aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/Documentation/power
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorRafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>2009-08-18 23:38:32 +0200
committerRafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>2009-08-23 00:04:44 +0200
commit5e928f77a09a07f9dd595bb8a489965d69a83458 (patch)
treeef53ec90fa3214fd22e36b07c11c06b09e373d8d /Documentation/power
parent8400146d0dc03590bba051399e4bb7e1cbf1c010 (diff)
downloadmrst-s0i3-test-5e928f77a09a07f9dd595bb8a489965d69a83458.tar.gz
mrst-s0i3-test-5e928f77a09a07f9dd595bb8a489965d69a83458.tar.xz
mrst-s0i3-test-5e928f77a09a07f9dd595bb8a489965d69a83458.zip
PM: Introduce core framework for run-time PM of I/O devices (rev. 17)
Introduce a core framework for run-time power management of I/O devices. Add device run-time PM fields to 'struct dev_pm_info' and device run-time PM callbacks to 'struct dev_pm_ops'. Introduce a run-time PM workqueue and define some device run-time PM helper functions at the core level. Document all these things. Special thanks to Alan Stern for his help with the design and multiple detailed reviews of the pereceding versions of this patch and to Magnus Damm for testing feedback. Signed-off-by: Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl> Acked-by: Magnus Damm <damm@igel.co.jp>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/power')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt378
1 files changed, 378 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt b/Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt
new file mode 100644
index 00000000000..f49a33b704d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/power/runtime_pm.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,378 @@
+Run-time Power Management Framework for I/O Devices
+
+(C) 2009 Rafael J. Wysocki <rjw@sisk.pl>, Novell Inc.
+
+1. Introduction
+
+Support for run-time power management (run-time PM) of I/O devices is provided
+at the power management core (PM core) level by means of:
+
+* The power management workqueue pm_wq in which bus types and device drivers can
+ put their PM-related work items. It is strongly recommended that pm_wq be
+ used for queuing all work items related to run-time PM, because this allows
+ them to be synchronized with system-wide power transitions (suspend to RAM,
+ hibernation and resume from system sleep states). pm_wq is declared in
+ include/linux/pm_runtime.h and defined in kernel/power/main.c.
+
+* A number of run-time PM fields in the 'power' member of 'struct device' (which
+ is of the type 'struct dev_pm_info', defined in include/linux/pm.h) that can
+ be used for synchronizing run-time PM operations with one another.
+
+* Three device run-time PM callbacks in 'struct dev_pm_ops' (defined in
+ include/linux/pm.h).
+
+* A set of helper functions defined in drivers/base/power/runtime.c that can be
+ used for carrying out run-time PM operations in such a way that the
+ synchronization between them is taken care of by the PM core. Bus types and
+ device drivers are encouraged to use these functions.
+
+The run-time PM callbacks present in 'struct dev_pm_ops', the device run-time PM
+fields of 'struct dev_pm_info' and the core helper functions provided for
+run-time PM are described below.
+
+2. Device Run-time PM Callbacks
+
+There are three device run-time PM callbacks defined in 'struct dev_pm_ops':
+
+struct dev_pm_ops {
+ ...
+ int (*runtime_suspend)(struct device *dev);
+ int (*runtime_resume)(struct device *dev);
+ void (*runtime_idle)(struct device *dev);
+ ...
+};
+
+The ->runtime_suspend() callback is executed by the PM core for the bus type of
+the device being suspended. The bus type's callback is then _entirely_
+_responsible_ for handling the device as appropriate, which may, but need not
+include executing the device driver's own ->runtime_suspend() callback (from the
+PM core's point of view it is not necessary to implement a ->runtime_suspend()
+callback in a device driver as long as the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() knows
+what to do to handle the device).
+
+ * Once the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() callback has completed successfully
+ for given device, the PM core regards the device as suspended, which need
+ not mean that the device has been put into a low power state. It is
+ supposed to mean, however, that the device will not process data and will
+ not communicate with the CPU(s) and RAM until its bus type's
+ ->runtime_resume() callback is executed for it. The run-time PM status of
+ a device after successful execution of its bus type's ->runtime_suspend()
+ callback is 'suspended'.
+
+ * If the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() callback returns -EBUSY or -EAGAIN,
+ the device's run-time PM status is supposed to be 'active', which means that
+ the device _must_ be fully operational afterwards.
+
+ * If the bus type's ->runtime_suspend() callback returns an error code
+ different from -EBUSY or -EAGAIN, the PM core regards this as a fatal
+ error and will refuse to run the helper functions described in Section 4
+ for the device, until the status of it is directly set either to 'active'
+ or to 'suspended' (the PM core provides special helper functions for this
+ purpose).
+
+In particular, if the driver requires remote wakeup capability for proper
+functioning and device_may_wakeup() returns 'false' for the device, then
+->runtime_suspend() should return -EBUSY. On the other hand, if
+device_may_wakeup() returns 'true' for the device and the device is put
+into a low power state during the execution of its bus type's
+->runtime_suspend(), it is expected that remote wake-up (i.e. hardware mechanism
+allowing the device to request a change of its power state, such as PCI PME)
+will be enabled for the device. Generally, remote wake-up should be enabled
+for all input devices put into a low power state at run time.
+
+The ->runtime_resume() callback is executed by the PM core for the bus type of
+the device being woken up. The bus type's callback is then _entirely_
+_responsible_ for handling the device as appropriate, which may, but need not
+include executing the device driver's own ->runtime_resume() callback (from the
+PM core's point of view it is not necessary to implement a ->runtime_resume()
+callback in a device driver as long as the bus type's ->runtime_resume() knows
+what to do to handle the device).
+
+ * Once the bus type's ->runtime_resume() callback has completed successfully,
+ the PM core regards the device as fully operational, which means that the
+ device _must_ be able to complete I/O operations as needed. The run-time
+ PM status of the device is then 'active'.
+
+ * If the bus type's ->runtime_resume() callback returns an error code, the PM
+ core regards this as a fatal error and will refuse to run the helper
+ functions described in Section 4 for the device, until its status is
+ directly set either to 'active' or to 'suspended' (the PM core provides
+ special helper functions for this purpose).
+
+The ->runtime_idle() callback is executed by the PM core for the bus type of
+given device whenever the device appears to be idle, which is indicated to the
+PM core by two counters, the device's usage counter and the counter of 'active'
+children of the device.
+
+ * If any of these counters is decreased using a helper function provided by
+ the PM core and it turns out to be equal to zero, the other counter is
+ checked. If that counter also is equal to zero, the PM core executes the
+ device bus type's ->runtime_idle() callback (with the device as an
+ argument).
+
+The action performed by a bus type's ->runtime_idle() callback is totally
+dependent on the bus type in question, but the expected and recommended action
+is to check if the device can be suspended (i.e. if all of the conditions
+necessary for suspending the device are satisfied) and to queue up a suspend
+request for the device in that case.
+
+The helper functions provided by the PM core, described in Section 4, guarantee
+that the following constraints are met with respect to the bus type's run-time
+PM callbacks:
+
+(1) The callbacks are mutually exclusive (e.g. it is forbidden to execute
+ ->runtime_suspend() in parallel with ->runtime_resume() or with another
+ instance of ->runtime_suspend() for the same device) with the exception that
+ ->runtime_suspend() or ->runtime_resume() can be executed in parallel with
+ ->runtime_idle() (although ->runtime_idle() will not be started while any
+ of the other callbacks is being executed for the same device).
+
+(2) ->runtime_idle() and ->runtime_suspend() can only be executed for 'active'
+ devices (i.e. the PM core will only execute ->runtime_idle() or
+ ->runtime_suspend() for the devices the run-time PM status of which is
+ 'active').
+
+(3) ->runtime_idle() and ->runtime_suspend() can only be executed for a device
+ the usage counter of which is equal to zero _and_ either the counter of
+ 'active' children of which is equal to zero, or the 'power.ignore_children'
+ flag of which is set.
+
+(4) ->runtime_resume() can only be executed for 'suspended' devices (i.e. the
+ PM core will only execute ->runtime_resume() for the devices the run-time
+ PM status of which is 'suspended').
+
+Additionally, the helper functions provided by the PM core obey the following
+rules:
+
+ * If ->runtime_suspend() is about to be executed or there's a pending request
+ to execute it, ->runtime_idle() will not be executed for the same device.
+
+ * A request to execute or to schedule the execution of ->runtime_suspend()
+ will cancel any pending requests to execute ->runtime_idle() for the same
+ device.
+
+ * If ->runtime_resume() is about to be executed or there's a pending request
+ to execute it, the other callbacks will not be executed for the same device.
+
+ * A request to execute ->runtime_resume() will cancel any pending or
+ scheduled requests to execute the other callbacks for the same device.
+
+3. Run-time PM Device Fields
+
+The following device run-time PM fields are present in 'struct dev_pm_info', as
+defined in include/linux/pm.h:
+
+ struct timer_list suspend_timer;
+ - timer used for scheduling (delayed) suspend request
+
+ unsigned long timer_expires;
+ - timer expiration time, in jiffies (if this is different from zero, the
+ timer is running and will expire at that time, otherwise the timer is not
+ running)
+
+ struct work_struct work;
+ - work structure used for queuing up requests (i.e. work items in pm_wq)
+
+ wait_queue_head_t wait_queue;
+ - wait queue used if any of the helper functions needs to wait for another
+ one to complete
+
+ spinlock_t lock;
+ - lock used for synchronisation
+
+ atomic_t usage_count;
+ - the usage counter of the device
+
+ atomic_t child_count;
+ - the count of 'active' children of the device
+
+ unsigned int ignore_children;
+ - if set, the value of child_count is ignored (but still updated)
+
+ unsigned int disable_depth;
+ - used for disabling the helper funcions (they work normally if this is
+ equal to zero); the initial value of it is 1 (i.e. run-time PM is
+ initially disabled for all devices)
+
+ unsigned int runtime_error;
+ - if set, there was a fatal error (one of the callbacks returned error code
+ as described in Section 2), so the helper funtions will not work until
+ this flag is cleared; this is the error code returned by the failing
+ callback
+
+ unsigned int idle_notification;
+ - if set, ->runtime_idle() is being executed
+
+ unsigned int request_pending;
+ - if set, there's a pending request (i.e. a work item queued up into pm_wq)
+
+ enum rpm_request request;
+ - type of request that's pending (valid if request_pending is set)
+
+ unsigned int deferred_resume;
+ - set if ->runtime_resume() is about to be run while ->runtime_suspend() is
+ being executed for that device and it is not practical to wait for the
+ suspend to complete; means "start a resume as soon as you've suspended"
+
+ enum rpm_status runtime_status;
+ - the run-time PM status of the device; this field's initial value is
+ RPM_SUSPENDED, which means that each device is initially regarded by the
+ PM core as 'suspended', regardless of its real hardware status
+
+All of the above fields are members of the 'power' member of 'struct device'.
+
+4. Run-time PM Device Helper Functions
+
+The following run-time PM helper functions are defined in
+drivers/base/power/runtime.c and include/linux/pm_runtime.h:
+
+ void pm_runtime_init(struct device *dev);
+ - initialize the device run-time PM fields in 'struct dev_pm_info'
+
+ void pm_runtime_remove(struct device *dev);
+ - make sure that the run-time PM of the device will be disabled after
+ removing the device from device hierarchy
+
+ int pm_runtime_idle(struct device *dev);
+ - execute ->runtime_idle() for the device's bus type; returns 0 on success
+ or error code on failure, where -EINPROGRESS means that ->runtime_idle()
+ is already being executed
+
+ int pm_runtime_suspend(struct device *dev);
+ - execute ->runtime_suspend() for the device's bus type; returns 0 on
+ success, 1 if the device's run-time PM status was already 'suspended', or
+ error code on failure, where -EAGAIN or -EBUSY means it is safe to attempt
+ to suspend the device again in future
+
+ int pm_runtime_resume(struct device *dev);
+ - execute ->runtime_resume() for the device's bus type; returns 0 on
+ success, 1 if the device's run-time PM status was already 'active' or
+ error code on failure, where -EAGAIN means it may be safe to attempt to
+ resume the device again in future, but 'power.runtime_error' should be
+ checked additionally
+
+ int pm_request_idle(struct device *dev);
+ - submit a request to execute ->runtime_idle() for the device's bus type
+ (the request is represented by a work item in pm_wq); returns 0 on success
+ or error code if the request has not been queued up
+
+ int pm_schedule_suspend(struct device *dev, unsigned int delay);
+ - schedule the execution of ->runtime_suspend() for the device's bus type
+ in future, where 'delay' is the time to wait before queuing up a suspend
+ work item in pm_wq, in milliseconds (if 'delay' is zero, the work item is
+ queued up immediately); returns 0 on success, 1 if the device's PM
+ run-time status was already 'suspended', or error code if the request
+ hasn't been scheduled (or queued up if 'delay' is 0); if the execution of
+ ->runtime_suspend() is already scheduled and not yet expired, the new
+ value of 'delay' will be used as the time to wait
+
+ int pm_request_resume(struct device *dev);
+ - submit a request to execute ->runtime_resume() for the device's bus type
+ (the request is represented by a work item in pm_wq); returns 0 on
+ success, 1 if the device's run-time PM status was already 'active', or
+ error code if the request hasn't been queued up
+
+ void pm_runtime_get_noresume(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's usage counter
+
+ int pm_runtime_get(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's usage counter, run pm_request_resume(dev) and
+ return its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_get_sync(struct device *dev);
+ - increment the device's usage counter, run pm_runtime_resume(dev) and
+ return its result
+
+ void pm_runtime_put_noidle(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter
+
+ int pm_runtime_put(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter, run pm_request_idle(dev) and return
+ its result
+
+ int pm_runtime_put_sync(struct device *dev);
+ - decrement the device's usage counter, run pm_runtime_idle(dev) and return
+ its result
+
+ void pm_runtime_enable(struct device *dev);
+ - enable the run-time PM helper functions to run the device bus type's
+ run-time PM callbacks described in Section 2
+
+ int pm_runtime_disable(struct device *dev);
+ - prevent the run-time PM helper functions from running the device bus
+ type's run-time PM callbacks, make sure that all of the pending run-time
+ PM operations on the device are either completed or canceled; returns
+ 1 if there was a resume request pending and it was necessary to execute
+ ->runtime_resume() for the device's bus type to satisfy that request,
+ otherwise 0 is returned
+
+ void pm_suspend_ignore_children(struct device *dev, bool enable);
+ - set/unset the power.ignore_children flag of the device
+
+ int pm_runtime_set_active(struct device *dev);
+ - clear the device's 'power.runtime_error' flag, set the device's run-time
+ PM status to 'active' and update its parent's counter of 'active'
+ children as appropriate (it is only valid to use this function if
+ 'power.runtime_error' is set or 'power.disable_depth' is greater than
+ zero); it will fail and return error code if the device has a parent
+ which is not active and the 'power.ignore_children' flag of which is unset
+
+ void pm_runtime_set_suspended(struct device *dev);
+ - clear the device's 'power.runtime_error' flag, set the device's run-time
+ PM status to 'suspended' and update its parent's counter of 'active'
+ children as appropriate (it is only valid to use this function if
+ 'power.runtime_error' is set or 'power.disable_depth' is greater than
+ zero)
+
+It is safe to execute the following helper functions from interrupt context:
+
+pm_request_idle()
+pm_schedule_suspend()
+pm_request_resume()
+pm_runtime_get_noresume()
+pm_runtime_get()
+pm_runtime_put_noidle()
+pm_runtime_put()
+pm_suspend_ignore_children()
+pm_runtime_set_active()
+pm_runtime_set_suspended()
+pm_runtime_enable()
+
+5. Run-time PM Initialization, Device Probing and Removal
+
+Initially, the run-time PM is disabled for all devices, which means that the
+majority of the run-time PM helper funtions described in Section 4 will return
+-EAGAIN until pm_runtime_enable() is called for the device.
+
+In addition to that, the initial run-time PM status of all devices is
+'suspended', but it need not reflect the actual physical state of the device.
+Thus, if the device is initially active (i.e. it is able to process I/O), its
+run-time PM status must be changed to 'active', with the help of
+pm_runtime_set_active(), before pm_runtime_enable() is called for the device.
+
+However, if the device has a parent and the parent's run-time PM is enabled,
+calling pm_runtime_set_active() for the device will affect the parent, unless
+the parent's 'power.ignore_children' flag is set. Namely, in that case the
+parent won't be able to suspend at run time, using the PM core's helper
+functions, as long as the child's status is 'active', even if the child's
+run-time PM is still disabled (i.e. pm_runtime_enable() hasn't been called for
+the child yet or pm_runtime_disable() has been called for it). For this reason,
+once pm_runtime_set_active() has been called for the device, pm_runtime_enable()
+should be called for it too as soon as reasonably possible or its run-time PM
+status should be changed back to 'suspended' with the help of
+pm_runtime_set_suspended().
+
+If the default initial run-time PM status of the device (i.e. 'suspended')
+reflects the actual state of the device, its bus type's or its driver's
+->probe() callback will likely need to wake it up using one of the PM core's
+helper functions described in Section 4. In that case, pm_runtime_resume()
+should be used. Of course, for this purpose the device's run-time PM has to be
+enabled earlier by calling pm_runtime_enable().
+
+If the device bus type's or driver's ->probe() or ->remove() callback runs
+pm_runtime_suspend() or pm_runtime_idle() or their asynchronous counterparts,
+they will fail returning -EAGAIN, because the device's usage counter is
+incremented by the core before executing ->probe() and ->remove(). Still, it
+may be desirable to suspend the device as soon as ->probe() or ->remove() has
+finished, so the PM core uses pm_runtime_idle_sync() to invoke the device bus
+type's ->runtime_idle() callback at that time.