path: root/Documentation
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authorLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2010-09-10 07:26:27 -0700
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2010-09-10 07:26:27 -0700
commitff3cb3fec3c5bbb5110e652bbdd410bc99a47e9f (patch)
tree5b6834a3a4ecd479d544f8cc8cd10811c1ae13e1 /Documentation
parent6ccaa3172941c0a97c7f1c5155b1d32ecd27ec2f (diff)
parentbe14eb619108fa8b7120eb2c42d66d5f623ae10e (diff)
Merge branch 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-2.6-block
* 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.dk/linux-2.6-block: block: Range check cpu in blk_cpu_to_group scatterlist: prevent invalid free when alloc fails writeback: Fix lost wake-up shutting down writeback thread writeback: do not lose wakeup events when forking bdi threads cciss: fix reporting of max queue depth since init block: switch s390 tape_block and mg_disk to elevator_change() block: add function call to switch the IO scheduler from a driver fs/bio-integrity.c: return -ENOMEM on kmalloc failure bio-integrity.c: remove dependency on __GFP_NOFAIL BLOCK: fix bio.bi_rw handling block: put dev->kobj in blk_register_queue fail path cciss: handle allocation failure cfq-iosched: Documentation help for new tunables cfq-iosched: blktrace print per slice sector stats cfq-iosched: Implement tunable group_idle cfq-iosched: Do group share accounting in IOPS when slice_idle=0 cfq-iosched: Do not idle if slice_idle=0 cciss: disable doorbell reset on reset_devices blkio: Fix return code for mkdir calls
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
2 files changed, 73 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/block/cfq-iosched.txt b/Documentation/block/cfq-iosched.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..e578feed6d8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/block/cfq-iosched.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+CFQ ioscheduler tunables
+This specifies how long CFQ should idle for next request on certain cfq queues
+(for sequential workloads) and service trees (for random workloads) before
+queue is expired and CFQ selects next queue to dispatch from.
+By default slice_idle is a non-zero value. That means by default we idle on
+queues/service trees. This can be very helpful on highly seeky media like
+single spindle SATA/SAS disks where we can cut down on overall number of
+seeks and see improved throughput.
+Setting slice_idle to 0 will remove all the idling on queues/service tree
+level and one should see an overall improved throughput on faster storage
+devices like multiple SATA/SAS disks in hardware RAID configuration. The down
+side is that isolation provided from WRITES also goes down and notion of
+IO priority becomes weaker.
+So depending on storage and workload, it might be useful to set slice_idle=0.
+In general I think for SATA/SAS disks and software RAID of SATA/SAS disks
+keeping slice_idle enabled should be useful. For any configurations where
+there are multiple spindles behind single LUN (Host based hardware RAID
+controller or for storage arrays), setting slice_idle=0 might end up in better
+throughput and acceptable latencies.
+CFQ IOPS Mode for group scheduling
+Basic CFQ design is to provide priority based time slices. Higher priority
+process gets bigger time slice and lower priority process gets smaller time
+slice. Measuring time becomes harder if storage is fast and supports NCQ and
+it would be better to dispatch multiple requests from multiple cfq queues in
+request queue at a time. In such scenario, it is not possible to measure time
+consumed by single queue accurately.
+What is possible though is to measure number of requests dispatched from a
+single queue and also allow dispatch from multiple cfq queue at the same time.
+This effectively becomes the fairness in terms of IOPS (IO operations per
+If one sets slice_idle=0 and if storage supports NCQ, CFQ internally switches
+to IOPS mode and starts providing fairness in terms of number of requests
+dispatched. Note that this mode switching takes effect only for group
+scheduling. For non-cgroup users nothing should change.
diff --git a/Documentation/cgroups/blkio-controller.txt b/Documentation/cgroups/blkio-controller.txt
index 48e0b21b005..6919d62591d 100644
--- a/Documentation/cgroups/blkio-controller.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cgroups/blkio-controller.txt
@@ -217,6 +217,7 @@ Details of cgroup files
CFQ sysfs tunable
If group_isolation=1, it provides stronger isolation between groups at the
expense of throughput. By default group_isolation is 0. In general that
@@ -243,6 +244,33 @@ By default one should run with group_isolation=0. If that is not sufficient
and one wants stronger isolation between groups, then set group_isolation=1
but this will come at cost of reduced throughput.
+On a faster hardware CFQ can be slow, especially with sequential workload.
+This happens because CFQ idles on a single queue and single queue might not
+drive deeper request queue depths to keep the storage busy. In such scenarios
+one can try setting slice_idle=0 and that would switch CFQ to IOPS
+(IO operations per second) mode on NCQ supporting hardware.
+That means CFQ will not idle between cfq queues of a cfq group and hence be
+able to driver higher queue depth and achieve better throughput. That also
+means that cfq provides fairness among groups in terms of IOPS and not in
+terms of disk time.
+If one disables idling on individual cfq queues and cfq service trees by
+setting slice_idle=0, group_idle kicks in. That means CFQ will still idle
+on the group in an attempt to provide fairness among groups.
+By default group_idle is same as slice_idle and does not do anything if
+slice_idle is enabled.
+One can experience an overall throughput drop if you have created multiple
+groups and put applications in that group which are not driving enough
+IO to keep disk busy. In that case set group_idle=0, and CFQ will not idle
+on individual groups and throughput should improve.
What works
- Currently only sync IO queues are support. All the buffered writes are