path: root/mm/rmap.c
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* rmap: make anon_vma_chain_free() staticNamhyung Kim2010-10-261-1/+1
| | | | | | | | | | Make anon_vma_chain_free() static. It is called only in rmap.c and the corresponding alloc function is already static. Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: wrap page_check_address() using __cond_lock()Namhyung Kim2010-10-261-1/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | The page_check_address() conditionally grabs *@ptlp in case of returning non-NULL. Rename and wrap it using __cond_lock() removes following warnings from sparse: mm/rmap.c:472:9: warning: context imbalance in 'page_mapped_in_vma' - unexpected unlock mm/rmap.c:524:9: warning: context imbalance in 'page_referenced_one' - unexpected unlock mm/rmap.c:706:9: warning: context imbalance in 'page_mkclean_one' - unexpected unlock mm/rmap.c:1066:9: warning: context imbalance in 'try_to_unmap_one' - unexpected unlock Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: annotate lock context change on page_[un]lock_anon_vma()Namhyung Kim2010-10-261-1/+3
| | | | | | | | | | The page_lock_anon_vma() conditionally grabs RCU and anon_vma lock but page_unlock_anon_vma() releases them unconditionally. This leads sparse to complain about context imbalance. Annotate them. Signed-off-by: Namhyung Kim <namhyung@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* Merge branch 'hwpoison' of ↵Linus Torvalds2010-10-261-17/+8
|\ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ak/linux-mce-2.6 * 'hwpoison' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ak/linux-mce-2.6: (22 commits) Add _addr_lsb field to ia64 siginfo Fix migration.c compilation on s390 HWPOISON: Remove retry loop for try_to_unmap HWPOISON: Turn addr_valid from bitfield into char HWPOISON: Disable DEBUG by default HWPOISON: Convert pr_debugs to pr_info HWPOISON: Improve comments in memory-failure.c x86: HWPOISON: Report correct address granuality for huge hwpoison faults Encode huge page size for VM_FAULT_HWPOISON errors Fix build error with !CONFIG_MIGRATION hugepage: move is_hugepage_on_freelist inside ifdef to avoid warning Clean up __page_set_anon_rmap HWPOISON, hugetlb: fix unpoison for hugepage HWPOISON, hugetlb: soft offlining for hugepage HWPOSION, hugetlb: recover from free hugepage error when !MF_COUNT_INCREASED hugetlb: move refcounting in hugepage allocation inside hugetlb_lock HWPOISON, hugetlb: add free check to dequeue_hwpoison_huge_page() hugetlb: hugepage migration core hugetlb: redefine hugepage copy functions hugetlb: add allocate function for hugepage migration ...
| * Clean up __page_set_anon_rmapAndi Kleen2010-10-081-17/+8
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Linus asked for a cleanup of __page_set_anon_rmap to make it look more like the cleaner huge pages version. Factor out the duplicated PageAnon check into a single check at the beginning of the function. Remove obsolete comments and rewrite them into standard English. No functional changes. Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
* | [S390] add support for nonquiescing sskeMartin Schwidefsky2010-10-251-2/+2
|/ | | | | | | | Improve performance of the sske operation by using the nonquiescing variant if the affected page has no mappings established. On machines with no support for the new sske variant the mask bit will be ignored. Signed-off-by: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>
* ksm: fix page_address_in_vma anon_vma oopsHugh Dickins2010-10-041-1/+7
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 2.6.36-rc1 commit 21d0d443cdc1658a8c1484fdcece4803f0f96d0e "rmap: resurrect page_address_in_vma anon_vma check" was right to resurrect that check; but now that it's comparing anon_vma->roots instead of just anon_vmas, there's a danger of oopsing on a NULL anon_vma. In most cases no NULL anon_vma ever gets here; but it turns out that occasionally KSM, when enabled on a forked or forking process, will itself call page_address_in_vma() on a "half-KSM" page left over from an earlier failed attempt to merge - whose page_anon_vma() is NULL. It's my bug that those should be getting here at all: I thought they were already dealt with, this oops proves me wrong, I'll fix it in the next release - such pages are effectively pinned until their process exits, since rmap cannot find their ptes (though swapoff can). For now just work around it by making page_address_in_vma() safe (and add a comment on why that check is wanted anyway). A similar check in __page_check_anon_rmap() is safe because do_page_add_anon_rmap() already excluded KSM pages. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* hugetlb, rmap: add BUG_ON(!PageLocked) in hugetlb_add_anon_rmap()Naoya Horiguchi2010-09-231-0/+2
| | | | | | | | | | Confirming page lock is held in hugetlb_add_anon_rmap() may be useful to detect possible future problems. Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* hugetlb, rmap: always use anon_vma root pointerNaoya Horiguchi2010-09-231-6/+7
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | This patch applies Andrea's fix given by the following patch into hugepage rmapping code: commit 288468c334e98aacbb7e2fb8bde6bc1adcd55e05 Author: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Date: Mon Aug 9 17:19:09 2010 -0700 This patch uses anon_vma->root and avoids unnecessary overwriting when anon_vma is already set up. Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Acked-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: fix hang on anon_vma->root->lockHugh Dickins2010-08-281-3/+16
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | After several hours, kbuild tests hang with anon_vma_prepare() spinning on a newly allocated anon_vma's lock - on a box with CONFIG_TREE_PREEMPT_RCU=y (which makes this very much more likely, but it could happen without). The ever-subtle page_lock_anon_vma() now needs a further twist: since anon_vma_prepare() and anon_vma_fork() are liable to change the ->root of a reused anon_vma structure at any moment, page_lock_anon_vma() needs to check page_mapped() again before succeeding, otherwise page_unlock_anon_vma() might address a different root->lock. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* Merge branch 'hwpoison' of ↵Linus Torvalds2010-08-121-0/+59
|\ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ak/linux-mce-2.6 * 'hwpoison' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/ak/linux-mce-2.6: hugetlb: add missing unlock in avoidcopy path in hugetlb_cow() hwpoison: rename CONFIG HWPOISON, hugetlb: support hwpoison injection for hugepage HWPOISON, hugetlb: detect hwpoison in hugetlb code HWPOISON, hugetlb: isolate corrupted hugepage HWPOISON, hugetlb: maintain mce_bad_pages in handling hugepage error HWPOISON, hugetlb: set/clear PG_hwpoison bits on hugepage HWPOISON, hugetlb: enable error handling path for hugepage hugetlb, rmap: add reverse mapping for hugepage hugetlb: move definition of is_vm_hugetlb_page() to hugepage_inline.h Fix up trivial conflicts in mm/memory-failure.c
| * hwpoison: rename CONFIGNaoya Horiguchi2010-08-111-2/+2
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | CONFIG_HUGETLBFS controls hugetlbfs interface code. OTOH, CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE controls hugepage management code. So we should use CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE here. Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
| * hugetlb, rmap: add reverse mapping for hugepageNaoya Horiguchi2010-08-111-0/+59
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | This patch adds reverse mapping feature for hugepage by introducing mapcount for shared/private-mapped hugepage and anon_vma for private-mapped hugepage. While hugepage is not currently swappable, reverse mapping can be useful for memory error handler. Without this patch, memory error handler cannot identify processes using the bad hugepage nor unmap it from them. That is: - for shared hugepage: we can collect processes using a hugepage through pagecache, but can not unmap the hugepage because of the lack of mapcount. - for privately mapped hugepage: we can neither collect processes nor unmap the hugepage. This patch solves these problems. This patch include the bug fix given by commit 23be7468e8, so reverts it. Dependency: "hugetlb: move definition of is_vm_hugetlb_page() to hugepage_inline.h" ChangeLog since May 24. - create hugetlb_inline.h and move is_vm_hugetlb_index() in it. - move functions setting up anon_vma for hugepage into mm/rmap.c. ChangeLog since May 13. - rebased to 2.6.34 - fix logic error (in case that private mapping and shared mapping coexist) - move is_vm_hugetlb_page() into include/linux/mm.h to use this function from linear_page_index() - define and use linear_hugepage_index() instead of compound_order() - use page_move_anon_rmap() in hugetlb_cow() - copy exclusive switch of __set_page_anon_rmap() into hugepage counterpart. - revert commit 24be7468 completely Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Acked-by: Fengguang Wu <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com>
* | rmap: add exclusive page to private anon_vma on swapinRik van Riel2010-08-091-1/+12
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | On swapin it is fairly common for a page to be owned exclusively by one process. In that case we want to add the page to the anon_vma of that process's VMA, instead of to the root anon_vma. This will reduce the amount of rmap searching that the swapout code needs to do. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | rmap: add anon_vma bug checksAndrea Arcangeli2010-08-091-0/+3
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Verify the refcounting doesn't go wrong, and resurrect the check in __page_check_anon_rmap as in old anon-vma code. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | rmap: resurrect page_address_in_vma anon_vma checkAndrea Arcangeli2010-08-091-3/+4
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | With root anon-vma it's trivial to keep doing the usual check as in old-anon-vma code. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | rmap: always use anon_vma root pointerAndrea Arcangeli2010-08-091-6/+12
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Always use anon_vma->root pointer instead of anon_vma_chain.prev. Also optimize the map-paths, if a mapping is already established no need to overwrite it with root anon-vma list, we can keep the more finegrined anon-vma and skip the overwrite: see the PageAnon check in !exclusive case. This is also the optimization that hidden the ksm bug as this tends to make ksm_might_need_to_copy skip the copy, but only the proper fix to ksm_might_need_to_copy guarantees not triggering the ksm bug unless ksm is in use. this is an optimization only... [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: fix false positive BUG_ON in __page_set_anon_rmap] Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | rmap: always add new vmas at the endAndrea Arcangeli2010-08-091-1/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Make sure to always add new VMAs at the end of the list. This is important so rmap_walk does not miss a VMA that was created during the rmap_walk. The old code got this right most of the time due to luck, but was buggy when anon_vma_prepare reused a mergeable anon_vma. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | mm: extend KSM refcounts to the anon_vma rootRik van Riel2010-08-091-1/+45
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | KSM reference counts can cause an anon_vma to exist after the processe it belongs to have already exited. Because the anon_vma lock now lives in the root anon_vma, we need to ensure that the root anon_vma stays around until after all the "child" anon_vmas have been freed. The obvious way to do this is to have a "child" anon_vma take a reference to the root in anon_vma_fork. When the anon_vma is freed at munmap or process exit, we drop the refcount in anon_vma_unlink and possibly free the root anon_vma. The KSM anon_vma reference count function also needs to be modified to deal with the possibility of freeing 2 levels of anon_vma. The easiest way to do this is to break out the KSM magic and make it generic. When compiling without CONFIG_KSM, this code is compiled out. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Tested-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Tested-by: Dave Young <hidave.darkstar@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | mm: track the root (oldest) anon_vmaRik van Riel2010-08-091-2/+16
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Track the root (oldest) anon_vma in each anon_vma tree. Because we only take the lock on the root anon_vma, we cannot use the lock on higher-up anon_vmas to lock anything. This makes it impossible to do an indirect lookup of the root anon_vma, since the data structures could go away from under us. However, a direct pointer is safe because the root anon_vma is always the last one that gets freed on munmap or exit, by virtue of the same_vma list order and unlink_anon_vmas walking the list forward. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix typo] Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Tested-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* | mm: change direct call of spin_lock(anon_vma->lock) to inline functionRik van Riel2010-08-091-10/+10
|/ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Subsitute a direct call of spin_lock(anon_vma->lock) with an inline function doing exactly the same. This makes it easier to do the substitution to the root anon_vma lock in a following patch. We will deal with the handful of special locks (nested, dec_and_lock, etc) separately. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Tested-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Acked-by: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: migration: avoid race between shift_arg_pages() and rmap_walk() during ↵Mel Gorman2010-05-251-1/+29
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | migration by not migrating temporary stacks Page migration requires rmap to be able to find all ptes mapping a page at all times, otherwise the migration entry can be instantiated, but it is possible to leave one behind if the second rmap_walk fails to find the page. If this page is later faulted, migration_entry_to_page() will call BUG because the page is locked indicating the page was migrated by the migration PTE not cleaned up. For example kernel BUG at include/linux/swapops.h:105! invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] PREEMPT SMP ... Call Trace: [<ffffffff810e951a>] handle_mm_fault+0x3f8/0x76a [<ffffffff8130c7a2>] do_page_fault+0x44a/0x46e [<ffffffff813099b5>] page_fault+0x25/0x30 [<ffffffff8114de33>] load_elf_binary+0x152a/0x192b [<ffffffff8111329b>] search_binary_handler+0x173/0x313 [<ffffffff81114896>] do_execve+0x219/0x30a [<ffffffff8100a5c6>] sys_execve+0x43/0x5e [<ffffffff8100320a>] stub_execve+0x6a/0xc0 RIP [<ffffffff811094ff>] migration_entry_wait+0xc1/0x129 There is a race between shift_arg_pages and migration that triggers this bug. A temporary stack is setup during exec and later moved. If migration moves a page in the temporary stack and the VMA is then removed before migration completes, the migration PTE may not be found leading to a BUG when the stack is faulted. This patch causes pages within the temporary stack during exec to be skipped by migration. It does this by marking the VMA covering the temporary stack with an otherwise impossible combination of VMA flags. These flags are cleared when the temporary stack is moved to its final location. [kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com: idea for having migration skip temporary stacks] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: migration: share the anon_vma ref counts between KSM and page migrationMel Gorman2010-05-251-4/+2
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | For clarity of review, KSM and page migration have separate refcounts on the anon_vma. While clear, this is a waste of memory. This patch gets KSM and page migration to share their toys in a spirit of harmony. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: migration: take a reference to the anon_vma before migratingMel Gorman2010-05-251-5/+5
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | This patchset is a memory compaction mechanism that reduces external fragmentation memory by moving GFP_MOVABLE pages to a fewer number of pageblocks. The term "compaction" was chosen as there are is a number of mechanisms that are not mutually exclusive that can be used to defragment memory. For example, lumpy reclaim is a form of defragmentation as was slub "defragmentation" (really a form of targeted reclaim). Hence, this is called "compaction" to distinguish it from other forms of defragmentation. In this implementation, a full compaction run involves two scanners operating within a zone - a migration and a free scanner. The migration scanner starts at the beginning of a zone and finds all movable pages within one pageblock_nr_pages-sized area and isolates them on a migratepages list. The free scanner begins at the end of the zone and searches on a per-area basis for enough free pages to migrate all the pages on the migratepages list. As each area is respectively migrated or exhausted of free pages, the scanners are advanced one area. A compaction run completes within a zone when the two scanners meet. This method is a bit primitive but is easy to understand and greater sophistication would require maintenance of counters on a per-pageblock basis. This would have a big impact on allocator fast-paths to improve compaction which is a poor trade-off. It also does not try relocate virtually contiguous pages to be physically contiguous. However, assuming transparent hugepages were in use, a hypothetical khugepaged might reuse compaction code to isolate free pages, split them and relocate userspace pages for promotion. Memory compaction can be triggered in one of three ways. It may be triggered explicitly by writing any value to /proc/sys/vm/compact_memory and compacting all of memory. It can be triggered on a per-node basis by writing any value to /sys/devices/system/node/nodeN/compact where N is the node ID to be compacted. When a process fails to allocate a high-order page, it may compact memory in an attempt to satisfy the allocation instead of entering direct reclaim. Explicit compaction does not finish until the two scanners meet and direct compaction ends if a suitable page becomes available that would meet watermarks. The series is in 14 patches. The first three are not "core" to the series but are important pre-requisites. Patch 1 reference counts anon_vma for rmap_walk_anon(). Without this patch, it's possible to use anon_vma after free if the caller is not holding a VMA or mmap_sem for the pages in question. While there should be no existing user that causes this problem, it's a requirement for memory compaction to be stable. The patch is at the start of the series for bisection reasons. Patch 2 merges the KSM and migrate counts. It could be merged with patch 1 but would be slightly harder to review. Patch 3 skips over unmapped anon pages during migration as there are no guarantees about the anon_vma existing. There is a window between when a page was isolated and migration started during which anon_vma could disappear. Patch 4 notes that PageSwapCache pages can still be migrated even if they are unmapped. Patch 5 allows CONFIG_MIGRATION to be set without CONFIG_NUMA Patch 6 exports a "unusable free space index" via debugfs. It's a measure of external fragmentation that takes the size of the allocation request into account. It can also be calculated from userspace so can be dropped if requested Patch 7 exports a "fragmentation index" which only has meaning when an allocation request fails. It determines if an allocation failure would be due to a lack of memory or external fragmentation. Patch 8 moves the definition for LRU isolation modes for use by compaction Patch 9 is the compaction mechanism although it's unreachable at this point Patch 10 adds a means of compacting all of memory with a proc trgger Patch 11 adds a means of compacting a specific node with a sysfs trigger Patch 12 adds "direct compaction" before "direct reclaim" if it is determined there is a good chance of success. Patch 13 adds a sysctl that allows tuning of the threshold at which the kernel will compact or direct reclaim Patch 14 temporarily disables compaction if an allocation failure occurs after compaction. Testing of compaction was in three stages. For the test, debugging, preempt, the sleep watchdog and lockdep were all enabled but nothing nasty popped out. min_free_kbytes was tuned as recommended by hugeadm to help fragmentation avoidance and high-order allocations. It was tested on X86, X86-64 and PPC64. Ths first test represents one of the easiest cases that can be faced for lumpy reclaim or memory compaction. 1. Machine freshly booted and configured for hugepage usage with a) hugeadm --create-global-mounts b) hugeadm --pool-pages-max DEFAULT:8G c) hugeadm --set-recommended-min_free_kbytes d) hugeadm --set-recommended-shmmax The min_free_kbytes here is important. Anti-fragmentation works best when pageblocks don't mix. hugeadm knows how to calculate a value that will significantly reduce the worst of external-fragmentation-related events as reported by the mm_page_alloc_extfrag tracepoint. 2. Load up memory a) Start updatedb b) Create in parallel a X files of pagesize*128 in size. Wait until files are created. By parallel, I mean that 4096 instances of dd were launched, one after the other using &. The crude objective being to mix filesystem metadata allocations with the buffer cache. c) Delete every second file so that pageblocks are likely to have holes d) kill updatedb if it's still running At this point, the system is quiet, memory is full but it's full with clean filesystem metadata and clean buffer cache that is unmapped. This is readily migrated or discarded so you'd expect lumpy reclaim to have no significant advantage over compaction but this is at the POC stage. 3. In increments, attempt to allocate 5% of memory as hugepages. Measure how long it took, how successful it was, how many direct reclaims took place and how how many compactions. Note the compaction figures might not fully add up as compactions can take place for orders other than the hugepage size X86 vanilla compaction Final page count 913 916 (attempted 1002) pages reclaimed 68296 9791 X86-64 vanilla compaction Final page count: 901 902 (attempted 1002) Total pages reclaimed: 112599 53234 PPC64 vanilla compaction Final page count: 93 94 (attempted 110) Total pages reclaimed: 103216 61838 There was not a dramatic improvement in success rates but it wouldn't be expected in this case either. What was important is that fewer pages were reclaimed in all cases reducing the amount of IO required to satisfy a huge page allocation. The second tests were all performance related - kernbench, netperf, iozone and sysbench. None showed anything too remarkable. The last test was a high-order allocation stress test. Many kernel compiles are started to fill memory with a pressured mix of unmovable and movable allocations. During this, an attempt is made to allocate 90% of memory as huge pages - one at a time with small delays between attempts to avoid flooding the IO queue. vanilla compaction Percentage of request allocated X86 98 99 Percentage of request allocated X86-64 95 98 Percentage of request allocated PPC64 55 70 This patch: rmap_walk_anon() does not use page_lock_anon_vma() for looking up and locking an anon_vma and it does not appear to have sufficient locking to ensure the anon_vma does not disappear from under it. This patch copies an approach used by KSM to take a reference on the anon_vma while pages are being migrated. This should prevent rmap_walk() running into nasty surprises later because anon_vma has been freed. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: remove anon_vma check in page_address_in_vma()Naoya Horiguchi2010-05-111-5/+4
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Currently page_address_in_vma() compares vma->anon_vma and page_anon_vma(page) for parameter check, but in 2.6.34 a vma can have multiple anon_vmas with anon_vma_chain, so current check does not work. (For anonymous page shared by multiple processes, some verified (page,vma) pairs return -EFAULT wrongly.) We can go to checking all anon_vmas in the "same_vma" chain, but it needs to meet lock requirement. Instead, we can remove anon_vma check safely because page_address_in_vma() assumes that page and vma are already checked to belong to the identical process. Signed-off-by: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: anon_vma_prepare() can leak anon_vma_chainOleg Nesterov2010-04-241-4/+5
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | If find_mergeable_anon_vma() succeeds but another thread installs ->anon_vma before we take ptl, then allocated == NULL but avc should be freed. Change the code to check avc != NULL to detect this case. Also, a couple of whitespace changes to make the critical section more visible. Signed-off-by: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Pete Zaitcev <zaitcev@redhat.com> Cc: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: add exclusively owned pages to the newest anon_vmaRik van Riel2010-04-191-11/+16
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | The recent anon_vma fixes cause many anonymous pages to end up in the parent process anon_vma, even when the page is exclusively owned by the current process. Adding exclusively owned anonymous pages to the top anon_vma reduces rmap scanning overhead, especially in workloads with forking servers. This patch adds a parameter to __page_set_anon_rmap that can be used to indicate whether or not the added page is exclusively owned by the current process. Pages added through page_add_new_anon_rmap are exclusively owned by the current process, and can be added to the top anon_vma. Pages added through page_add_anon_rmap can be either shared or exclusively owned, so we do the conservative thing and add it to the oldest anon_vma. A next step would be to add the exclusive parameter to page_add_anon_rmap, to be used from functions where we do know for sure whether a page is exclusively owned. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Reviewed-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Lightly-tested-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> [ Edited to look nicer - Linus ] Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* anonvma: when setting up page->mapping, we need to pick the _oldest_ anonvmaLinus Torvalds2010-04-121-2/+13
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Otherwise we might be mapping in a page in a new mapping, but that page (through the swapcache) would later be mapped into an old mapping too. The page->mapping must be the case that works for everybody, not just the mapping that happened to page it in first. Here's the scenario: - page gets allocated/mapped by process A. Let's call the anon_vma we associate the page with 'A' to keep it easy to track. - Process A forks, creating process B. The anon_vma in B is 'B', and has a chain that looks like 'B' -> 'A'. Everything is fine. - Swapping happens. The page (with mapping pointing to 'A') gets swapped out (perhaps not to disk - it's enough to assume that it's just not mapped any more, and lives entirely in the swap-cache) - Process B pages it in, which goes like this: do_swap_page -> page = lookup_swap_cache(entry); ... set_pte_at(mm, address, page_table, pte); page_add_anon_rmap(page, vma, address); And think about what happens here! In particular, what happens is that this will now be the "first" mapping of that page, so page_add_anon_rmap() used to do if (first) __page_set_anon_rmap(page, vma, address); and notice what anon_vma it will use? It will use the anon_vma for process B! What happens then? Trivial: process 'A' also pages it in (nothing happens, it's not the first mapping), and then process 'B' execve's or exits or unmaps, making anon_vma B go away. End result: process A has a page that points to anon_vma B, but anon_vma B does not exist any more. This can go on forever. Forget about RCU grace periods, forget about locking, forget anything like that. The bug is simply that page->mapping points to an anon_vma that was correct at one point, but was _not_ the one that was shared by all users of that possible mapping. Changing it to always use the deepest anon_vma in the anonvma chain gets us to the safest model. This can be improved in certain cases: if we know the page is private to just this particular mapping (for example, it's a new page, or it is the only swapcache entry), we could pick the top (most specific) anon_vma. But that's a future optimization. Make it _work_ reliably first. Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Tested-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> [ "What do you know, I think you fixed it!" ] Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* anon_vma: clone the anon_vma chain in the right orderLinus Torvalds2010-04-121-1/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | We want to walk the chain in reverse order when cloning it, so that the order of the result chain will be the same as the order in the source chain. When we add entries to the chain, they go at the head of the chain, so we want to add the source head last. Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Tested-by: Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> [ "No, it still oopses" ] Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: fix anon_vma_fork() memory leakRik van Riel2010-04-051-0/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | | Fix a memory leak in anon_vma_fork(), where we fail to tear down the anon_vmas attached to the new VMA in case setting up the new anon_vma fails. This bug also has the potential to leave behind anon_vma_chain structs with pointers to invalid memory. Reported-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* vmscan: detect mapped file pages used only onceJohannes Weiner2010-03-061-3/+0
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | The VM currently assumes that an inactive, mapped and referenced file page is in use and promotes it to the active list. However, every mapped file page starts out like this and thus a problem arises when workloads create a stream of such pages that are used only for a short time. By flooding the active list with those pages, the VM quickly gets into trouble finding eligible reclaim canditates. The result is long allocation latencies and eviction of the wrong pages. This patch reuses the PG_referenced page flag (used for unmapped file pages) to implement a usage detection that scales with the speed of LRU list cycling (i.e. memory pressure). If the scanner encounters those pages, the flag is set and the page cycled again on the inactive list. Only if it returns with another page table reference it is activated. Otherwise it is reclaimed as 'not recently used cache'. This effectively changes the minimum lifetime of a used-once mapped file page from a full memory cycle to an inactive list cycle, which allows it to occur in linear streams without affecting the stable working set of the system. Signed-off-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: OSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: remove VM_LOCK_RMAP codeRik van Riel2010-03-061-12/+0
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | When a VMA is in an inconsistent state during setup or teardown, the worst that can happen is that the rmap code will not be able to find the page. The mapping is in the process of being torn down (PTEs just got invalidated by munmap), or set up (no PTEs have been instantiated yet). It is also impossible for the rmap code to follow a pointer to an already freed VMA, because the rmap code holds the anon_vma->lock, which the VMA teardown code needs to take before the VMA is removed from the anon_vma chain. Hence, we should not need the VM_LOCK_RMAP locking at all. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: move exclusively owned pages to own anon_vma in do_wp_page()Rik van Riel2010-03-061-0/+24
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | When the parent process breaks the COW on a page, both the original which is mapped at child and the new page which is mapped parent end up in that same anon_vma. Generally this won't be a problem, but for some workloads it could preserve the O(N) rmap scanning complexity. A simple fix is to ensure that, when a page which is mapped child gets reused in do_wp_page, because we already are the exclusive owner, the page gets moved to our own exclusive child's anon_vma. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: remove obsolete check from __page_check_anon_rmap()Rik van Riel2010-03-061-3/+0
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | When an anonymous page is inherited from a parent process, the vma->anon_vma can differ from the page anon_vma. This can trip up __page_check_anon_rmap, which is indirectly called from do_swap_page(). Remove that obsolete check to prevent an oops. Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: change anon_vma linking to fix multi-process server scalability issueRik van Riel2010-03-061-26/+130
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | The old anon_vma code can lead to scalability issues with heavily forking workloads. Specifically, each anon_vma will be shared between the parent process and all its child processes. In a workload with 1000 child processes and a VMA with 1000 anonymous pages per process that get COWed, this leads to a system with a million anonymous pages in the same anon_vma, each of which is mapped in just one of the 1000 processes. However, the current rmap code needs to walk them all, leading to O(N) scanning complexity for each page. This can result in systems where one CPU is walking the page tables of 1000 processes in page_referenced_one, while all other CPUs are stuck on the anon_vma lock. This leads to catastrophic failure for a benchmark like AIM7, where the total number of processes can reach in the tens of thousands. Real workloads are still a factor 10 less process intensive than AIM7, but they are catching up. This patch changes the way anon_vmas and VMAs are linked, which allows us to associate multiple anon_vmas with a VMA. At fork time, each child process gets its own anon_vmas, in which its COWed pages will be instantiated. The parents' anon_vma is also linked to the VMA, because non-COWed pages could be present in any of the children. This reduces rmap scanning complexity to O(1) for the pages of the 1000 child processes, with O(N) complexity for at most 1/N pages in the system. This reduces the average scanning cost in heavily forking workloads from O(N) to 2. The only real complexity in this patch stems from the fact that linking a VMA to anon_vmas now involves memory allocations. This means vma_adjust can fail, if it needs to attach a VMA to anon_vma structures. This in turn means error handling needs to be added to the calling functions. A second source of complexity is that, because there can be multiple anon_vmas, the anon_vma linking in vma_adjust can no longer be done under "the" anon_vma lock. To prevent the rmap code from walking up an incomplete VMA, this patch introduces the VM_LOCK_RMAP VMA flag. This bit flag uses the same slot as the NOMMU VM_MAPPED_COPY, with an ifdef in mm.h to make sure it is impossible to compile a kernel that needs both symbolic values for the same bitflag. Some test results: Without the anon_vma changes, when AIM7 hits around 9.7k users (on a test box with 16GB RAM and not quite enough IO), the system ends up running >99% in system time, with every CPU on the same anon_vma lock in the pageout code. With these changes, AIM7 hits the cross-over point around 29.7k users. This happens with ~99% IO wait time, there never seems to be any spike in system time. The anon_vma lock contention appears to be resolved. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: cleanups] Signed-off-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Larry Woodman <lwoodman@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: count swap usageKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki2010-03-061-0/+1
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | A frequent questions from users about memory management is what numbers of swap ents are user for processes. And this information will give some hints to oom-killer. Besides we can count the number of swapents per a process by scanning /proc/<pid>/smaps, this is very slow and not good for usual process information handler which works like 'ps' or 'top'. (ps or top is now enough slow..) This patch adds a counter of swapents to mm_counter and update is at each swap events. Information is exported via /proc/<pid>/status file as [kamezawa@bluextal memory]$ cat /proc/self/status Name: cat State: R (running) Tgid: 2910 Pid: 2910 PPid: 2823 TracerPid: 0 Uid: 500 500 500 500 Gid: 500 500 500 500 FDSize: 256 Groups: 500 VmPeak: 82696 kB VmSize: 82696 kB VmLck: 0 kB VmHWM: 432 kB VmRSS: 432 kB VmData: 172 kB VmStk: 84 kB VmExe: 48 kB VmLib: 1568 kB VmPTE: 40 kB VmSwap: 0 kB <=============== this. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: coding-style fixes] Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: clean up mm_counterKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki2010-03-061-5/+5
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Presently, per-mm statistics counter is defined by macro in sched.h This patch modifies it to - defined in mm.h as inlinf functions - use array instead of macro's name creation. This patch is for reducing patch size in future patch to modify implementation of per-mm counter. Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <lee.schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* memcg: make memcg's file mapped consistent with global VMKAMEZAWA Hiroyuki2009-12-161-2/+2
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | In global VM, FILE_MAPPED is used but memcg uses MAPPED_FILE. This makes grep difficult. Replace memcg's MAPPED_FILE with FILE_MAPPED And in global VM, mapped shared memory is accounted into FILE_MAPPED. But memcg doesn't. fix it. Note: page_is_file_cache() just checks SwapBacked or not. So, we need to check PageAnon. Cc: Balbir Singh <balbir@in.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Daisuke Nishimura <nishimura@mxp.nes.nec.co.jp> Signed-off-by: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: simplify try_to_unmap_one()KOSAKI Motohiro2009-12-151-13/+22
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | SWAP_MLOCK mean "We marked the page as PG_MLOCK, please move it to unevictable-lru". So, following code is easy confusable. if (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED) { ret = SWAP_MLOCK; goto out_unmap; } Plus, if the VMA doesn't have VM_LOCKED, We don't need to check the needed of calling mlock_vma_page(). Also, add some commentary to try_to_unmap_one(). Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* ksm: rmap_walk to remove_migation_ptesHugh Dickins2009-12-151-0/+79
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | A side-effect of making ksm pages swappable is that they have to be placed on the LRUs: which then exposes them to isolate_lru_page() and hence to page migration. Add rmap_walk() for remove_migration_ptes() to use: rmap_walk_anon() and rmap_walk_file() in rmap.c, but rmap_walk_ksm() in ksm.c. Perhaps some consolidation with existing code is possible, but don't attempt that yet (try_to_unmap needs to handle nonlinears, but migration pte removal does not). rmap_walk() is sadly less general than it appears: rmap_walk_anon(), like remove_anon_migration_ptes() which it replaces, avoids calling page_lock_anon_vma(), because that includes a page_mapped() test which fails when all migration ptes are in place. That was valid when NUMA page migration was introduced (holding mmap_sem provided the missing guarantee that anon_vma's slab had not already been destroyed), but I believe not valid in the memory hotremove case added since. For now do the same as before, and consider the best way to fix that unlikely race later on. When fixed, we can probably use rmap_walk() on hwpoisoned ksm pages too: for now, they remain among hwpoison's various exceptions (its PageKsm test comes before the page is locked, but its page_lock_anon_vma fails safely if an anon gets upgraded). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* ksm: share anon page without allocatingHugh Dickins2009-12-151-2/+4
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | When ksm pages were unswappable, it made no sense to include them in mem cgroup accounting; but now that they are swappable (although I see no strict logical connection) the principle of least surprise implies that they should be accounted (with the usual dissatisfaction, that a shared page is accounted to only one of the cgroups using it). This patch was intended to add mem cgroup accounting where necessary; but turned inside out, it now avoids allocating a ksm page, instead upgrading an anon page to ksm - which brings its existing mem cgroup accounting with it. Thus mem cgroups don't appear in the patch at all. This upgrade from PageAnon to PageKsm takes place under page lock (via a somewhat hacky NULL kpage interface), and audit showed only one place which needed to cope with the race - page_referenced() is sometimes used without page lock, so page_lock_anon_vma() needs an ACCESS_ONCE() to be sure of getting anon_vma and flags together (no problem if the page goes ksm an instant after, the integrity of that anon_vma list is unaffected). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* ksm: hold anon_vma in rmap_itemHugh Dickins2009-12-151-2/+3
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | For full functionality, page_referenced_one() and try_to_unmap_one() need to know the vma: to pass vma down to arch-dependent flushes, or to observe VM_LOCKED or VM_EXEC. But KSM keeps no record of vma: nor can it, since vmas get split and merged without its knowledge. Instead, note page's anon_vma in its rmap_item when adding to stable tree: all the vmas which might map that page are listed by its anon_vma. page_referenced_ksm() and try_to_unmap_ksm() then traverse the anon_vma, first to find the probable vma, that which matches rmap_item's mm; but if that is not enough to locate all instances, traverse again to try the others. This catches those occasions when fork has duplicated a pte of a ksm page, but ksmd has not yet come around to assign it an rmap_item. But each rmap_item in the stable tree which refers to an anon_vma needs to take a reference to it. Andrea's anon_vma design cleverly avoided a reference count (an anon_vma was free when its list of vmas was empty), but KSM now needs to add that. Is a 32-bit count sufficient? I believe so - the anon_vma is only free when both count is 0 and list is empty. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* ksm: let shared pages be swappableHugh Dickins2009-12-151-27/+38
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Initial implementation for swapping out KSM's shared pages: add page_referenced_ksm() and try_to_unmap_ksm(), which rmap.c calls when faced with a PageKsm page. Most of what's needed can be got from the rmap_items listed from the stable_node of the ksm page, without discovering the actual vma: so in this patch just fake up a struct vma for page_referenced_one() or try_to_unmap_one(), then refine that in the next patch. Add VM_NONLINEAR to ksm_madvise()'s list of exclusions: it has always been implicit there (being only set with VM_SHARED, already excluded), but let's make it explicit, to help justify the lack of nonlinear unmap. Rely on the page lock to protect against concurrent modifications to that page's node of the stable tree. The awkward part is not swapout but swapin: do_swap_page() and page_add_anon_rmap() now have to allow for new possibilities - perhaps a ksm page still in swapcache, perhaps a swapcache page associated with one location in one anon_vma now needed for another location or anon_vma. (And the vma might even be no longer VM_MERGEABLE when that happens.) ksm_might_need_to_copy() checks for that case, and supplies a duplicate page when necessary, simply leaving it to a subsequent pass of ksmd to rediscover the identity and merge them back into one ksm page. Disappointingly primitive: but the alternative would have to accumulate unswappable info about the swapped out ksm pages, limiting swappability. Remove page_add_ksm_rmap(): page_add_anon_rmap() now has to allow for the particular case it was handling, so just use it instead. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Wright <chrisw@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: pass address down to rmap onesHugh Dickins2009-12-151-26/+27
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | KSM swapping will know where page_referenced_one() and try_to_unmap_one() should look. It could hack page->index to get them to do what it wants, but it seems cleaner now to pass the address down to them. Make the same change to page_mkclean_one(), since it follows the same pattern; but there's no real need in its case. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: CONFIG_MMU for PG_mlockedHugh Dickins2009-12-151-11/+4
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Remove three degrees of obfuscation, left over from when we had CONFIG_UNEVICTABLE_LRU. MLOCK_PAGES is CONFIG_HAVE_MLOCKED_PAGE_BIT is CONFIG_HAVE_MLOCK is CONFIG_MMU. rmap.o (and memory-failure.o) are only built when CONFIG_MMU, so don't need such conditions at all. Somehow, I feel no compulsion to remove the CONFIG_HAVE_MLOCK* lines from 169 defconfigs: leave those to evolve in due course. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: mlocking in try_to_unmap_oneHugh Dickins2009-12-151-79/+31
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | There's contorted mlock/munlock handling in try_to_unmap_anon() and try_to_unmap_file(), which we'd prefer not to repeat for KSM swapping. Simplify it by moving it all down into try_to_unmap_one(). One thing is then lost, try_to_munlock()'s distinction between when no vma holds the page mlocked, and when a vma does mlock it, but we could not get mmap_sem to set the page flag. But its only caller takes no interest in that distinction (and is better testing SWAP_MLOCK anyway), so let's keep the code simple and return SWAP_AGAIN for both cases. try_to_unmap_file()'s TTU_MUNLOCK nonlinear handling was particularly amusing: once unravelled, it turns out to have been choosing between two different ways of doing the same nothing. Ah, no, one way was actually returning SWAP_FAIL when it meant to return SWAP_SUCCESS. [kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com: comment adding to mlocking in try_to_unmap_one] [akpm@linux-foundation.org: remove test of MLOCK_PAGES] Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* mm: define PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGSHugh Dickins2009-12-151-4/+3
| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | At present we define PageAnon(page) by the low PAGE_MAPPING_ANON bit set in page->mapping, with the higher bits a pointer to the anon_vma; and have defined PageKsm(page) as that with NULL anon_vma. But KSM swapping will need to store a pointer there: so in preparation for that, now define PAGE_MAPPING_FLAGS as the low two bits, including PAGE_MAPPING_KSM (always set along with PAGE_MAPPING_ANON, until some other use for the bit emerges). Declare page_rmapping(page) to return the pointer part of page->mapping, and page_anon_vma(page) to return the anon_vma pointer when that's what it is. Use these in a few appropriate places: notably, unuse_vma() has been testing page->mapping, but is better to be testing page_anon_vma() (cases may be added in which flag bits are set without any pointer). Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Cc: Izik Eidus <ieidus@redhat.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@suse.de> Cc: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <andi@firstfloor.org> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: move label `out' to a better placeHuang Shijie2009-12-151-1/+2
| | | | | | | | | | When the code jumps to the `out', `referenced' is still zero. So there is no need to check it. Signed-off-by: Huang Shijie <shijie8@gmail.com> Acked-by: Wu Fengguang <fengguang.wu@intel.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: simplify try_to_unmap_file()Huang Shijie2009-12-151-4/+1
| | | | | | | | | Just simplify the code when `mlocked' is true. Signed-off-by: Huang Shijie <shijie8@gmail.com> Reviewed-by: KOSAKI Motohiro <kosaki.motohiro@jp.fujitsu.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
* rmap: fix the comment for try_to_unmap_anonHuang Shijie2009-12-151-2/+1
| | | | | | | | | Fix the comment for try_to_unmap_anon() with the new arguments. Signed-off-by: Huang Shijie <shijie8@gmail.com> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hugh.dickins@tiscali.co.uk> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>