path: root/Documentation
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authorRobert Olsson <Robert.Olsson@data.slu.se>2005-07-05 16:38:26 -0700
committerDavid S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>2005-07-05 16:38:26 -0700
commitb2f571026594884e7a2a3f8bc6ad5c92e0703330 (patch)
tree544ec8e4d300b76cc6db96a0321f1d298a52d000 /Documentation
parent908a75c17a9e5a888347c2c1d3572203d1b1c7db (diff)
[IPV4]: Add LC-Trie implementation notes
Signed-off-by: Robert Olsson <Robert.Olsson@data.slu.se> Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
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+ LC-trie implementation notes.
+Node types
+ An end node with data. This has a copy of the relevant key, along
+ with 'hlist' with routing table entries sorted by prefix length.
+ See struct leaf and struct leaf_info.
+trie node or tnode
+ An internal node, holding an array of child (leaf or tnode) pointers,
+ indexed through a subset of the key. See Level Compression.
+A few concepts explained
+Bits (tnode)
+ The number of bits in the key segment used for indexing into the
+ child array - the "child index". See Level Compression.
+Pos (tnode)
+ The position (in the key) of the key segment used for indexing into
+ the child array. See Path Compression.
+Path Compression / skipped bits
+ Any given tnode is linked to from the child array of its parent, using
+ a segment of the key specified by the parent's "pos" and "bits"
+ In certain cases, this tnode's own "pos" will not be immediately
+ adjacent to the parent (pos+bits), but there will be some bits
+ in the key skipped over because they represent a single path with no
+ deviations. These "skipped bits" constitute Path Compression.
+ Note that the search algorithm will simply skip over these bits when
+ searching, making it necessary to save the keys in the leaves to
+ verify that they actually do match the key we are searching for.
+Level Compression / child arrays
+ the trie is kept level balanced moving, under certain conditions, the
+ children of a full child (see "full_children") up one level, so that
+ instead of a pure binary tree, each internal node ("tnode") may
+ contain an arbitrarily large array of links to several children.
+ Conversely, a tnode with a mostly empty child array (see empty_children)
+ may be "halved", having some of its children moved downwards one level,
+ in order to avoid ever-increasing child arrays.
+ the number of positions in the child array of a given tnode that are
+ the number of children of a given tnode that aren't path compressed.
+ (in other words, they aren't NULL or leaves and their "pos" is equal
+ to this tnode's "pos"+"bits").
+ (The word "full" here is used more in the sense of "complete" than
+ as the opposite of "empty", which might be a tad confusing.)
+We have tried to keep the structure of the code as close to fib_hash as
+possible to allow verification and help up reviewing.
+ A good start for understanding this code. This function implements a
+ straightforward trie lookup.
+ Inserts a new leaf node in the trie. This is bit more complicated than
+ fib_find_node(). Inserting a new node means we might have to run the
+ level compression algorithm on part of the trie.
+ Looks up a key, deletes it and runs the level compression algorithm.
+ The key function for the dynamic trie after any change in the trie
+ it is run to optimize and reorganize. Tt will walk the trie upwards
+ towards the root from a given tnode, doing a resize() at each step
+ to implement level compression.
+ Analyzes a tnode and optimizes the child array size by either inflating
+ or shrinking it repeatedly until it fullfills the criteria for optimal
+ level compression. This part follows the original paper pretty closely
+ and there may be some room for experimentation here.
+ Doubles the size of the child array within a tnode. Used by resize().
+ Halves the size of the child array within a tnode - the inverse of
+ inflate(). Used by resize();
+fn_trie_insert(), fn_trie_delete(), fn_trie_select_default()
+ The route manipulation functions. Should conform pretty closely to the
+ corresponding functions in fib_hash.
+ This walks the full trie (using nextleaf()) and searches for empty
+ leaves which have to be removed.
+ Dumps the routing table ordered by prefix length. This is somewhat
+ slower than the corresponding fib_hash function, as we have to walk the
+ entire trie for each prefix length. In comparison, fib_hash is organized
+ as one "zone"/hash per prefix length.
+fib_lock is used for an RW-lock in the same way that this is done in fib_hash.
+However, the functions are somewhat separated for other possible locking
+scenarios. It might conceivably be possible to run trie_rebalance via RCU
+to avoid read_lock in the fn_trie_lookup() function.
+Main lookup mechanism
+fn_trie_lookup() is the main lookup function.
+The lookup is in its simplest form just like fib_find_node(). We descend the
+trie, key segment by key segment, until we find a leaf. check_leaf() does
+the fib_semantic_match in the leaf's sorted prefix hlist.
+If we find a match, we are done.
+If we don't find a match, we enter prefix matching mode. The prefix length,
+starting out at the same as the key length, is reduced one step at a time,
+and we backtrack upwards through the trie trying to find a longest matching
+prefix. The goal is always to reach a leaf and get a positive result from the
+fib_semantic_match mechanism.
+Inside each tnode, the search for longest matching prefix consists of searching
+through the child array, chopping off (zeroing) the least significant "1" of
+the child index until we find a match or the child index consists of nothing but
+At this point we backtrack (t->stats.backtrack++) up the trie, continuing to
+chop off part of the key in order to find the longest matching prefix.
+At this point we will repeatedly descend subtries to look for a match, and there
+are some optimizations available that can provide us with "shortcuts" to avoid
+descending into dead ends. Look for "HL_OPTIMIZE" sections in the code.
+To alleviate any doubts about the correctness of the route selection process,
+a new netlink operation has been added. Look for NETLINK_FIB_LOOKUP, which
+gives userland access to fib_lookup().