path: root/Documentation
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
19 files changed, 577 insertions, 691 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/00-INDEX b/Documentation/00-INDEX
index 8de8a01a247..f28a24e0279 100644
--- a/Documentation/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/00-INDEX
@@ -138,6 +138,8 @@ java.txt
- info on the in-kernel binary support for Java(tm).
- directory with info about the kernel build process.
+ - mini HowTo on getting the crash dump code to work.
- mini HowTo on generation and location of kernel documentation files.
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 4d35562b1cf..bcdeee146ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -299,7 +299,7 @@ can certify the below:
then you just add a line saying
- Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.org>
+ Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
Some people also put extra tags at the end. They'll just be ignored for
now, but you can do this to mark internal company procedures or just
diff --git a/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd b/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd
index d1825dffca3..b3ba63f4ce3 100644
--- a/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd
+++ b/Documentation/cdrom/sbpcd
@@ -419,6 +419,7 @@ into the file "track01":
#include <stdio.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
#include <linux/cdrom.h>
static struct cdrom_tochdr hdr;
@@ -429,7 +430,7 @@ static int datafile, drive;
static int i, j, limit, track, err;
static char filename[32];
-main(int argc, char *argv[])
+int main(int argc, char *argv[])
* open /dev/cdrom
@@ -516,6 +517,7 @@ entry[track+1].cdte_addr.lba=entry[track].cdte_addr.lba+300;
+ return 0;
/*===================== end program ========================================*/
@@ -564,15 +566,16 @@ Appendix -- the "cdtester" utility:
#include <stdio.h>
#include <malloc.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/types.h>
#include <linux/cdrom.h>
#include <linux/../../drivers/cdrom/aztcd.h>
+#endif /* AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS */
#include <linux/../../drivers/cdrom/sbpcd.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
+#endif /* SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS */
struct cdrom_tochdr hdr;
struct cdrom_tochdr tocHdr;
@@ -590,7 +593,7 @@ union
struct cdrom_msf msf;
unsigned char buf[CD_FRAMESIZE_RAW];
} azt;
+#endif /* AZT_PRIVATE_IOCTLS */
int i, i1, i2, i3, j, k;
unsigned char sequence=0;
unsigned char command[80];
@@ -738,7 +741,7 @@ void display(int size,unsigned char *buffer)
-main(int argc, char *argv[])
+int main(int argc, char *argv[])
printf("\nTesting tool for a CDROM driver's audio functions V0.1\n");
printf("(C) 1995 Eberhard Moenkeberg <emoenke@gwdg.de>\n");
@@ -1046,12 +1049,13 @@ main(int argc, char *argv[])
printf("%d frames granted.\n",rc);
+#endif /* SBP_PRIVATE_IOCTLS */
printf("unknown command: \"%s\".\n",command);
+ return 0;
diff --git a/Documentation/cpu-freq/governors.txt b/Documentation/cpu-freq/governors.txt
index b85481acd0c..933fae74c33 100644
--- a/Documentation/cpu-freq/governors.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cpu-freq/governors.txt
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
Dominik Brodowski <linux@brodo.de>
+ some additions and corrections by Nico Golde <nico@ngolde.de>
@@ -25,6 +26,7 @@ Contents:
2.1 Performance
2.2 Powersave
2.3 Userspace
+2.4 Ondemand
3. The Governor Interface in the CPUfreq Core
@@ -86,7 +88,7 @@ highest frequency within the borders of scaling_min_freq and
-2.1 Powersave
+2.2 Powersave
The CPUfreq governor "powersave" sets the CPU statically to the
@@ -94,7 +96,7 @@ lowest frequency within the borders of scaling_min_freq and
-2.2 Userspace
+2.3 Userspace
The CPUfreq governor "userspace" allows the user, or any userspace
@@ -103,6 +105,14 @@ by making a sysfs file "scaling_setspeed" available in the CPU-device
+2.4 Ondemand
+The CPUfreq govenor "ondemand" sets the CPU depending on the
+current usage. To do this the CPU must have the capability to
+switch the frequency very fast.
3. The Governor Interface in the CPUfreq Core
diff --git a/Documentation/cpusets.txt b/Documentation/cpusets.txt
index 2f8f24eaefd..ad944c06031 100644
--- a/Documentation/cpusets.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cpusets.txt
@@ -51,6 +51,14 @@ mems_allowed vector.
If a cpuset is cpu or mem exclusive, no other cpuset, other than a direct
ancestor or descendent, may share any of the same CPUs or Memory Nodes.
+A cpuset that is cpu exclusive has a sched domain associated with it.
+The sched domain consists of all cpus in the current cpuset that are not
+part of any exclusive child cpusets.
+This ensures that the scheduler load balacing code only balances
+against the cpus that are in the sched domain as defined above and not
+all of the cpus in the system. This removes any overhead due to
+load balancing code trying to pull tasks outside of the cpu exclusive
+cpuset only to be prevented by the tasks' cpus_allowed mask.
User level code may create and destroy cpusets by name in the cpuset
virtual file system, manage the attributes and permissions of these
@@ -84,6 +92,9 @@ This can be especially valuable on:
and a database), or
* NUMA systems running large HPC applications with demanding
performance characteristics.
+ * Also cpu_exclusive cpusets are useful for servers running orthogonal
+ workloads such as RT applications requiring low latency and HPC
+ applications that are throughput sensitive
These subsets, or "soft partitions" must be able to be dynamically
adjusted, as the job mix changes, without impacting other concurrently
@@ -125,6 +136,8 @@ Cpusets extends these two mechanisms as follows:
- A cpuset may be marked exclusive, which ensures that no other
cpuset (except direct ancestors and descendents) may contain
any overlapping CPUs or Memory Nodes.
+ Also a cpu_exclusive cpuset would be associated with a sched
+ domain.
- You can list all the tasks (by pid) attached to any cpuset.
The implementation of cpusets requires a few, simple hooks
@@ -136,6 +149,9 @@ into the rest of the kernel, none in performance critical paths:
allowed in that tasks cpuset.
- in sched.c migrate_all_tasks(), to keep migrating tasks within
the CPUs allowed by their cpuset, if possible.
+ - in sched.c, a new API partition_sched_domains for handling
+ sched domain changes associated with cpu_exclusive cpusets
+ and related changes in both sched.c and arch/ia64/kernel/domain.c
- in the mbind and set_mempolicy system calls, to mask the requested
Memory Nodes by what's allowed in that tasks cpuset.
- in page_alloc, to restrict memory to allowed nodes.
diff --git a/Documentation/devices.txt b/Documentation/devices.txt
index bb67cf25010..0f515175c72 100644
--- a/Documentation/devices.txt
+++ b/Documentation/devices.txt
@@ -94,6 +94,7 @@ Your cooperation is appreciated.
9 = /dev/urandom Faster, less secure random number gen.
10 = /dev/aio Asyncronous I/O notification interface
11 = /dev/kmsg Writes to this come out as printk's
+ 12 = /dev/oldmem Access to crash dump from kexec kernel
1 block RAM disk
0 = /dev/ram0 First RAM disk
1 = /dev/ram1 Second RAM disk
diff --git a/Documentation/dvb/bt8xx.txt b/Documentation/dvb/bt8xx.txt
index d64430bf4bb..3a326079475 100644
--- a/Documentation/dvb/bt8xx.txt
+++ b/Documentation/dvb/bt8xx.txt
@@ -44,26 +44,23 @@ TwinHan (dst) are loaded automatically by the dvb-bt8xx device driver.
$ modprobe dst
The value 0x71 will override the PCI type detection for dvb-bt8xx,
-which is necessary for TwinHan cards.
+which is necessary for TwinHan cards.
If you're having an older card (blue color circuit) and card=0x71 locks
your machine, try using 0x68, too. If that does not work, ask on the
mailing list.
-The DST module takes a couple of useful parameters.
+The DST module takes a couple of useful parameters:
-verbose takes values 0 to 5. These values control the verbosity level.
-debug takes values 0 and 1. You can either disable or enable debugging.
-dst_addons takes values 0 and 0x20. A value of 0 means it is a FTA card.
-0x20 means it has a Conditional Access slot.
-The autodected values are determined bythe cards 'response
-string' which you can see in your logs e.g.
-dst_get_device_id: Recognise [DSTMCI]
+a. verbose takes values 0 to 5. These values control the verbosity level.
+b. debug takes values 0 and 1. You can either disable or enable debugging.
+c. dst_addons takes values 0 and 0x20:
+- A value of 0 means it is a FTA card.
+- A value of 0x20 means it has a Conditional Access slot.
+The autodetected values are determined by the "response string"
+of the card, which you can see in your logs:
+e.g.: dst_get_device_id: Recognize [DSTMCI]
-Authors: Richard Walker, Jamie Honan, Michael Hunold, Manu Abraham
+Authors: Richard Walker, Jamie Honan, Michael Hunold, Manu Abraham, Uwe Bugla
diff --git a/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt b/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt
index 77511af4536..1d227ee3792 100644
--- a/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/feature-removal-schedule.txt
@@ -43,6 +43,14 @@ Who: Randy Dunlap <rddunlap@osdl.org>
+When: December 2005
+Why: declared obsolete since kernel 2.6.3
+ O_DIRECT can be used instead
+Who: Adrian Bunk <bunk@stusta.de>
What: register_ioctl32_conversion() / unregister_ioctl32_conversion()
When: April 2005
Why: Replaced by ->compat_ioctl in file_operations and other method
diff --git a/Documentation/kdump/gdbmacros.txt b/Documentation/kdump/gdbmacros.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..bc1b9eb92ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kdump/gdbmacros.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
+# This file contains a few gdb macros (user defined commands) to extract
+# useful information from kernel crashdump (kdump) like stack traces of
+# all the processes or a particular process and trapinfo.
+# These macros can be used by copying this file in .gdbinit (put in home
+# directory or current directory) or by invoking gdb command with
+# --command=<command-file-name> option
+# Credits:
+# Alexander Nyberg <alexn@telia.com>
+# V Srivatsa <vatsa@in.ibm.com>
+# Maneesh Soni <maneesh@in.ibm.com>
+define bttnobp
+ set $tasks_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->tasks)
+ set $pid_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->pids[1].pid_list.next)
+ set $init_t=&init_task
+ set $next_t=(((char *)($init_t->tasks).next) - $tasks_off)
+ while ($next_t != $init_t)
+ set $next_t=(struct task_struct *)$next_t
+ printf "\npid %d; comm %s:\n", $next_t.pid, $next_t.comm
+ printf "===================\n"
+ set var $stackp = $next_t.thread.esp
+ set var $stack_top = ($stackp & ~4095) + 4096
+ while ($stackp < $stack_top)
+ if (*($stackp) > _stext && *($stackp) < _sinittext)
+ info symbol *($stackp)
+ end
+ set $stackp += 4
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_t->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ while ($next_th != $next_t)
+ set $next_th=(struct task_struct *)$next_th
+ printf "\npid %d; comm %s:\n", $next_t.pid, $next_t.comm
+ printf "===================\n"
+ set var $stackp = $next_t.thread.esp
+ set var $stack_top = ($stackp & ~4095) + 4096
+ while ($stackp < $stack_top)
+ if (*($stackp) > _stext && *($stackp) < _sinittext)
+ info symbol *($stackp)
+ end
+ set $stackp += 4
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_th->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ end
+ set $next_t=(char *)($next_t->tasks.next) - $tasks_off
+ end
+document bttnobp
+ dump all thread stack traces on a kernel compiled with !CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER
+define btt
+ set $tasks_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->tasks)
+ set $pid_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->pids[1].pid_list.next)
+ set $init_t=&init_task
+ set $next_t=(((char *)($init_t->tasks).next) - $tasks_off)
+ while ($next_t != $init_t)
+ set $next_t=(struct task_struct *)$next_t
+ printf "\npid %d; comm %s:\n", $next_t.pid, $next_t.comm
+ printf "===================\n"
+ set var $stackp = $next_t.thread.esp
+ set var $stack_top = ($stackp & ~4095) + 4096
+ set var $stack_bot = ($stackp & ~4095)
+ set $stackp = *($stackp)
+ while (($stackp < $stack_top) && ($stackp > $stack_bot))
+ set var $addr = *($stackp + 4)
+ info symbol $addr
+ set $stackp = *($stackp)
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_t->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ while ($next_th != $next_t)
+ set $next_th=(struct task_struct *)$next_th
+ printf "\npid %d; comm %s:\n", $next_t.pid, $next_t.comm
+ printf "===================\n"
+ set var $stackp = $next_t.thread.esp
+ set var $stack_top = ($stackp & ~4095) + 4096
+ set var $stack_bot = ($stackp & ~4095)
+ set $stackp = *($stackp)
+ while (($stackp < $stack_top) && ($stackp > $stack_bot))
+ set var $addr = *($stackp + 4)
+ info symbol $addr
+ set $stackp = *($stackp)
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_th->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ end
+ set $next_t=(char *)($next_t->tasks.next) - $tasks_off
+ end
+document btt
+ dump all thread stack traces on a kernel compiled with CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER
+define btpid
+ set var $pid = $arg0
+ set $tasks_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->tasks)
+ set $pid_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->pids[1].pid_list.next)
+ set $init_t=&init_task
+ set $next_t=(((char *)($init_t->tasks).next) - $tasks_off)
+ set var $pid_task = 0
+ while ($next_t != $init_t)
+ set $next_t=(struct task_struct *)$next_t
+ if ($next_t.pid == $pid)
+ set $pid_task = $next_t
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_t->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ while ($next_th != $next_t)
+ set $next_th=(struct task_struct *)$next_th
+ if ($next_th.pid == $pid)
+ set $pid_task = $next_th
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_th->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ end
+ set $next_t=(char *)($next_t->tasks.next) - $tasks_off
+ end
+ printf "\npid %d; comm %s:\n", $pid_task.pid, $pid_task.comm
+ printf "===================\n"
+ set var $stackp = $pid_task.thread.esp
+ set var $stack_top = ($stackp & ~4095) + 4096
+ set var $stack_bot = ($stackp & ~4095)
+ set $stackp = *($stackp)
+ while (($stackp < $stack_top) && ($stackp > $stack_bot))
+ set var $addr = *($stackp + 4)
+ info symbol $addr
+ set $stackp = *($stackp)
+ end
+document btpid
+ backtrace of pid
+define trapinfo
+ set var $pid = $arg0
+ set $tasks_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->tasks)
+ set $pid_off=((size_t)&((struct task_struct *)0)->pids[1].pid_list.next)
+ set $init_t=&init_task
+ set $next_t=(((char *)($init_t->tasks).next) - $tasks_off)
+ set var $pid_task = 0
+ while ($next_t != $init_t)
+ set $next_t=(struct task_struct *)$next_t
+ if ($next_t.pid == $pid)
+ set $pid_task = $next_t
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_t->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ while ($next_th != $next_t)
+ set $next_th=(struct task_struct *)$next_th
+ if ($next_th.pid == $pid)
+ set $pid_task = $next_th
+ end
+ set $next_th=(((char *)$next_th->pids[1].pid_list.next) - $pid_off)
+ end
+ set $next_t=(char *)($next_t->tasks.next) - $tasks_off
+ end
+ printf "Trapno %ld, cr2 0x%lx, error_code %ld\n", $pid_task.thread.trap_no, \
+ $pid_task.thread.cr2, $pid_task.thread.error_code
+document trapinfo
+ Run info threads and lookup pid of thread #1
+ 'trapinfo <pid>' will tell you by which trap & possibly
+ addresthe kernel paniced.
diff --git a/Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt b/Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..7ff213f4bec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/kdump/kdump.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,141 @@
+Documentation for kdump - the kexec-based crash dumping solution
+Kdump uses kexec to reboot to a second kernel whenever a dump needs to be taken.
+This second kernel is booted with very little memory. The first kernel reserves
+the section of memory that the second kernel uses. This ensures that on-going
+DMA from the first kernel does not corrupt the second kernel.
+All the necessary information about Core image is encoded in ELF format and
+stored in reserved area of memory before crash. Physical address of start of
+ELF header is passed to new kernel through command line parameter elfcorehdr=.
+On i386, the first 640 KB of physical memory is needed to boot, irrespective
+of where the kernel loads. Hence, this region is backed up by kexec just before
+rebooting into the new kernel.
+In the second kernel, "old memory" can be accessed in two ways.
+- The first one is through a /dev/oldmem device interface. A capture utility
+ can read the device file and write out the memory in raw format. This is raw
+ dump of memory and analysis/capture tool should be intelligent enough to
+ determine where to look for the right information. ELF headers (elfcorehdr=)
+ can become handy here.
+- The second interface is through /proc/vmcore. This exports the dump as an ELF
+ format file which can be written out using any file copy command
+ (cp, scp, etc). Further, gdb can be used to perform limited debugging on
+ the dump file. This method ensures methods ensure that there is correct
+ ordering of the dump pages (corresponding to the first 640 KB that has been
+ relocated).
+1) Download http://www.xmission.com/~ebiederm/files/kexec/kexec-tools-1.101.tar.gz
+ and apply http://lse.sourceforge.net/kdump/patches/kexec-tools-1.101-kdump.patch
+ and after that build the source.
+2) Download and build the appropriate (latest) kexec/kdump (-mm) kernel
+ patchset and apply it to the vanilla kernel tree.
+ Two kernels need to be built in order to get this feature working.
+ A) First kernel:
+ a) Enable "kexec system call" feature (in Processor type and features).
+ b) This kernel's physical load address should be the default value of
+ 0x100000 (0x100000, 1 MB) (in Processor type and features).
+ c) Enable "sysfs file system support" (in Pseudo filesystems).
+ d) Boot into first kernel with the command line parameter "crashkernel=Y@X".
+ Use appropriate values for X and Y. Y denotes how much memory to reserve
+ for the second kernel, and X denotes at what physical address the reserved
+ memory section starts. For example: "crashkernel=64M@16M".
+ B) Second kernel:
+ a) Enable "kernel crash dumps" feature (in Processor type and features).
+ b) Specify a suitable value for "Physical address where the kernel is
+ loaded" (in Processor type and features). Typically this value
+ should be same as X (See option d) above, e.g., 16 MB or 0x1000000.
+ c) Enable "/proc/vmcore support" (Optional, in Pseudo filesystems).
+ d) Disable SMP support and build a UP kernel (Until it is fixed).
+ e) Enable "Local APIC support on uniprocessors".
+ f) Enable "IO-APIC support on uniprocessors"
+ Note: i) Options a) and b) depend upon "Configure standard kernel features
+ (for small systems)" (under General setup).
+ ii) Option a) also depends on CONFIG_HIGHMEM (under Processor
+ type and features).
+ iii) Both option a) and b) are under "Processor type and features".
+3) Boot into the first kernel. You are now ready to try out kexec-based crash
+ dumps.
+4) Load the second kernel to be booted using:
+ kexec -p <second-kernel> --crash-dump --args-linux --append="root=<root-dev>
+ init 1 irqpoll"
+ Note: i) <second-kernel> has to be a vmlinux image. bzImage will not work,
+ as of now.
+ ii) By default ELF headers are stored in ELF32 format (for i386). This
+ is sufficient to represent the physical memory up to 4GB. To store
+ headers in ELF64 format, specifiy "--elf64-core-headers" on the
+ kexec command line additionally.
+ iii) Specify "irqpoll" as command line parameter. This reduces driver
+ initialization failures in second kernel due to shared interrupts.
+5) System reboots into the second kernel when a panic occurs. A module can be
+ written to force the panic or "ALT-SysRq-c" can be used initiate a crash
+ dump for testing purposes.
+6) Write out the dump file using
+ cp /proc/vmcore <dump-file>
+ Dump memory can also be accessed as a /dev/oldmem device for a linear/raw
+ view. To create the device, type:
+ mknod /dev/oldmem c 1 12
+ Use "dd" with suitable options for count, bs and skip to access specific
+ portions of the dump.
+ Entire memory: dd if=/dev/oldmem of=oldmem.001
+Limited analysis can be done using gdb on the dump file copied out of
+/proc/vmcore. Use vmlinux built with -g and run
+ gdb vmlinux <dump-file>
+Stack trace for the task on processor 0, register display, memory display
+work fine.
+Note: gdb cannot analyse core files generated in ELF64 format for i386.
+1) Provide a kernel pages filtering mechanism so that core file size is not
+ insane on systems having huge memory banks.
+2) Modify "crash" tool to make it recognize this dump.
+Vivek Goyal (vgoyal@in.ibm.com)
+Maneesh Soni (maneesh@in.ibm.com)
diff --git a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
index 4924d387a65..f44bb5567c5 100644
--- a/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
+++ b/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt
@@ -358,6 +358,10 @@ running once the system is up.
cpia_pp= [HW,PPT]
Format: { parport<nr> | auto | none }
+ crashkernel=nn[KMG]@ss[KMG]
+ [KNL] Reserve a chunk of physical memory to
+ hold a kernel to switch to with kexec on panic.
cs4232= [HW,OSS]
Format: <io>,<irq>,<dma>,<dma2>,<mpuio>,<mpuirq>
@@ -447,6 +451,10 @@ running once the system is up.
Format: {"as"|"cfq"|"deadline"|"noop"}
See Documentation/block/as-iosched.txt
and Documentation/block/deadline-iosched.txt for details.
+ elfcorehdr= [IA-32]
+ Specifies physical address of start of kernel core image
+ elf header.
+ See Documentation/kdump.txt for details.
enforcing [SELINUX] Set initial enforcing status.
Format: {"0" | "1"}
@@ -548,6 +556,9 @@ running once the system is up.
i810= [HW,DRM]
+ i8k.ignore_dmi [HW] Continue probing hardware even if DMI data
+ indicates that the driver is running on unsupported
+ hardware.
i8k.force [HW] Activate i8k driver even if SMM BIOS signature
does not match list of supported models.
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX b/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX
index 834993d2673..5b01d5cc4e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX
+++ b/Documentation/networking/00-INDEX
@@ -114,9 +114,7 @@ tuntap.txt
- info on using 3Com Vortex (3c590, 3c592, 3c595, 3c597) Ethernet cards.
- - Wan router documentation
- - WANPIPE(tm) Multiprotocol WAN Driver for Linux WAN Router
+ - WAN router documentation
- AT&T GIS (nee NCR) WaveLAN card: An Ethernet-like radio transceiver
diff --git a/Documentation/networking/wanpipe.txt b/Documentation/networking/wanpipe.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index aea20cd2a56..00000000000
--- a/Documentation/networking/wanpipe.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,622 +0,0 @@
-Linux WAN Router Utilities Package
-Version 2.2.1
-Mar 28, 2001
-Author: Nenad Corbic <ncorbic@sangoma.com>
-Copyright (c) 1995-2001 Sangoma Technologies Inc.
-Wide Area Networks (WANs) are used to interconnect Local Area Networks (LANs)
-and/or stand-alone hosts over vast distances with data transfer rates
-significantly higher than those achievable with commonly used dial-up
-Usually an external device called `WAN router' sitting on your local network
-or connected to your machine's serial port provides physical connection to
-WAN. Although router's job may be as simple as taking your local network
-traffic, converting it to WAN format and piping it through the WAN link, these
-devices are notoriously expensive, with prices as much as 2 - 5 times higher
-then the price of a typical PC box.
-Alternatively, considering robustness and multitasking capabilities of Linux,
-an internal router can be built (most routers use some sort of stripped down
-Unix-like operating system anyway). With a number of relatively inexpensive WAN
-interface cards available on the market, a perfectly usable router can be
-built for less than half a price of an external router. Yet a Linux box
-acting as a router can still be used for other purposes, such as fire-walling,
-running FTP, WWW or DNS server, etc.
-This kernel module introduces the notion of a WAN Link Driver (WLD) to Linux
-operating system and provides generic hardware-independent services for such
-drivers. Why can existing Linux network device interface not be used for
-this purpose? Well, it can. However, there are a few key differences between
-a typical network interface (e.g. Ethernet) and a WAN link.
-Many WAN protocols, such as X.25 and frame relay, allow for multiple logical
-connections (known as `virtual circuits' in X.25 terminology) over a single
-physical link. Each such virtual circuit may (and almost always does) lead
-to a different geographical location and, therefore, different network. As a
-result, it is the virtual circuit, not the physical link, that represents a
-route and, therefore, a network interface in Linux terms.
-To further complicate things, virtual circuits are usually volatile in nature
-(excluding so called `permanent' virtual circuits or PVCs). With almost no
-time required to set up and tear down a virtual circuit, it is highly desirable
-to implement on-demand connections in order to minimize network charges. So
-unlike a typical network driver, the WAN driver must be able to handle multiple
-network interfaces and cope as multiple virtual circuits come into existence
-and go away dynamically.
-Last, but not least, WAN configuration is much more complex than that of say
-Ethernet and may well amount to several dozens of parameters. Some of them
-are "link-wide" while others are virtual circuit-specific. The same holds
-true for WAN statistics which is by far more extensive and extremely useful
-when troubleshooting WAN connections. Extending the ifconfig utility to suit
-these needs may be possible, but does not seem quite reasonable. Therefore, a
-WAN configuration utility and corresponding application programmer's interface
-is needed for this purpose.
-Most of these problems are taken care of by this module. Its goal is to
-provide a user with more-or-less standard look and feel for all WAN devices and
-assist a WAN device driver writer by providing common services, such as:
- o User-level interface via /proc file system
- o Centralized configuration
- o Device management (setup, shutdown, etc.)
- o Network interface management (dynamic creation/destruction)
- o Protocol encapsulation/decapsulation
-To ba able to use the Linux WAN Router you will also need a WAN Tools package
-available from
- ftp.sangoma.com/pub/linux/current_wanpipe/wanpipe-X.Y.Z.tgz
-where vX.Y.Z represent the wanpipe version number.
-For technical questions and/or comments please e-mail to ncorbic@sangoma.com.
-For general inquiries please contact Sangoma Technologies Inc. by
- Hotline: 1-800-388-2475 (USA and Canada, toll free)
- Phone: (905) 474-1990 ext: 106
- Fax: (905) 474-9223
- E-mail: dm@sangoma.com (David Mandelstam)
- WWW: http://www.sangoma.com
-Please read the WanpipeForLinux.pdf manual on how to
-install the WANPIPE tools and drivers properly.
-After installing wanpipe package: /usr/local/wanrouter/doc.
-On the ftp.sangoma.com : /linux/current_wanpipe/doc
-This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
-the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software
-Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
-This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
-ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
-FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
-You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with
-this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass
-Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
-This product is based on the WANPIPE(tm) Multiprotocol WAN Router developed
-by Sangoma Technologies Inc. for Linux 2.0.x and 2.2.x. Success of the WANPIPE
-together with the next major release of Linux kernel in summer 1996 commanded
-adequate changes to the WANPIPE code to take full advantage of new Linux
-Instead of continuing developing proprietary interface tied to Sangoma WAN
-cards, we decided to separate all hardware-independent code into a separate
-module and defined two levels of interfaces - one for user-level applications
-and another for kernel-level WAN drivers. WANPIPE is now implemented as a
-WAN driver compliant with the WAN Link Driver interface. Also a general
-purpose WAN configuration utility and a set of shell scripts was developed to
-support WAN router at the user level.
-Many useful ideas concerning hardware-independent interface implementation
-were given by Mike McLagan <mike.mclagan@linux.org> and his implementation
-of the Frame Relay router and drivers for Sangoma cards (dlci/sdla).
-With the new implementation of the APIs being incorporated into the WANPIPE,
-a special thank goes to Alan Cox in providing insight into BSD sockets.
-Special thanks to all the WANPIPE users who performed field-testing, reported
-bugs and made valuable comments and suggestions that help us to improve this
- o Updated the WANCFG utility
- Calls the pppconfig to configure the PPPD
- for async connections.
- o Added the PPPCONFIG utility
- Used to configure the PPPD dameon for the
- WANPIPE Async PPP and standard serial port.
- The wancfg calls the pppconfig to configure
- the pppd.
- o Fixed the PCI autodetect feature.
- The SLOT 0 was used as an autodetect option
- however, some high end PC's slot numbers start
- from 0.
- o This release has been tested with the new backupd
- daemon release.
-/etc: (or user defined)
- wanpipe1.conf default router configuration file
- wanrouter.o router kernel loadable module
- af_wanpipe.o wanpipe api socket module
- sdladrv.o Sangoma SDLA support module
- wanpipe.o Sangoma WANPIPE(tm) driver module
- Config reads current router configuration
- Status reads current router status
- {name} reads WAN driver statistics
- wanrouter wanrouter start-up script
- wanconfig wanrouter configuration utility
- sdladump WANPIPE adapter memory dump utility
- fpipemon Monitor for Frame Relay
- cpipemon Monitor for Cisco HDLC
- ppipemon Monitor for PPP
- xpipemon Monitor for X25
- wpkbdmon WANPIPE keyboard led monitor/debugger
- README this file
- COPYING GNU General Public License
- Setup installation script
- Filelist distribution definition file
- wanrouter.rc meta-configuration file
- (used by the Setup and wanrouter script)
- wanpipeForLinux.pdf WAN Router User's Manual
- wanrouter-v2213.gz patch for Linux kernels 2.2.11 up to 2.2.13.
- wanrouter-v2214.gz patch for Linux kernel 2.2.14.
- wanrouter-v2215.gz patch for Linux kernels 2.2.15 to 2.2.17.
- wanrouter-v2218.gz patch for Linux kernels 2.2.18 and up.
- wanrouter-v240.gz patch for Linux kernel 2.4.0.
- wanrouter-v242.gz patch for Linux kernel 2.4.2 and up.
- wanrouter-v2034.gz patch for Linux kernel 2.0.34
- wanrouter-v2036.gz patch for Linux kernel 2.0.36 and up.
- Sources of the latest WANPIPE device drivers.
- These are used to UPGRADE the linux kernel to the newest
- version if the kernel source has already been pathced with
- WANPIPE drivers.
- interface sample interface configuration file
- wanpipe1.cpri CHDLC primary port
- wanpipe2.csec CHDLC secondary port
- wanpipe1.fr Frame Relay protocol
- wanpipe1.ppp PPP protocol )
- wanpipe1.asy CHDLC ASYNC protocol
- wanpipe1.x25 X25 protocol
- wanpipe1.stty Sync TTY driver (Used by Kernel PPPD daemon)
- wanpipe1.atty Async TTY driver (Used by Kernel PPPD daemon)
- wanrouter.rc sample meta-configuration file
- * wan-tools utilities source code
- * x25 api sample programs.
- * chdlc api sample programs.
- * fr api sample programs.
- wancfg WANPIPE GUI configuration program.
- Creates wanpipe#.conf files.
- cfgft1 GUI CSU/DSU configuration program.
- wanrouter.h router API definitions
- wanpipe.h WANPIPE API definitions
- sdladrv.h SDLA support module API definitions
- sdlasfm.h SDLA firmware module definitions
- if_wanpipe.h WANPIPE Socket definitions
- if_wanpipe_common.h WANPIPE Socket/Driver common definitions.
- sdlapci.h WANPIPE PCI definitions
- * wanrouter source code
- wanrouter wanrouter start-up log (created by the Setup script)
-/var/lock: (or /var/lock/subsys for RedHat)
- wanrouter wanrouter lock file (created by the Setup script)
- fr514.sfm Frame relay firmware for Sangoma S508/S514 card
- cdual514.sfm Dual Port Cisco HDLC firmware for Sangoma S508/S514 card
- ppp514.sfm PPP Firmware for Sangoma S508 and S514 cards
- x25_508.sfm X25 Firmware for Sangoma S508 card.
-1.0.0 December 31, 1996 Initial version
-1.0.1 January 30, 1997 Status and statistics can be read via /proc
- filesystem entries.
-1.0.2 April 30, 1997 Added UDP management via monitors.
-1.0.3 June 3, 1997 UDP management for multiple boards using Frame
- Relay and PPP
- Enabled continuous transmission of Configure
- Request Packet for PPP (for 508 only)
- Connection Timeout for PPP changed from 900 to 0
- Flow Control Problem fixed for Frame Relay
-1.0.4 July 10, 1997 S508/FT1 monitoring capability in fpipemon and
- ppipemon utilities.
- Configurable TTL for UDP packets.
- Multicast and Broadcast IP source addresses are
- silently discarded.
-1.0.5 July 28, 1997 Configurable T391,T392,N391,N392,N393 for Frame
- Relay in router.conf.
- Configurable Memory Address through router.conf
- for Frame Relay, PPP and X.25. (commenting this
- out enables auto-detection).
- Fixed freeing up received buffers using kfree()
- for Frame Relay and X.25.
- Protect sdla_peek() by calling save_flags(),
- cli() and restore_flags().
- Changed number of Trace elements from 32 to 20
- Added DLCI specific data monitoring in FPIPEMON.
-2.0.0 Nov 07, 1997 Implemented protection of RACE conditions by
- critical flags for FRAME RELAY and PPP.
- DLCI List interrupt mode implemented.
- IPX support in FRAME RELAY and PPP.
- IPX Server Support (MARS)
- More driver specific stats included in FPIPEMON
- and PIPEMON.
-2.0.1 Nov 28, 1997 Bug Fixes for version 2.0.0.
- Protection of "enable_irq()" while
- "disable_irq()" has been enabled from any other
- routine (for Frame Relay, PPP and X25).
- Added additional Stats for Fpipemon and Ppipemon
- Improved Load Sharing for multiple boards
-2.0.2 Dec 09, 1997 Support for PAP and CHAP for ppp has been
- implemented.
-2.0.3 Aug 15, 1998 New release supporting Cisco HDLC, CIR for Frame
- relay, Dynamic IP assignment for PPP and Inverse
- Arp support for Frame-relay. Man Pages are
- included for better support and a new utility
- for configuring FT1 cards.
-2.0.4 Dec 09, 1998 Dual Port support for Cisco HDLC.
- Support for HDLC (LAPB) API.
- Supports BiSync Streaming code for S502E
- and S503 cards.
- Support for Streaming HDLC API.
- Provides a BSD socket interface for
- creating applications using BiSync
- streaming.
-2.0.5 Aug 04, 1999 CHDLC initializatin bug fix.
- PPP interrupt driven driver:
- Fix to the PPP line hangup problem.
- New PPP firmware
- Added comments to the startup SYSTEM ERROR messages
- Xpipemon debugging application for the X25 protocol
- Fixed the odd boundary 4byte writes to the board.
- BiSync Streaming code has been taken out.
- Available as a patch.
- Streaming HDLC API has been taken out.
- Available as a patch.
-2.0.6 Aug 17, 1999 Increased debugging in statup scripts
- Fixed insallation bugs from 2.0.5
- Kernel patch works for both 2.2.10 and 2.2.11 kernels.
- There is no functional difference between the two packages
-2.0.7 Aug 26, 1999 o Merged X25API code into WANPIPE.
- o Fixed a memeory leak for X25API
- o Updated the X25API code for 2.2.X kernels.
- o Improved NEM handling.
-2.1.0 Oct 25, 1999 o New code for S514 PCI Card
- o New CHDLC and Frame Relay drivers
- o PPP and X25 are not supported in this release
-2.1.1 Nov 30, 1999 o PPP support for S514 PCI Cards
-2.1.3 Apr 06, 2000 o Socket based x25api
- o Socket based chdlc api
- o Socket based fr api
- o Dual Port Receive only CHDLC support.
- o Asynchronous CHDLC support (Secondary Port)
- o cfgft1 GUI csu/dsu configurator
- o wancfg GUI configuration file
- configurator.
- o Architectual directory changes.
-beta-2.1.4 Jul 2000 o Dynamic interface configuration:
- Network interfaces reflect the state
- of protocol layer. If the protocol becomes
- disconnected, driver will bring down
- the interface. Once the protocol reconnects
- the interface will be brought up.
- Note: This option is turned off by default.
- o Dynamic wanrouter setup using 'wanconfig':
- wanconfig utility can be used to
- shutdown,restart,start or reconfigure
- a virtual circuit dynamically.
- Frame Relay: Each DLCI can be:
- created,stopped,restarted and reconfigured
- dynamically using wanconfig.
- ex: wanconfig card wanpipe1 dev wp1_fr16 up
- o Wanrouter startup via command line arguments:
- wanconfig also supports wanrouter startup via command line
- arguments. Thus, there is no need to create a wanpipe#.conf
- configuration file.
- o Socket based x25api update/bug fixes.
- Added support for LCN numbers greater than 255.
- Option to pass up modem messages.
- Provided a PCI IRQ check, so a single S514
- card is guaranteed to have a non-sharing interrupt.
- o Fixes to the wancfg utility.
- o New FT1 debugging support via *pipemon utilities.
- o Frame Relay ARP support Enabled.
-beta3-2.1.4 Jul 2000 o X25 M_BIT Problem fix.
- o Added the Multi-Port PPP
- Updated utilites for the Multi-Port PPP.
-2.1.4 Aut 2000
- o In X25API:
- Maximum packet an application can send
- to the driver has been extended to 4096 bytes.
- Fixed the x25 startup bug. Enable
- communications only after all interfaces
- come up. HIGH SVC/PVC is used to calculate
- the number of channels.
- Enable protocol only after all interfaces
- are enabled.
- o Added an extra state to the FT1 config, kernel module.
- o Updated the pipemon debuggers.
- o Blocked the Multi-Port PPP from running on kernels
- 2.2.16 or greater, due to syncppp kernel module
- change.
-beta1-2.1.5 Nov 15 2000
- o Fixed the MulitPort PPP Support for kernels 2.2.16 and above.
- 2.2.X kernels only
- o Secured the driver UDP debugging calls
- - All illegal netowrk debugging calls are reported to
- the log.
- - Defined a set of allowed commands, all other denied.
- o Cpipemon
- - Added set FT1 commands to the cpipemon. Thus CSU/DSU
- configuraiton can be performed using cpipemon.
- All systems that cannot run cfgft1 GUI utility should
- use cpipemon to configure the on board CSU/DSU.
- o Keyboard Led Monitor/Debugger
- - A new utilty /usr/sbin/wpkbdmon uses keyboard leds
- to convey operatinal statistic information of the
- Sangoma WANPIPE cards.
- NUM_LOCK = Line State (On=connected, Off=disconnected)
- CAPS_LOCK = Tx data (On=transmitting, Off=no tx data)
- SCROLL_LOCK = Rx data (On=receiving, Off=no rx data
- o Hardware probe on module load and dynamic device allocation
- - During WANPIPE module load, all Sangoma cards are probed
- and found information is printed in the /var/log/messages.
- - If no cards are found, the module load fails.
- - Appropriate number of devices are dynamically loaded
- based on the number of Sangoma cards found.
- Note: The kernel configuraiton option
- CONFIG_WANPIPE_CARDS has been taken out.
- o Fixed the Frame Relay and Chdlc network interfaces so they are
- compatible with libpcap libraries. Meaning, tcpdump, snort,
- ethereal, and all other packet sniffers and debuggers work on
- all WANPIPE netowrk interfaces.
- - Set the network interface encoding type to ARPHRD_PPP.
- This tell the sniffers that data obtained from the
- network interface is in pure IP format.
- Fix for 2.2.X kernels only.
- o True interface encoding option for Frame Relay and CHDLC
- - The above fix sets the network interface encoding
- type to ARPHRD_PPP, however some customers use
- the encoding interface type to determine the
- protocol running. Therefore, the TURE ENCODING
- option will set the interface type back to the
- original value.
- NOTE: If this option is used with Frame Relay and CHDLC
- libpcap library support will be broken.
- i.e. tcpdump will not work.
- Fix for 2.2.x Kernels only.
- o Ethernet Bridgind over Frame Relay
- - The Frame Relay bridging has been developed by
- Kristian Hoffmann and Mark Wells.
- - The Linux kernel bridge is used to send ethernet
- data over the frame relay links.
- For 2.2.X Kernels only.
- o Added extensive 2.0.X support. Most new features of
- 2.1.5 for protocols Frame Relay, PPP and CHDLC are
- supported under 2.0.X kernels.
-beta1-2.2.0 Dec 30 2000
- o Updated drivers for 2.4.X kernels.
- o Updated drivers for SMP support.
- o X25API is now able to share PCI interrupts.
- o Took out a general polling routine that was used
- only by X25API.
- o Added appropriate locks to the dynamic reconfiguration
- code.
- o Fixed a bug in the keyboard debug monitor.
-beta2-2.2.0 Jan 8 2001
- o Patches for 2.4.0 kernel
- o Patches for 2.2.18 kernel
- o Minor updates to PPP and CHLDC drivers.
- Note: No functinal difference.
-beta3-2.2.9 Jan 10 2001
- o I missed the 2.2.18 kernel patches in beta2-2.2.0
- release. They are included in this release.
-Stable Release
-2.2.0 Feb 01 2001
- o Bug fix in wancfg GUI configurator.
- The edit function didn't work properly.
-bata1-2.2.1 Feb 09 2001
- o WANPIPE TTY Driver emulation.
- Two modes of operation Sync and Async.
- Sync: Using the PPPD daemon, kernel SyncPPP layer
- and the Wanpipe sync TTY driver: a PPP protocol
- connection can be established via Sangoma adapter, over
- a T1 leased line.
- The 2.4.0 kernel PPP layer supports MULTILINK
- protocol, that can be used to bundle any number of Sangoma
- adapters (T1 lines) into one, under a single IP address.
- Thus, efficiently obtaining multiple T1 throughput.
- NOTE: The remote side must also implement MULTILINK PPP
- protocol.
- Async:Using the PPPD daemon, kernel AsyncPPP layer
- and the WANPIPE async TTY driver: a PPP protocol
- connection can be established via Sangoma adapter and
- a modem, over a telephone line.
- Thus, the WANPIPE async TTY driver simulates a serial
- TTY driver that would normally be used to interface the
- MODEM to the linux kernel.
- o WANPIPE PPP Backup Utility
- This utility will monitor the state of the PPP T1 line.
- In case of failure, a dial up connection will be established
- via pppd daemon, ether via a serial tty driver (serial port),
- or a WANPIPE async TTY driver (in case serial port is unavailable).
- Furthermore, while in dial up mode, the primary PPP T1 link
- will be monitored for signs of life.
- If the PPP T1 link comes back to life, the dial up connection
- will be shutdown and T1 line re-established.
- o New Setup installation script.
- Option to UPGRADE device drivers if the kernel source has
- already been patched with WANPIPE.
- Option to COMPILE WANPIPE modules against the currently
- running kernel, thus no need for manual kernel and module
- re-compilatin.
- o Updates and Bug Fixes to wancfg utility.
-bata2-2.2.1 Feb 20 2001
- o Bug fixes to the CHDLC device drivers.
- The driver had compilation problems under kernels
- 2.2.14 or lower.
- o Bug fixes to the Setup installation script.
- The device drivers compilation options didn't work
- properly.
- o Update to the wpbackupd daemon.
- Optimized the cross-over times, between the primary
- link and the backup dialup.
-beta3-2.2.1 Mar 02 2001
- o Patches for 2.4.2 kernel.
- o Bug fixes to util/ make files.
- o Bug fixes to the Setup installation script.
- o Took out the backupd support and made it into
- as separate package.
-beta4-2.2.1 Mar 12 2001
- o Fix to the Frame Relay Device driver.
- IPSAC sends a packet of zero length
- header to the frame relay driver. The
- driver tries to push its own 2 byte header
- into the packet, which causes the driver to
- crash.
- o Fix the WANPIPE re-configuration code.
- Bug was found by trying to run the cfgft1 while the
- interface was already running.
- o Updates to cfgft1.
- Writes a wanpipe#.cfgft1 configuration file
- once the CSU/DSU is configured. This file can
- holds the current CSU/DSU configuration.
->>>>>> END OF README <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
diff --git a/Documentation/power/pci.txt b/Documentation/power/pci.txt
index 35b1a7dae34..6fc9d511fc3 100644
--- a/Documentation/power/pci.txt
+++ b/Documentation/power/pci.txt
@@ -291,6 +291,44 @@ a request to enable wake events from D3, two calls should be made to
pci_enable_wake (one for both D3hot and D3cold).
+A reference implementation
+ /* driver specific operations */
+ /* Disable IRQ */
+ free_irq();
+ /* If using MSI */
+ pci_disable_msi();
+ pci_save_state();
+ pci_enable_wake();
+ /* Disable IO/bus master/irq router */
+ pci_disable_device();
+ pci_set_power_state(pci_choose_state());
+ pci_set_power_state(PCI_D0);
+ pci_restore_state();
+ /* device's irq possibly is changed, driver should take care */
+ pci_enable_device();
+ pci_set_master();
+ /* if using MSI, device's vector possibly is changed */
+ pci_enable_msi();
+ request_irq();
+ /* driver specific operations; */
+This is a typical implementation. Drivers can slightly change the order
+of the operations in the implementation, ignore some operations or add
+more deriver specific operations in it, but drivers should do something like
+this on the whole.
5. Resources
diff --git a/Documentation/power/swsusp.txt b/Documentation/power/swsusp.txt
index 4e1627cc5b5..7a6b7896645 100644
--- a/Documentation/power/swsusp.txt
+++ b/Documentation/power/swsusp.txt
@@ -164,10 +164,11 @@ place where the thread is safe to be frozen (no kernel semaphores
should be held at that point and it must be safe to sleep there), and
- try_to_freeze();
+ try_to_freeze();
If the thread is needed for writing the image to storage, you should
-instead set the PF_NOFREEZE process flag when creating the thread.
+instead set the PF_NOFREEZE process flag when creating the thread (and
+be very carefull).
Q: What is the difference between between "platform", "shutdown" and
@@ -232,3 +233,81 @@ A: Try running
cat `cat /proc/[0-9]*/maps | grep / | sed 's:.* /:/:' | sort -u` > /dev/null
after resume. swapoff -a; swapon -a may also be usefull.
+Q: What happens to devices during swsusp? They seem to be resumed
+during system suspend?
+A: That's correct. We need to resume them if we want to write image to
+disk. Whole sequence goes like
+ Suspend part
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~~
+ running system, user asks for suspend-to-disk
+ user processes are stopped
+ suspend(PMSG_FREEZE): devices are frozen so that they don't interfere
+ with state snapshot
+ state snapshot: copy of whole used memory is taken with interrupts disabled
+ resume(): devices are woken up so that we can write image to swap
+ write image to swap
+ suspend(PMSG_SUSPEND): suspend devices so that we can power off
+ turn the power off
+ Resume part
+ ~~~~~~~~~~~
+ (is actually pretty similar)
+ running system, user asks for suspend-to-disk
+ user processes are stopped (in common case there are none, but with resume-from-initrd, noone knows)
+ read image from disk
+ suspend(PMSG_FREEZE): devices are frozen so that they don't interfere
+ with image restoration
+ image restoration: rewrite memory with image
+ resume(): devices are woken up so that system can continue
+ thaw all user processes
+Q: What is this 'Encrypt suspend image' for?
+A: First of all: it is not a replacement for dm-crypt encrypted swap.
+It cannot protect your computer while it is suspended. Instead it does
+protect from leaking sensitive data after resume from suspend.
+Think of the following: you suspend while an application is running
+that keeps sensitive data in memory. The application itself prevents
+the data from being swapped out. Suspend, however, must write these
+data to swap to be able to resume later on. Without suspend encryption
+your sensitive data are then stored in plaintext on disk. This means
+that after resume your sensitive data are accessible to all
+applications having direct access to the swap device which was used
+for suspend. If you don't need swap after resume these data can remain
+on disk virtually forever. Thus it can happen that your system gets
+broken in weeks later and sensitive data which you thought were
+encrypted and protected are retrieved and stolen from the swap device.
+To prevent this situation you should use 'Encrypt suspend image'.
+During suspend a temporary key is created and this key is used to
+encrypt the data written to disk. When, during resume, the data was
+read back into memory the temporary key is destroyed which simply
+means that all data written to disk during suspend are then
+inaccessible so they can't be stolen later on. The only thing that
+you must then take care of is that you call 'mkswap' for the swap
+partition used for suspend as early as possible during regular
+boot. This asserts that any temporary key from an oopsed suspend or
+from a failed or aborted resume is erased from the swap device.
+As a rule of thumb use encrypted swap to protect your data while your
+system is shut down or suspended. Additionally use the encrypted
+suspend image to prevent sensitive data from being stolen after
diff --git a/Documentation/power/video.txt b/Documentation/power/video.txt
index 68734355d7c..881a37e3eeb 100644
--- a/Documentation/power/video.txt
+++ b/Documentation/power/video.txt
@@ -83,8 +83,10 @@ Compaq Armada E500 - P3-700 none (1) (S1 also works OK)
Compaq Evo N620c vga=normal, s3_bios (2)
Dell 600m, ATI R250 Lf none (1), but needs xorg-x11-
Dell D600, ATI RV250 vga=normal and X, or try vbestate (6)
+Dell D610 vga=normal and X (possibly vbestate (6) too, but not tested)
Dell Inspiron 4000 ??? (*)
Dell Inspiron 500m ??? (*)
+Dell Inspiron 510m ???
Dell Inspiron 600m ??? (*)
Dell Inspiron 8200 ??? (*)
Dell Inspiron 8500 ??? (*)
@@ -123,6 +125,7 @@ Toshiba Satellite 4030CDT s3_mode (3)
Toshiba Satellite 4080XCDT s3_mode (3)
Toshiba Satellite 4090XCDT ??? (*)
Toshiba Satellite P10-554 s3_bios,s3_mode (4)(****)
+Toshiba M30 (2) xor X with nvidia driver using internal AGP
Uniwill 244IIO ??? (*)
diff --git a/Documentation/power/video_extension.txt b/Documentation/power/video_extension.txt
index 8e33d7c82c4..b2f9b1598ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/power/video_extension.txt
+++ b/Documentation/power/video_extension.txt
@@ -1,13 +1,16 @@
-This driver implement the ACPI Extensions For Display Adapters
-for integrated graphics devices on motherboard, as specified in
-ACPI 2.0 Specification, Appendix B, allowing to perform some basic
-control like defining the video POST device, retrieving EDID information
-or to setup a video output, etc. Note that this is an ref. implementation only.
-It may or may not work for your integrated video device.
+ACPI video extensions
+This driver implement the ACPI Extensions For Display Adapters for
+integrated graphics devices on motherboard, as specified in ACPI 2.0
+Specification, Appendix B, allowing to perform some basic control like
+defining the video POST device, retrieving EDID information or to
+setup a video output, etc. Note that this is an ref. implementation
+only. It may or may not work for your integrated video device.
Interfaces exposed to userland through /proc/acpi/video:
-VGA/info : display the supported video bus device capability like ,Video ROM, CRT/LCD/TV.
+VGA/info : display the supported video bus device capability like Video ROM, CRT/LCD/TV.
VGA/ROM : Used to get a copy of the display devices' ROM data (up to 4k).
VGA/POST_info : Used to determine what options are implemented.
VGA/POST : Used to get/set POST device.
@@ -15,7 +18,7 @@ VGA/DOS : Used to get/set ownership of output switching:
Please refer ACPI spec B.4.1 _DOS
VGA/CRT : CRT output
VGA/LCD : LCD output
-VGA/TV : TV output
+VGA/TVO : TV output
VGA/*/brightness : Used to get/set brightness of output device
Notify event through /proc/acpi/event:
diff --git a/Documentation/s390/s390dbf.txt b/Documentation/s390/s390dbf.txt
index 2d1cd939b4d..e24fdeada97 100644
--- a/Documentation/s390/s390dbf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/s390/s390dbf.txt
@@ -12,8 +12,8 @@ where log records can be stored efficiently in memory, where each component
One purpose of this is to inspect the debug logs after a production system crash
in order to analyze the reason for the crash.
If the system still runs but only a subcomponent which uses dbf failes,
-it is possible to look at the debug logs on a live system via the Linux proc
+it is possible to look at the debug logs on a live system via the Linux
+debugfs filesystem.
The debug feature may also very useful for kernel and driver development.
@@ -52,16 +52,18 @@ Each debug entry contains the following data:
- Flag, if entry is an exception or not
The debug logs can be inspected in a live system through entries in
-the proc-filesystem. Under the path /proc/s390dbf there is
+the debugfs-filesystem. Under the toplevel directory "s390dbf" there is
a directory for each registered component, which is named like the
-corresponding component.
+corresponding component. The debugfs normally should be mounted to
+/sys/kernel/debug therefore the debug feature can be accessed unter
The content of the directories are files which represent different views
to the debug log. Each component can decide which views should be
used through registering them with the function debug_register_view().
Predefined views for hex/ascii, sprintf and raw binary data are provided.
It is also possible to define other views. The content of
-a view can be inspected simply by reading the corresponding proc file.
+a view can be inspected simply by reading the corresponding debugfs file.
All debug logs have an an actual debug level (range from 0 to 6).
The default level is 3. Event and Exception functions have a 'level'
@@ -69,14 +71,14 @@ parameter. Only debug entries with a level that is lower or equal
than the actual level are written to the log. This means, when
writing events, high priority log entries should have a low level
value whereas low priority entries should have a high one.
-The actual debug level can be changed with the help of the proc-filesystem
-through writing a number string "x" to the 'level' proc file which is
+The actual debug level can be changed with the help of the debugfs-filesystem
+through writing a number string "x" to the 'level' debugfs file which is
provided for every debug log. Debugging can be switched off completely
-by using "-" on the 'level' proc file.
+by using "-" on the 'level' debugfs file.
-> echo "-" > /proc/s390dbf/dasd/level
+> echo "-" > /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/level
It is also possible to deactivate the debug feature globally for every
debug log. You can change the behavior using 2 sysctl parameters in
@@ -99,11 +101,11 @@ Kernel Interfaces:
-debug_info_t *debug_register(char *name, int pages_index, int nr_areas,
+debug_info_t *debug_register(char *name, int pages, int nr_areas,
int buf_size);
-Parameter: name: Name of debug log (e.g. used for proc entry)
- pages_index: 2^pages_index pages will be allocated per area
+Parameter: name: Name of debug log (e.g. used for debugfs entry)
+ pages: number of pages, which will be allocated per area
nr_areas: number of debug areas
buf_size: size of data area in each debug entry
@@ -134,7 +136,7 @@ Return Value: none
Description: Sets new actual debug level if new_level is valid.
-+void debug_stop_all(void);
+void debug_stop_all(void);
Parameter: none
@@ -270,7 +272,7 @@ Parameter: id: handle for debug log
Return Value: 0 : ok
< 0: Error
-Description: registers new debug view and creates proc dir entry
+Description: registers new debug view and creates debugfs dir entry
int debug_unregister_view (debug_info_t * id, struct debug_view *view);
@@ -281,7 +283,7 @@ Parameter: id: handle for debug log
Return Value: 0 : ok
< 0: Error
-Description: unregisters debug view and removes proc dir entry
+Description: unregisters debug view and removes debugfs dir entry
@@ -308,7 +310,7 @@ static int init(void)
/* register 4 debug areas with one page each and 4 byte data field */
- debug_info = debug_register ("test", 0, 4, 4 );
+ debug_info = debug_register ("test", 1, 4, 4 );
@@ -343,7 +345,7 @@ static int init(void)
/* register 4 debug areas with one page each and data field for */
/* format string pointer + 2 varargs (= 3 * sizeof(long)) */
- debug_info = debug_register ("test", 0, 4, sizeof(long) * 3);
+ debug_info = debug_register ("test", 1, 4, sizeof(long) * 3);
debug_sprintf_event(debug_info, 2 , "first event in %s:%i\n",__FILE__,__LINE__);
@@ -362,16 +364,16 @@ module_exit(cleanup);
-ProcFS Interface
+Debugfs Interface
Views to the debug logs can be investigated through reading the corresponding
-> ls /proc/s390dbf/dasd
-flush hex_ascii level raw
-> cat /proc/s390dbf/dasd/hex_ascii | sort +1
+> ls /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd
+flush hex_ascii level pages raw
+> cat /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/hex_ascii | sort +1
00 00974733272:680099 2 - 02 0006ad7e 07 ea 4a 90 | ....
00 00974733272:682210 2 - 02 0006ade6 46 52 45 45 | FREE
00 00974733272:682213 2 - 02 0006adf6 07 ea 4a 90 | ....
@@ -391,25 +393,36 @@ Changing the debug level
-> cat /proc/s390dbf/dasd/level
+> cat /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/level
-> echo "5" > /proc/s390dbf/dasd/level
-> cat /proc/s390dbf/dasd/level
+> echo "5" > /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/level
+> cat /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/level
Flushing debug areas
Debug areas can be flushed with piping the number of the desired
-area (0...n) to the proc file "flush". When using "-" all debug areas
+area (0...n) to the debugfs file "flush". When using "-" all debug areas
are flushed.
1. Flush debug area 0:
-> echo "0" > /proc/s390dbf/dasd/flush
+> echo "0" > /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/flush
2. Flush all debug areas:
-> echo "-" > /proc/s390dbf/dasd/flush
+> echo "-" > /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/flush
+Changing the size of debug areas
+It is possible the change the size of debug areas through piping
+the number of pages to the debugfs file "pages". The resize request will
+also flush the debug areas.
+Define 4 pages for the debug areas of debug feature "dasd":
+> echo "4" > /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/pages
Stooping the debug feature
@@ -491,7 +504,7 @@ Defining views
Views are specified with the 'debug_view' structure. There are defined
-callback functions which are used for reading and writing the proc files:
+callback functions which are used for reading and writing the debugfs files:
struct debug_view {
@@ -525,7 +538,7 @@ typedef int (debug_input_proc_t) (debug_info_t* id,
The "private_data" member can be used as pointer to view specific data.
It is not used by the debug feature itself.
-The output when reading a debug-proc file is structured like this:
+The output when reading a debugfs file is structured like this:
"prolog_proc output"
@@ -534,13 +547,13 @@ The output when reading a debug-proc file is structured like this:
"header_proc output 3" "format_proc output 3"
-When a view is read from the proc fs, the Debug Feature calls the
+When a view is read from the debugfs, the Debug Feature calls the
'prolog_proc' once for writing the prolog.
Then 'header_proc' and 'format_proc' are called for each
existing debug entry.
The input_proc can be used to implement functionality when it is written to
-the view (e.g. like with 'echo "0" > /proc/s390dbf/dasd/level).
+the view (e.g. like with 'echo "0" > /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/dasd/level).
For header_proc there can be used the default function
debug_dflt_header_fn() which is defined in in debug.h.
@@ -602,7 +615,7 @@ debug_info = debug_register ("test", 0, 4, 4 ));
debug_register_view(debug_info, &debug_test_view);
for(i = 0; i < 10; i ++) debug_int_event(debug_info, 1, i);
-> cat /proc/s390dbf/test/myview
+> cat /sys/kernel/debug/s390dbf/test/myview
00 00964419734:611402 1 - 00 88042ca This error...........
00 00964419734:611405 1 - 00 88042ca That error...........
00 00964419734:611408 1 - 00 88042ca Problem..............
diff --git a/Documentation/sysrq.txt b/Documentation/sysrq.txt
index f98c2e31c14..136d817c01b 100644
--- a/Documentation/sysrq.txt
+++ b/Documentation/sysrq.txt
@@ -72,6 +72,8 @@ On all - write a character to /proc/sysrq-trigger. eg:
'b' - Will immediately reboot the system without syncing or unmounting
your disks.
+'c' - Will perform a kexec reboot in order to take a crashdump.
'o' - Will shut your system off (if configured and supported).
's' - Will attempt to sync all mounted filesystems.
@@ -122,6 +124,9 @@ useful when you want to exit a program that will not let you switch consoles.
re'B'oot is good when you're unable to shut down. But you should also 'S'ync
and 'U'mount first.
+'C'rashdump can be used to manually trigger a crashdump when the system is hung.
+The kernel needs to have been built with CONFIG_KEXEC enabled.
'S'ync is great when your system is locked up, it allows you to sync your
disks and will certainly lessen the chance of data loss and fscking. Note
that the sync hasn't taken place until you see the "OK" and "Done" appear