = '';
      do {
        do { $w = &word_html(shift @a) } while $w eq "\001"; # nasty hack
	$wd .= $wprev;
	if ($w eq ' ' || $w eq '' || $w eq undef) {
	  if (length ($line . $wd) > 75) {
	    $line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	    print "$line\n";
	    $line = '';
	    $wd =~ s/^\s*//; # trim leading spaces
	  }
	  $line .= $wd;
	  $wd = '';
	}
	$wprev = $w;
      } while ($w ne '' && $w ne undef);
      if ($line =~ /\S/) {
	$line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	print "$line\n";
      }
    }
  }

  # Close whichever file was open.
  &html_jumppoints;
  print "</body></html>\n";
  select STDOUT;
  close TEXT;

  print "\n   writing index file...";
  open TEXT, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoci.html');
  select TEXT;
  &html_preamble(0);
  print "<p align=center><a href=\"nasmdoc0.html\">Contents</a>\n";
  print "<p>";
  &html_index;
  print "<p align=center><a href=\"nasmdoc0.html\">Contents</a>\n";
  print "</body></html>\n";
  select STDOUT;
  close TEXT;
}

sub html_preamble {
  print "<html><head><title>NASM Manual</title></head>\n";
  print "<body><h1 align=center>The Netwide Assembler: NASM</h1>\n\n";
  &html_jumppoints if $_[0];
}

sub html_jumppoints {
  print "<p align=center>";
  print "<a href=\"$html_nextf\">Next Chapter</a> |\n" if $html_nextf;
  print "<a href=\"$html_lastf\">Previous Chapter</a> |\n" if $html_lastf;
  print "<a href=\"nasmdoc0.html\">Contents</a> |\n";
  print "<a href=\"nasmdoci.html\">Index</a>\n";
}

sub html_index {
  my $itag, $a, @ientry, $sep, $w, $wd, $wprev, $line;

  $chapternode = '';
  foreach $itag (@itags) {
    $ientry = $idxmap{$itag};
    @a = @$ientry;
    push @a, "n :";
    $sep = 0;
    foreach $node (@nodes) {
      next if !$idxnodes{$node,$itag};
      push @a, "n ," if $sep;
      push @a, "sp", "x $xrefnodes{$node}", "n $node", "xe$xrefnodes{$node}";
      $sep = 1;
    }
    $line = '';
    do {
      do { $w = &word_html(shift @a) } while $w eq "\001"; # nasty hack
      $wd .= $wprev;
      if ($w eq ' ' || $w eq '' || $w eq undef) {
        if (length ($line . $wd) > 75) {
	  $line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	  print "$line\n";
	  $line = '';
	  $wd =~ s/^\s*//; # trim leading spaces
	}
	$line .= $wd;
	$wd = '';
      }
      $wprev = $w;
    } while ($w ne '' && $w ne undef);
    if ($line =~ /\S/) {
      $line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
      print "$line\n";
    }
    print "<br>\n";
  }
}

sub word_html {
  my ($w) = @_;
  my $wtype, $wmajt, $pfx, $sfx;

  return undef if $w eq '' || $w eq undef;

  $wtype = substr($w,0,2);
  $wmajt = substr($wtype,0,1);
  $w = substr($w,2);
  $pfx = $sfx = '';
  $pfx = "<a href=\"$1\">", $sfx = "</a>", $w = $2
    if $wmajt eq "w" && $w =~ /^<(.*)>(.*)$/;
  $w =~ s/&/&amp;/g;
  $w =~ s/</&lt;/g;
  $w =~ s/>/&gt;/g;
  if ($wmajt eq "n" || $wtype eq "e " || $wtype eq "w ") {
    return $pfx . $w . $sfx;
  } elsif ($wtype eq "sp") {
    return ' ';
  } elsif ($wtype eq "da") {
    return '-'; # sadly, en-dashes are non-standard in HTML
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "c" || $wtype eq "wc") {
    return $pfx . "<code><nobr>${w}</nobr></code>" . $sfx;
  } elsif ($wtype eq "es") {
    return "<em>${w}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "ee") {
    return "${w}</em>";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "eo") {
    return "<em>${w}</em>";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "x ") {
    # Magic: we must resolve the cross reference into file and marker
    # parts, then dispose of the file part if it's us, and dispose of
    # the marker part if the cross reference describes the top node of
    # another file.
    my $node = $nodexrefs{$w}; # find the node we're aiming at
    my $level = $tstruct_level{$node}; # and its level
    my $up = $node, $uplev = $level-1;
    $up = $tstruct_up{$up} while $uplev--; # get top node of containing file
    my $file = ($up ne $chapternode) ? $html_fnames{$up} : "";
    my $marker = ($level == 1 and $file) ? "" : "#$w";
    return "<a href=\"$file$marker\">";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "xe") {
    return "</a>";
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "i") {
    return "\001";
  } else {
    die "panic in word_html: $wtype$w\n";
  }
}

sub write_texi {
  # This is called from the top level, so I won't bother using
  # my or local.

  # Open file.
  print "writing file...";
  open TEXT,'>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoc.texi');
  select TEXT;

  # Preamble.
  print "\\input texinfo   \@c -*-texinfo-*-\n";
  print "\@c \%**start of header\n";
  print "\@setfilename ",$metadata{'infofile'},".info\n";
  print "\@dircategory ",$metadata{'category'},"\n";
  print "\@direntry\n";
  printf "* %-28s %s.\n",
  sprintf('%s: (%s).', $metadata{'infoname'}, $metadata{'infofile'}),
  $metadata{'infotitle'};
  print "\@end direntry\n";
  print "\@settitle ", $metadata{'title'},"\n";
  print "\@setchapternewpage odd\n";
  print "\@c \%**end of header\n";
  print "\n";
  print "\@ifinfo\n";
  print $metadata{'summary'}, "\n";
  print "\n";
  print "Copyright ",$metadata{'year'}," ",$metadata{'author'},"\n";
  print "\n";
  print $metadata{'license'}, "\n";
  print "\@end ifinfo\n";
  print "\n";
  print "\@titlepage\n";
  $title = $metadata{'title'};
  $title =~ s/ - / --- /g;
  print "\@title ${title}\n";
  print "\@author ",$metadata{'author'},"\n";
  print "\n";
  print "\@page\n";
  print "\@vskip 0pt plus 1filll\n";
  print "Copyright \@copyright{} ",$metadata{'year'},' ',$metadata{'author'},"\n";
  print "\n";
  print $metadata{'license'}, "\n";
  print "\@end titlepage\n";
  print "\n";
  print "\@node Top, $tstruct_next{'Top'}, (dir), (dir)\n";
  print "\@top ",$metadata{'infotitle'},"\n";
  print "\n";
  print "\@ifinfo\n";
  print $metadata{'summary'}, "\n";
  print "\@end ifinfo\n";

  $node = "Top";

  $bulleting = 0;
  for ($para = 0; $para <= $#pnames; $para++) {
    $pname = $pnames[$para];
    $pflags = $pflags[$para];
    $ptype = substr($pflags,0,4);

    $bulleting = 0, print "\@end itemize\n" if $bulleting && $ptype ne "bull";
    print "\n"; # always one of these before a new paragraph

    if ($ptype eq "chap") {
      # Chapter heading. Begin a new node.
      &texi_menu($node)
        if $tstruct_level{$tstruct_next{$node}} > $tstruct_level{$node};
      $pflags =~ /chap (.*) :(.*)/;
      $node = "Chapter $1";
      $title = "Chapter $1: ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_texi($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "\@node $node, $tstruct_next{$node}, $tstruct_prev{$node},";
      print " $tstruct_up{$node}\n\@unnumbered $title\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "appn") {
      # Appendix heading. Begin a new node.
      &texi_menu($node)
        if $tstruct_level{$tstruct_next{$node}} > $tstruct_level{$node};
      $pflags =~ /appn (.*) :(.*)/;
      $node = "Appendix $1";
      $title = "Appendix $1: ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_texi($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "\@node $node, $tstruct_next{$node}, $tstruct_prev{$node},";
      print " $tstruct_up{$node}\n\@unnumbered $title\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "head" || $ptype eq "subh") {
      # Heading or subheading. Begin a new node.
      &texi_menu($node)
        if $tstruct_level{$tstruct_next{$node}} > $tstruct_level{$node};
      $pflags =~ /.... (.*) :(.*)/;
      $node = "Section $1";
      $title = "$1. ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_texi($i);
        $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "\@node $node, $tstruct_next{$node}, $tstruct_prev{$node},";
      print " $tstruct_up{$node}\n";
      $hdr = ($ptype eq "subh" ? "\@unnumberedsubsec" : "\@unnumberedsec");
      print "$hdr $title\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "code") {
      # Code paragraph. Surround with @example / @end example.
      print "\@example\n";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        warn "code line longer than 68 chars: $i\n" if length $i > 68;
	$i =~ s/\@/\@\@/g;
	$i =~ s/\{/\@\{/g;
	$i =~ s/\}/\@\}/g;
        print "$i\n";
      }
      print "\@end example\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "bull" || $ptype eq "norm") {
      # Ordinary paragraph, optionally bulleted. We wrap, FWIW.
      if ($ptype eq "bull") {
        $bulleting = 1, print "\@itemize \@bullet\n" if !$bulleting;
	print "\@item\n";
      }
      $line = '';
      @a = @$pname;
      $wd = $wprev = '';
      do {
        do { $w = &word_texi(shift @a); } while $w eq "\001"; # hack
	$wd .= $wprev;
	if ($wprev =~ /-$/ || $w eq ' ' || $w eq '' || $w eq undef) {
	  if (length ($line . $wd) > 75) {
	    $line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	    print "$line\n";
	    $line = '';
	    $wd =~ s/^\s*//; # trim leading spaces
	  }
	  $line .= $wd;
	  $wd = '';
	}
	$wprev = $w;
      } while ($w ne '' && $w ne undef);
      if ($line =~ /\S/) {
	$line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	print "$line\n";
      }
    }
  }

  # Write index.
  &texi_index;

  # Close file.
  print "\n\@contents\n\@bye\n";
  select STDOUT;
  close TEXT;
}

# Side effect of this procedure: update global `texiwdlen' to be the length
# in chars of the formatted version of the word.
sub word_texi {
  my ($w) = @_;
  my $wtype, $wmajt;

  return undef if $w eq '' || $w eq undef;
  $wtype = substr($w,0,2);
  $wmajt = substr($wtype,0,1);
  $w = substr($w,2);
  $wlen = length $w;
  $w =~ s/\@/\@\@/g;
  $w =~ s/\{/\@\{/g;
  $w =~ s/\}/\@\}/g;
  $w =~ s/<.*>// if $wmajt eq "w"; # remove web links
  substr($w,0,1) =~ tr/a-z/A-Z/, $capital = 0 if $capital;
  if ($wmajt eq "n" || $wtype eq "e " || $wtype eq "w ") {
    $texiwdlen = $wlen;
    return $w;
  } elsif ($wtype eq "sp") {
    $texiwdlen = 1;
    return ' ';
  } elsif ($wtype eq "da") {
    $texiwdlen = 2;
    return '--';
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "c" || $wtype eq "wc") {
    $texiwdlen = 2 + $wlen;
    return "\@code\{$w\}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "es") {
    $texiwdlen = 1 + $wlen;
    return "\@emph\{${w}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "ee") {
    $texiwdlen = 1 + $wlen;
    return "${w}\}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "eo") {
    $texiwdlen = 2 + $wlen;
    return "\@emph\{${w}\}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "x ") {
    $texiwdlen = 0; # we don't need it in this case
    $capital = 1; # hack
    return "\@ref\{";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "xe") {
    $texiwdlen = 0; # we don't need it in this case
    return "\}";
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "i") {
    $texiwdlen = 0; # we don't need it in this case
    return "\001";
  } else {
    die "panic in word_texi: $wtype$w\n";
  }
}

sub texi_menu {
  my ($topitem) = @_;
  my $item, $i, $mpname, $title, $wd;

  $item = $tstruct_next{$topitem};
  print "\@menu\n";
  while ($item) {
    $title = "";
    $mpname = $tstruct_pname{$item};
    foreach $i (@$mpname) {
      $wd = &word_texi($i);
      $title .= $wd unless $wd eq "\001";
    }
    print "* ${item}:: $title\n";
    $item = $tstruct_mnext{$item};
  }
  print "* Index::\n" if $topitem eq "Top";
  print "\@end menu\n";
}

sub texi_index {
  my $itag, $ientry, @a, $wd, $item, $len;
  my $subnums = "123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTU" .
                "VWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";

  print "\@ifinfo\n\@node Index, , $FIXMElastnode, Top\n";
  print "\@unnumbered Index\n\n\@menu\n";

  foreach $itag (@itags) {
    $ientry = $idxmap{$itag};
    @a = @$ientry;
    $item = '';
    $len = 0;
    foreach $i (@a) {
      $wd = &word_texi($i);
      $item .= $wd, $len += $texiwdlen unless $wd eq "\001";
    }
    $i = 0;
    foreach $node (@nodes) {
      next if !$idxnodes{$node,$itag};
      printf "* %s%s (%s): %s.\n",
          $item, " " x (40-$len), substr($subnums,$i++,1), $node;
    }
  }
  print "\@end menu\n\@end ifinfo\n";
}

sub write_hlp {
  # This is called from the top level, so I won't bother using
  # my or local.

  # Build the index-tag text forms.
  print "building index entries...";
  @hlp_index = map {
                 my $i,$ww;
		 my $ientry = $idxmap{$_};
		 my $title = "";
                 foreach $i (@$ientry) {
		   $ww = &word_hlp($i,0);
		   $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
		 }
		 $title;
               } @itags;

  # Write the HPJ project-description file.
  print "writing .hpj file...";
  open HPJ, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoc.hpj');
  print HPJ "[OPTIONS]\ncompress=true\n";
  print HPJ "title=NASM: The Netwide Assembler\noldkeyphrase=no\n\n";
  print HPJ "[FILES]\nnasmdoc.rtf\n\n";
  print HPJ "[CONFIG]\n";
  print HPJ 'CreateButton("btn_up", "&Up",'.
            ' "JumpContents(`nasmdoc.hlp'."'".')")';
  print HPJ "\nBrowseButtons()\n";
  close HPJ;

  # Open file.
  print "\n   writing .rtf file...";
  open TEXT,'>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoc.rtf');
  select TEXT;

  # Preamble.
  print "{\\rtf1\\ansi{\\fonttbl\n";
  print "\\f0\\froman Times New Roman;\\f1\\fmodern Courier New;\n";
  print "\\f2\\fswiss Arial;\\f3\\ftech Wingdings}\\deff0\n";
  print "#{\\footnote Top}\n";
  print "\${\\footnote Contents}\n";
  print "+{\\footnote browse:00000}\n";
  print "!{\\footnote DisableButton(\"btn_up\")}\n";
  print "\\keepn\\f2\\b\\fs30\\sb0\n";
  print "NASM: The Netwide Assembler\n";
  print "\\par\\pard\\plain\\sb120\n";
  print "This file documents NASM, the Netwide Assembler: an assembler \n";
  print "targetting the Intel x86 series of processors, with portable source.\n";

  $node = "Top";
  $browse = 0;

  $newpar = "\\par\\sb120\n";
  for ($para = 0; $para <= $#pnames; $para++) {
    $pname = $pnames[$para];
    $pflags = $pflags[$para];
    $ptype = substr($pflags,0,4);

    print $newpar;
    $newpar = "\\par\\sb120\n";

    if ($ptype eq "chap") {
      # Chapter heading. Begin a new node.
      &hlp_menu($node)
        if $tstruct_level{$tstruct_next{$node}} > $tstruct_level{$node};
      $pflags =~ /chap (.*) :(.*)/;
      $node = "Chapter $1";
      $title = $footnotetitle = "Chapter $1: ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_hlp($i,1);
	$title .= $ww, $footnotetitle .= &word_hlp($i,0) unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "\\page\n";
      printf "#{\\footnote %s}\n", &hlp_sectkw($node);
      print "\${\\footnote $footnotetitle}\n";
      printf "+{\\footnote browse:%05d}\n", ++$browse;
      printf "!{\\footnote ChangeButtonBinding(\"btn_up\"," .
             "\"JumpId(\`nasmdoc.hlp',\`%s')\");\n",
	     &hlp_sectkw($tstruct_up{$node});
      print "EnableButton(\"btn_up\")}\n";
      &hlp_keywords($node);
      print "\\keepn\\f2\\b\\fs30\\sb60\\sa60\n";
      print "$title\n";
      $newpar = "\\par\\pard\\plain\\sb120\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "appn") {
      # Appendix heading. Begin a new node.
      &hlp_menu($node)
        if $tstruct_level{$tstruct_next{$node}} > $tstruct_level{$node};
      $pflags =~ /appn (.*) :(.*)/;
      $node = "Appendix $1";
      $title = $footnotetitle = "Appendix $1: ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_hlp($i,1);
	$title .= $ww, $footnotetitle .= &word_hlp($i,0) unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "\\page\n";
      printf "#{\\footnote %s}\n", &hlp_sectkw($node);
      print "\${\\footnote $footnotetitle}\n";
      printf "+{\\footnote browse:%05d}\n", ++$browse;
      printf "!{\\footnote ChangeButtonBinding(\"btn_up\"," .
             "\"JumpId(\`nasmdoc.hlp',\`%s')\");\n",
	     &hlp_sectkw($tstruct_up{$node});
      print "EnableButton(\"btn_up\")}\n";
      &hlp_keywords($node);
      print "\\keepn\\f2\\b\\fs30\\sb60\\sa60\n";
      print "$title\n";
      $newpar = "\\par\\pard\\plain\\sb120\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "head" || $ptype eq "subh") {
      # Heading or subheading. Begin a new node.
      &hlp_menu($node)
        if $tstruct_level{$tstruct_next{$node}} > $tstruct_level{$node};
      $pflags =~ /.... (.*) :(.*)/;
      $node = "Section $1";
      $title = $footnotetitle = "$1. ";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
        $ww = &word_hlp($i,1);
	$title .= $ww, $footnotetitle .= &word_hlp($i,0) unless $ww eq "\001";
      }
      print "\\page\n";
      printf "#{\\footnote %s}\n", &hlp_sectkw($node);
      print "\${\\footnote $footnotetitle}\n";
      printf "+{\\footnote browse:%05d}\n", ++$browse;
      printf "!{\\footnote ChangeButtonBinding(\"btn_up\"," .
             "\"JumpId(\`nasmdoc.hlp',\`%s')\");\n",
	     &hlp_sectkw($tstruct_up{$node});
      print "EnableButton(\"btn_up\")}\n";
      &hlp_keywords($node);
      print "\\keepn\\f2\\b\\fs30\\sb60\\sa60\n";
      print "$title\n";
      $newpar = "\\par\\pard\\plain\\sb120\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "code") {
      # Code paragraph.
      print "\\keep\\f1\\sb120\n";
      foreach $i (@$pname) {
	my $x = $i;
        warn "code line longer than 68 chars: $i\n" if length $i > 68;
	$x =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
	$x =~ s/\{/\\\{/g;
	$x =~ s/\}/\\\}/g;
        print "$x\\par\\sb0\n";
      }
      $newpar = "\\pard\\f0\\sb120\n";
    } elsif ($ptype eq "bull" || $ptype eq "norm") {
      # Ordinary paragraph, optionally bulleted. We wrap, FWIW.
      if ($ptype eq "bull") {
        print "\\tx360\\li360\\fi-360{\\f3\\'9F}\\tab\n";
	$newpar = "\\par\\pard\\sb120\n";
      } else {
	$newpar = "\\par\\sb120\n";
      }
      $line = '';
      @a = @$pname;
      $wd = $wprev = '';
      do {
        do { $w = &word_hlp((shift @a),1); } while $w eq "\001"; # hack
	$wd .= $wprev;
	if ($w eq ' ' || $w eq '' || $w eq undef) {
	  if (length ($line . $wd) > 75) {
	    $line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	    print "$line \n"; # and put one back
	    $line = '';
	    $wd =~ s/^\s*//; # trim leading spaces
	  }
	  $line .= $wd;
	  $wd = '';
	}
	$wprev = $w;
      } while ($w ne '' && $w ne undef);
      if ($line =~ /\S/) {
	$line =~ s/\s*$//; # trim trailing spaces
	print "$line\n";
      }
    }
  }

  # Close file.
  print "\\page}\n";
  select STDOUT;
  close TEXT;
}

sub word_hlp {
  my ($w, $docode) = @_;
  my $wtype, $wmajt;

  return undef if $w eq '' || $w eq undef;
  $wtype = substr($w,0,2);
  $wmajt = substr($wtype,0,1);
  $w = substr($w,2);
  $w =~ s/\\/\\\\/g;
  $w =~ s/\{/\\\{/g;
  $w =~ s/\}/\\\}/g;
  $w =~ s/<.*>// if $wmajt eq "w"; # remove web links
  substr($w,0,length($w)-1) =~ s/-/\\\'AD/g if $wmajt ne "x"; #nonbreakhyphens
  if ($wmajt eq "n" || $wtype eq "e " || $wtype eq "w ") {
    return $w;
  } elsif ($wtype eq "sp") {
    return ' ';
  } elsif ($wtype eq "da") {
    return "\\'96";
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "c" || $wtype eq "wc") {
    $w =~ s/ /\\\'A0/g; # make spaces non-breaking
    return $docode ? "{\\f1 ${w}}" : $w;
  } elsif ($wtype eq "es") {
    return "{\\i ${w}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "ee") {
    return "${w}}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "eo") {
    return "{\\i ${w}}";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "x ") {
    return "{\\uldb ";
  } elsif ($wtype eq "xe") {
    $w = &hlp_sectkw($w);
    return "}{\\v ${w}}";
  } elsif ($wmajt eq "i") {
    return "\001";
  } else {
    die "panic in word_hlp: $wtype$w\n";
  }
}

sub hlp_menu {
  my ($topitem) = @_;
  my $item, $kword, $i, $mpname, $title;

  $item = $tstruct_next{$topitem};
  print "\\li360\\fi-360\n";
  while ($item) {
    $title = "";
    $mpname = $tstruct_pname{$item};
    foreach $i (@$mpname) {
      $ww = &word_hlp($i, 0);
      $title .= $ww unless $ww eq "\001";
    }
    $kword = &hlp_sectkw($item);
    print "{\\uldb ${item}: $title}{\\v $kword}\\par\\sb0\n";
    $item = $tstruct_mnext{$item};
  }
  print "\\pard\\sb120\n";
}

sub hlp_sectkw {
  my ($node) = @_;
  $node =~ tr/A-Z/a-z/;
  $node =~ tr/- ./___/;
  $node;
}

sub hlp_keywords {
  my ($node) = @_;
  my $pfx = "K{\\footnote ";
  my $done = 0;
  foreach $i (0..$#itags) {
    (print $pfx,$hlp_index[$i]), $pfx = ";\n", $done++
        if $idxnodes{$node,$itags[$i]};
  }
  print "}\n" if $done;
}

# Make tree structures. $tstruct_* is top-level and global.
sub add_item {
  my ($item, $level) = @_;
  my $i;

  $tstruct_pname{$item} = $pname;
  $tstruct_next{$tstruct_previtem} = $item;
  $tstruct_prev{$item} = $tstruct_previtem;
  $tstruct_level{$item} = $level;
  $tstruct_up{$item} = $tstruct_last[$level-1];
  $tstruct_mnext{$tstruct_last[$level]} = $item;
  $tstruct_last[$level] = $item;
  for ($i=$level+1; $i<$MAXLEVEL; $i++) { $tstruct_last[$i] = undef; }
  $tstruct_previtem = $item;
  push @nodes, $item;
}

#
# This produces documentation intermediate paragraph format; this is
# basically the digested output of the front end.  Intended for use
# by future backends, instead of putting it all in the same script.
#
sub write_dip {
  open(PARAS, '>', File::Spec->catfile($out_path, 'nasmdoc.dip'));
  foreach $k (sort(keys(%metadata))) {
      print PARAS 'meta :', $k, "\n";
      print PARAS $metadata{$k},"\n";
  }
  for ($para = 0; $para <= $#pnames; $para++) {
      print PARAS $pflags[$para], "\n";
      print PARAS join("\037", @{$pnames[$para]}, "\n");
  }
  foreach $k (@itags) {
      print PARAS 'indx :', $k, "\n";
      print PARAS join("\037", @{$idxmap{$k}}), "\n";
  }
  close(PARAS);
}